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Earth/ Environmental Mid-Term Review

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Title: Earth/ Environmental Mid-Term Review


1
Earth/ Environmental Mid-Term Review
2
Methods of Science
  • To answer questions, scientists use many
    approaches, but they all use common steps
    SCIENTIFIC METHOD
  • Problem/Question
  • Develop a question or problem that can be solved
    through experimentation
  • 2. Observation/Research
  • Make observations and research your topic of
    interest.

3
  • 3. Hypothesis
  • Possible explanation for the problem.
  • - Must be testable!
  • - Example
  • If soil temperatures rise, then plant growth
    will increase.
  • 4. Experiment
  • Develop a procedure to test your hypothesis.
    Must be measurable (quantifiable).

4
  • 5. Collect Analyze Results/Data
  • - Data is information obtained from an
    experiment
  • - Can disprove or prove a hypothesis
  • - Include tables, graphs photographs
  • - Numbers, descriptors
  • 6. Conclusion
  • - Statement that accepts or rejects
  • the hypothesis
  • - Make recommendations for
  • further study

5
  • 5. Collect Analyze Results/Data
  • - Data is information obtained from an
    experiment
  • - Can disprove or prove a hypothesis
  • - Include tables, graphs photographs
  • - Numbers, descriptors
  • 6. Conclusion
  • - Statement that accepts or rejects
  • the hypothesis
  • - Make recommendations for
  • further study

6
Experimental Variables
  • Independent Variable
  • On the X axis
  • Intentionally manipulated variable
  • Ex John is going to use 25 g, 50g, 100g and 250g
    of sugar in his experiment
  • Dependent Variable
  • On the Y axis
  • Factor that may change as a result of changes
    made in the independent variable
  • Ex Size of the loaf of bread based on amount of
    sugar used.

7
Kilo Hecto Deca BASE Deci
Centi Milli
1000X
10X
1X
1/10X
1000X
100X
1/100X
K
m
c
d
g, m, L
D
H
King Henry Died By drinking chocolate milk
8
Length Measurement of distance between two
points.
  • basic unit is the meter
  • Kilometer
  • Millimeter
  • Megameter
  • Centimeter

1000m
1/1000m
1,000,000m
1/100m
is SMALLER
K H D B d c m
is LARGER
9
ASTRONOMY!
10
Geocentric Model of the Universe
  • Geocentric Model
  • Earth was a sphere that stayed motionless at the
    center of the universe.
  • everything in the universe orbits Earth.
  • Stars travel around Earth on a transparent,
    hollow celestial sphere

11
Heliocentric Model of the Universe
  • Heliocentric Model
  • Earth and the other planets orbit the sun
  • First Proposed by Aristarchus
  • (312-230BC)
  • Most people believed in the Geocentric Model
    anyway

12
List and describe the three motions of Earth
  • Rotation spinning on Earths axis.

ROTATION PERIOD 24 hours
Due to earths rotation, the circumference of the
earth varies from the poles to the equator by
42Km.
13
List and describe the three motions of Earth.
  • Revolution motion along a path around some
    point in space, such as around the Sun.

REVOLUTION PERIOD 1 YEAR
14
What is precession? How long is the period of
precession?
  • Precession is the slow movement of earths axial
    tilt. It moves similarly to the wobble of a top.
  • The period of precession is 26,000 years.

15
TYPES OF STELLAR MOVEMENT
  • PRECESSION
  • change in the orientation of the rotational axis
  • of a rotating body

16
SEASONS are all about how energy hits the
Earth's surface... Is it efficiently heating our
surface? Or is it inefficiently heating our
surface?
  • Seasons are caused by the TILT OF EARTHS AXIS,
    NOT by how close we are to the sun

17
Put the following terms in order from largest to
smallest planet, solar system, star, galaxy
  • Galaxy, solar system, star, planet

18
ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM
19
Doppler Effect
  • The apparent change in wavelength of light that
    occurs when the object is moving toward or away
    from the Earth.

