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Mid-term Review 600-1450

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Title: Mid-term Review 600-1450


1
Mid-term Review 600-1450
2
What was Bedouin society?
  • Bedouin society was made up of nomadic peoples
    who migrated through the deserts to find grass
    and water for their animals.
  • The Bedouin organized themselves in family and
    clan groups.
  • Individuals and their immediate families depended
    heavily on their larger kinship networks for
    support.
  • Because the Arabian desert was such a harsh
    environment to live, cooperation with kin often
    made the difference between death and survival.
  • Bedouin people developed a strong sense of
    loyalty to their clans.
  • Clan identities and loyalties survived for
    centuries after the appearance of Islam.

3
How did Muhammad and Islam address the
fundamental problems in Bedouin society?
  • Muhammads followers recorded his revelations
    into written texts that became known as the
    Quran, or holy book of Islam.
  • Muhammad stressed the rejection of idolatry and
    promoted monotheistic faith.
  • In Medina, Muhammad organized his followers into
    a unified group called the umma, or community of
    the faithful.
  • He provided the community with a legal and social
    code.
  • Muhammad led the community in daily prayers to
    Allah.
  • He look after the economic welfare of the umma by
    organizing commercial ventures.
  • He made almsgiving a prime moral virtue.
  • Muhammad and his followers conquered Mecca and
    forced elites to adopt the faith. They destroyed
    pagan shrines and replaced them with mosques.

4
What are the basic beliefs of Islam?
  • Five Pillars
  • Acknowledge Allah as the only god and Muhammad as
    the only prophet.
  • They must prayer to Allah daily while facing
    Mecca.
  • Observe a fast during the daylight hours of the
    month of Ramadan.
  • They must contribute alms for the relief of the
    weak and poor.
  • Make at least one pilgrimage to Mecca in life
    time.

5
What motivations led Islam to transform itself
from a nomadic society to a global civilization?
  • Islam offered detailed guidance on proper
    behavior in all aspects of life.
  • It drew its inspiration from the Quran and the
    early historical account of Muhammads life.
  • It offered guidance on marriage, family life,
    inheritance, slavery, business, and commercial
    relationship.
  • Islam became more than a religion it became a
    way of life with social and ethical values based
    on Islamic religious principles.
  • Islamic society drew much of its prosperity from
    commerce, i.e. overland trade, development of
    banks, etc.

6
What were the major characteristics of the
Abbasid Caliphate? (750-1258)
  • Showed no special favor to Arab military
    aristocracy
  • No longer conquering, but the empire still grew
  • Abbasid administration
  • Relied heavily on Persian techniques of
    statecraft
  • Central authority ruled from the court at Baghdad
  • Appointed governors to rule provinces

7
What were the major characteristics of the
Abbasid Caiphate? (750-1258)
  • The Abbasids built magnificent capital at
    Baghdad, which became one of the great cultural
    centers of the world.
  • The architectural style of the dynasty was unique
    and beautiful. It is best represented by the
    mosque built in Cordoba, Spain.

8
How did the position of women in Islamic society
change from Muhammad to the Abbasid Empire?
  • With the establishment of the Quran between 651
    and 652, women were treated with more dignity and
    were considered equal before Allah. Also,
    infanticide was strictly forbidden. Women gained
    more influence within the home.
  • Under the Abbasid dynasty, however, women lost
    their influence in public life and, in a large
    part, in the home. This happened as a result of
    expansion into the Byzantine empire.

9
What was Islams attitude toward slavery?
  • The Quran makes numerous references to slaves and
    slavery.
  • Like numerous passages in the Hebrew bible and
    the New Testament, the Quran assumes the
    permissibility of owning slaves, which was an
    established practice before its revelation.
  • The Quran does not explicitly condemn slavery or
    attempt to abolish it. It does, however, provide
    a number of regulations designed to improve the
    situation of slaves.

10
To what extent was Islam successful in converting
India to Islam?
  • Between 600 C.E. and 1200 C.E., India was not
    unified. The Gupta Empire, the last state to
    provide any sort of unity, collapsed in 550 C.E.
  • Muslim invaders reached the Indus Valley and
    Afghanistan in the 700s and converted it to
    Islam.
  • In 1022, Muslim armies began the conquest of
    northern India.
  • In 1206, the Muslims captured the city of Delhi
    and most of northern India fell into their hands.
  • Muslim generals established the Delhi Sultanate.
  • Islam did not displace earlier faiths like
    Hinduism and Buddhism but joined them as one of
    the countrys major religions.

11
To what extent was Islam successful in converting
Southeast Asia to Islam?
  • As the coastal trade and shipping of India came
    to be controlled (from the 8th century onward)
    increasingly by Muslims, elements of Islamic
    culture began to filterinto Southeast Asia.
  • Almost everywhere in the islands of the region,
    trading contacts paved the way for conversion.
    Muslim merchants and sailors introduced local
    peoples to the ideas and rituals of the new faith
    and impressed on them how much of the known world
    had already been converted.
  • The first areas to be won to Islam in the last
    decades of the 13th century were several small
    port centers on the northern coast of Sumatra.
  • There were large Muslim communities in the
    cities, but not in the rural areas due to the
    trade networks.