20
  • Using the spectroscope, astronomers can determine
    whether a particular object is moving toward
    Earth or away from Earth

21
1. Interior
  • Makes up all but a tiny fraction of the solar
    mass
  • Cant be directly observed
  • Nuclear Fusion
  • Converts four hydrogen nuclei into the nucleus of
    helium atom
  • Energy is released because some matter is
    converted into energy

22
  • 4 Hydrogen atoms have a combined mass of 4.032
    amu
  • 1 Helium atom is 4.003 amu
  • Tiny missing mass emitted as ENERGY!

23
  • Most of the energy is in the form of high-energy
    photons
  • Only a small percentage of the hydrogen in the
    reaction is actually converted to energy
  • still 600 million tons of hydrogen each second
    are burned
  • 4 million tons are converted energy

24
EXPANDING UNIVERSE
  • Red Shifts
  • Most galaxies have Doppler shifts toward the red
    end of the spectrum
  • Shows that Earth and these galaxies are moving
    apart!
  • Galaxies with the greatest red shift are the most
    distant

25
Rocks Soil Mass Movement
26
IGNEOUS ROCK
SEDIMENT
Erode Weather
THE ROCK CYCLE
Compaction Cementation
Melt
Cool Harden
Heat Pressure
Erode Weather
Erode Weather
SEDIMENTARY ROCK
MAGMA
Melt
Heat Pressure
Melt
METAMORPHIC ROCK
27
Three Major Types of Rocks
  • IGNEOUS formed when liquid magma cools and
    hardens

28
Two Types of Igneous Rock (37)
  1. Intrusive formed deep within the Earth
  2. Extrusive formed from lava at Earths Surface

29
Three Major Types of Rocks
  • SEDIMENATRY formed from the sediments of other
    rocks already present or very near earths
    surface

30
Sedimentary Rock
  • Sediments form from the breakdown of igneous,
    sedimentary, or metamorphic rocks at Earths
    surface
  • Deposited in layers, and are compacted cemented
    forming new rock.
  • Can be reformed into igneous rock by subduction
    at deeps-sea trenches (returned to the interior
    of the earth)

31
Three Major Types of Rocks
  • METAMORPHIC formed under high pressure and
    heat for long periods of time
  • The heat and pressure cause the rock to change
    into new rock.

32
Weathering (42)
  • Def the breakup of rock due to exposure to
    processes that occur at Earths surface
  • 2 types
  • Physical (mechanical)- the breakdown of rock that
    takes place when a rock is broken into smaller
    pieces of the same material without changing its
    composition
  • Chemical- the breakdown or decomposition of rock
    that takes place when minerals are changed into
    different substances

33
Soil Formation! (45)
  1. Results from the continuous weathering
    (mechanical and chemical) of rocks into smaller
    and smaller pieces) combined with water, living
    organisms, air, decaying organic material
    (humus).

34
(No Transcript)
35
Soil Texture Diagram Practice
  • What type of soil has
  • 20 clay, 40 silt, 40 sand
  • 40 clay, 10 silt, 50 sand
  • 30 clay, 60 silt, 10 sand
  • Find the of each
  • particle at
  • A
  • B
  • C

(1) Loam (2) Sandy clay (3) Silty clay loam
60clay, 20silt, 20sand 30clay, 40silt,
30sand 10clay, 30silt, 60sand
36
The 5 Soil-Forming Factors (47-48)
Formed from parent material (bedrock) thats
slowly broken down through weathering processes.
  • climate (water, wind, temperature)
  • biology (macro- and microorganisms, plants)
  • relief (topography)
  • parent material (rocks/minerals)
  • time

Which is the MOST important??
CLIMATE!!!
37
Observe this SOIL PROFILE through soil
O Organic material (may be absent)
A Topsoil - Organic material mineral grains
E Leached zone (may be absent)
B Subsoil rich in clay, iron, aluminum
C Weathered bedrock
Soil layers are horizons and assigned letters
R Bedrock (parent material)
38
12.3 Mass Movements and Erosion (50)
  • Mass movements- the downward transportation of
    weathered materials
  • Gravity causes materials to fall, slide, or move
    at slow speeds to lower levels
  • Erosion- the removal and transport of materials
    by natural agents such as wind and running water

39
PREVENTING SOIL EROSION
  • Agricultural 10 of the worlds best agricultural
    land damaged due to soil erosion and overuse over
    last 50 years.
  • contour plowing
  • no-till agriculture (no plowing)
  • terracing slopes
  • crop rotation - fallow

40
Landslides (51)
  • Creep- slow, imperceptible movement of soil down
    a slope
  • Causes fence posts, poles and other objects fixed
    in soil to lean downhill
  • Slump- a block of land tilts and moves downhill
    along a surface that curves into the slope
  • Tends to occur because bottom of slope can no
    longer support top of slope

41
51
  • Earthflows- the downslope movement of a mass of
    earth materials that have been saturated with
    water
  • Slower and less fluid than a mudflow velocity
    affected by amount of water present, the
    composition of the soil, and steepness of slope
  • Mudflows- the downslope movement of water that
    contains large amounts of suspended clay and silt
  • Rapid movement capable of moving rocks,
    boulders, trees, and houses.

42
Dynamic Earth!
43
PART 2 Structure of the Earth (Book 8.4)
Litho.
Astheno.
Use colored pencils to color the diagram as
indicated and label the names of the
zones INCLUDE 2 CHARACTERISTICS OF EACH ZONE!
44
THEORY OF PLATE TECTONICS
Continents are Moving!!! South America is
moving away from Africa 2-3 cm/yr The
Hawaiian Islands are moving northwest at 8-9
cm/yr The highest point on Earth (Mount
Everest) is rising!!! Continental Drift- The
first serious scientific hypothesis German
scientist Alfred Wegner (1912) Pangaea Began
to break apart 200 million years ago
Hello!! I'm Alfred!
45
  • CONVERGENT PICTURE
  • DIVERGENT PICTURE

WHAT HAPPENS TO THE PLATES?
WHAT HAPPENS TO THE PLATES?
TRANSFORM PICTURE
WHAT HAPPENS TO THE PLATES?
46
  • CONVERGENT
  • OCEANIC-OCEANIC

EXAMPLES ON EARTH?
JAPAN, ALEUTIAN ISLANDS, EASTERN CARRIBBEAN
ISLANDS
47
  • CONVERGENT
  • OCEANIC-CONTINETNAL

EXAMPLES ON EARTH?
ANDES MOUNTAINS PERU-CHILE TRENCH
48
  • CONVERGENT
  • CONTINENTAL-CONTINETNAL

HIMALAYA MOUNTAINS, APPALACHIAN MOUNTAINS
EXAMPLES ON EARTH?
49
  • 59 It wasn't until the 1960's that we found an
    explanation that supported this hypothesis-
  • SEA FLOOR SPREADING!!!
  • The continents are moving with the ocean crust-
  • not through it!
  • ANSWER They're moving on Tectonic Plates!

50
PART 6 Convection Currents Demo (59)
51
LAYERS WITHIN (59) The plates, which make up
Earth's lithosphere, float on a semi-solid layer
of molten rock called the mantle or the
asthenosphere. The mantle has two layers
(1) the upper mantle which is more solid and
(2) the lower mantle which is more liquid.
52
PART 10 EARTHQUAKE QUESTIONS EPICENTER ACTIVITY
FAULT a break or crack along which rocks
move - Rocks on one side of the fault slide past
the rocks on the other side of the fault -
Movements can be up, down, or sideways ?EARTHQUAK
ES
  • Two blocks of rock form at a fault - one on top
    of the other
  • Hanging wall the block of rock above the fault
  • Footwall the block below the fault

Stress can cause either the hanging wall or the
footwall to move up or down along a fault
53
TRIANGULATION (62)
54
Epicenter (64)
  • Location on the surface directly above the
    earthquake

55
Focus (62)
  • Point with in the earthquake where the earthquake
    starts

56
Fault (62)
  • a break or crack along which rocks move

57
Richter Scale (ADD FOR 62)
  • Scale for measuring the magnitude of an
    earthquake
  • (10 fold increase with
  • each number)

58
Seismograph
  • Instrument that records the earthquakes waves

59
Seismogram
  • Amplify and records the ground movements

60
Volcano Types (65/ 72)
61
(66)Inside a Volcano
62
Ring of Fire (67)
RING OF FIRE The Ring of Fire is one of the
Earth's most active volcanic zones. It runs
around the Pacific Ocean. On the map below,
show the area of the Ring of Fire.
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