12
What were the characteristics of the Swahili
city-states?
  • Swahili dominated east African coast from
    Mogadishu to Sofala
  • Spoke Swahili, a Bantu language, supplemented
    with some Arabic words
  • Trade with Muslim merchants became important by
    the tenth century
  • The Swahili city-states chiefs gained power
    through taxing trade on ports
  • Ports developed into city-states governed by
    kings, eleventh and twelfth centuries
  • Kilwa good example of busy city-state on east
    coast exported gold

13
What were the characteristics of the Great
Zimbabwe?
  • Zimbabwe was powerful kingdom of east Africa
  • By the ninth century, chiefs began to build stone
    residences (Zimbabwe)
  • Magnificent stone complex known as Great Zimbabwe
    in the twelfth century
  • Eighteen thousand people lived in Great Zimbabwe
    in the late fifteenth century
  • Kings organized flow of gold, ivory, and slaves

14
What were the characteristics of the Byzantine
Empire?
  • The eastern Roman Empire, centered in
    Constantinople, became the highly centralized
    government known as the Byzantine Empire whereas
    in the west, the empire collapsed.
  • The Byzantine Empire was a lot more centralized
    and organized than the western empire.

15
What were the characteristics of the Byzantine
Empire?
  • The Byzantine Empire used the Greek language its
    architecture had distinctive domes its culture
    in general had more in common with Eastern
    cultures like those of Persia and its brand of
    Christianity became an entirely separate branch
    known as Orthodox Christianity.
  • Throughout Byzantine history, the emperors
    treated the church as a department of state.

Under Justinian, who reigned from 527 to 565, the
period is known for the flowering of the arts and
sciences, evident in the construction of major
buildings and churches, most notably Hagia
Sophia, an enormous cathedral that still stands
today.
16
What accounts for the decline of the Byzantine
Empire?
  • In the 11th century, vigorous economic
    development in western Europe supported a
    remarkable round of military and political
    expansion.
  • The Normans (Scandinavian people who had seized
    Normandy in northern France) took control of
    southern Italy and expelled Byzantine authorities
    there.
  • During the 12th and 13th centuries, the Normans
    and other western European peoples mounted a
    series of Crusades and took the opportunity to
    carve out states in the heart of the Byzantine
    Empire.
  • As Europeans invaded into Byzantine territory
    from the west, nomadic Turkish peoples invaded
    from the east.
  • By the 12th century Islamic invaders had seized
    much of Anatolia.
  • The loss of Anatolia- the principal source of
    Byzantine grain, wealth, and military
    forcessealed the fate of the Byzantine empire.

17
Byzantine Empire
18
Byzantine Empire and Russia
  • Mid-ninth century, Russians started to organize a
    large state Kiev
  • The conversion of Prince Vladimir, 989
  • Kiev served as a conduit for spread of Byzantine
    culture and religion
  • Writing and literature and Orthodox missions
    spread Byzantine culture
  • Byzantine art and architecture dominated Kiev
    icons and onion domes

19
Byzantine Empire and Russia
  • Princes established caesaropapist control of
    Russian Orthodox church
  • Russian culture flourished from eleventh century
  • Moscow claimed to be world's "third Rome"
  • Sent out many missionaries from sixteenth century
    on

20
What was Feudalism?
  • Historians once used the term feudalism to
    refer to the political and social order of
    medieval Europe. It was based on a neat
    hierarchy of lords and vassals, who collectively
    took charge of political and military affairs.
  • Increasingly, scholars are abandoning this term
    because it distorts and oversimplifies the
    understanding of a complicated society.
  • Medieval Europe was a society in which local
    political and military elites worked out various
    ad hoc ways to organize their territories and
    maintain order in the absence of effective
    central authorities.

21
What was Manorialism?
  • A manor was also a piece of land under the
    control of a single LORD. The lord was given
    this manor land from the king, usually for his
    devotion to the king.
  • Because the lord was away from his manor
    sometimes, he hired VASSALS to help him run the
    manor in his absence.
  • Everything was produced on the manor. Cattle
    were raised for milk and meat. Sheep were raised
    for wool. Several fields were used to grow a
    variety of foods like potatoes, corn and wheat.
    Blacksmith workshops, bakeries, a mill, markets,
    and even a church or chapel was present.
  • PEASANTS and SERFS lived in huts or very small
    homes around the edges of the manor. Most of the
    work on the manor was done by the peasants and
    serfs.
  • During the early Middle Ages, the institution of
    serfdom encouraged the development of manor as
    the principal form of agricultural organization
    in western Europe.

22
What was the role of women during the Middle
Ages?
  • Women were subservient to men.
  • Women of lower classes cared for the household,
    bore children, and raised them.
  • One of the few peasant women to leave an
    individual mark on medieval Europe was the French
    war leader Joan of Arc (1410-1431).
  • In most parts of medieval Europe, women had some
    property rights. They could own and inherit land
    and property.
  • Women had protection, although no always
    equality, before the law.
  • Women could enter religious life, but they could
    not become priests.
  • Aristocratic women could exert much information
    political and cultural influence.

23
What were the causes of the Crusades?
  • Religious fervor on the part of Muslims and
    Christians.
  • Geopolitical conflict between Europe and the
    Middle East
  • The Europeans desire to become more involved in
    the international trade network stretching from
    the Mediterranean to China.
  • Personal ambitions of Europeans hoping to gain
    wealth and land in the Middle East.
  • Racial and religious prejudice.

24
What was the impact of the Crusades?
  • Worsening of the relationship between the Muslim
    and Christian worlds.
  • Greater awareness of the wider world, especially
    the lands of the east, that the Crusades
    stimulated among the Europeans.
  • Increased knowledge of and desire for the
    economic wealth to be gained by greater
    interaction with the Middle and Far East.
  • The Crusading idealthe notion that Christian
    warriors were fighting a holy war on behalf of a
    sacred cause

25
What were the basic characteristics of the Olmec?

Large wave of humans traveled from Siberia to
Alaska around 13,000 B.C.E. By 9500 B.C.E.,
humans reached the southernmost part of South
America Early agriculture beans, squashes,
chilis later, maize became the staple (5000
B.C.E.) Agricultural villages appeared after 3000
B.C.E. Olmecs, the "rubber people,"lived near
the Gulf of Mexico (1200 B.C.E. ) Elaborate
complexes built The colossal human
heads--possibly likenesses of rulers Rulers'
power shown in construction of huge pyramids
Trade in jade and obsidian Influence of
Olmec maize, ceremonial centers, calendar, human
sacrifice, ball game
26
What were the characteristics of the Tang and
Song Dynasties?
See Sarah and Lindas documentary.
27
What was the role of women in the Tang and Sang
Dynasties?
Strengthened patriarchy authority explained the
popularity of foot binding which spread among
privileged classes during the Song era. Like the
practice of veiling women in the Islamic world,
foot binding placed women of privileged classes
under tight supervision of their husbands or
other male guardians, who managed the womens
affairs in the interests of the larger family.
28
What was Neo-Confucianism? How did it change the
political and social nature of China?
Buddhist influence on Confucianism Early
Confucianism focused on practical issues of
politics and morality Confucians began to draw
inspiration from Buddhism. Buddhism offered a
tradition of logical thought and argumentation
but also dealt with issues, such as the nature of
the soul and the individuals relationship with
the cosmos, not systemically explored by
Confucian thinkers. Zhu Xi (1130-1200 C.E.), the
most prominent neo-Confucian scholar
29
Describe Japan during the Heian era. 794-1185
C.E.
Japanese emperors served as ceremonial
figureheads and symbols of authority. Effective
power in the hands of the Fujiwara family.
Emperor did not rule, which explains the
longevity of the imperial house . Chinese
learning dominated Japanese education and
political thought. The Tale of Genji was written
by a woman, Murasaki Shikibu .
30
How was Genghis Khan able to build one of
historys largest empires?
He formed an alliance with a prominent Mongol
clan leader in the late 12th century. He mastered
the art of steppe diplomacy which called for
displays of personal courage in battle, combined
with intense loyalty to allies, as well as a
willingness to betray allies to improve ones
position. He mistrusted the tribes and broke up
the tribal organization. He forced men of
fighting age to join new military units with no
tribal affiliations. He chose high military and
political officials not on the basis of kinship
or tribal status, but rather because of their
talents or their loyalty to him. He establish a
capital at Karakorum, present-day Har Horin and
built a luxurious palace. The early Mongol armies
were large. They were also talented cavalrymen
and archers. They were also quick to adopt
military technology.
31
What was the impact of Mongol conquest?
By Genghis Khans death in 1227, the Mongols
controlled a large state encompassing present-day
Mongolia, much of Central Asia, and northern and
Western China. From 1237-1240, the Mongols
conquered most of Russia and Ukraine. The
Mongols invaded the Middle East in the 1250s,
toppling the Abbasid Caiphate in 1258 and
advancing until 1260. Mongols imposed a single
political authority, encouraged economic
exchange, made travel conditions safer, and
imposed legal order. The Silk Road flourished,
and cities like Samarkand became crucial economic
centers, with merchants, missionaries, and
travelers of all professions and ethnicities
passing through. Many historians refer to this
brief semi-unification of Eurasia as the Pax
Mongolica, or Mongol Peace.
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