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Meeting Emotional


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Title: Meeting Emotional

(No Transcript)
Meeting Emotional and Behavioral Challenges
Cheryl Steckley, MSW,LCSW
  • Educating the Whole Child
  • Educator Approaches to Students
  • Understanding Students with Emotional or
    Behavioral Challenges
  • Interventions, Strategies and Supports to Meet
    the Challenge

There is an overwhelming amount of evidence that
academic achievement levels are correlated with,
if not directly influenced by, how well students
are faring in other areas of their lives
physical, social-emotional, vocational and
others. Equally important, research shows that
helping students address their non-academic needs
and interests pays off. Irby, Thomas, and
Pittman, 2002
Educating The Whole Child
The Whole Child
Physical Domain
  • shelter
  • food
  • clothing
  • exercise/movement
  • medical/dental care
  • touch

Intellectual Domain
  • Innate desire to learn
  • Innate need for purpose, meaning

Psychological Domain
  • Internal relationship with ones self
  • Need for mental and emotional well-being

Social Domain
  • Relationships with others
  • Moral and social development

  • A person perceptions, interpretations (thoughts)
    and feelings regarding the events or behavior of
    others in a social situation influences that
    persons behavior (response).

Spiritual Domain
  • Belief in entity or being greater than ones self
  • Belief in equal value, dignity and respect of
    each individual
  • Need for purpose and meaning in life

The Total Experience
Feelings Are Produced By the Thoughts That
Precede Them
Thoughts Feelings Behavior
  • Thoughts Affect Feelings
  • And
  • Feelings Affect Behavior

Childrens Thoughts
  • Are initially very concrete
  • Think in terms of black and white
  • tunnel vision (a childs perspective can be
    very different than an adults perspective of the
    same event)
  • Gradually mature to abstract thinking
  • Eventually think in shades of gray
  • (higher order thinking)

We must become aware of the thought or belief
underlying the feeling, then change the thought
in order to change the feeling. When the feeling
changes, the behavior changes.
Change the Thought to Change the Feeling
to Change the Behavior
Rational-Emotive-Behavioral Theory Cognitive-Behav
ioral Theory
Fear is a strong motivator of behavior
  • Fear is triggered by the Fight or Flight

Fight or Flight Response
  • Instinctive and necessary survival response to a
    danger or threat.
  • When faced with a danger or threat, person will
    either run away or face attacker and fight for
    survival. A rush of adrenaline and other
    chemicals causes physical changes. All
    nonessential activity in the body is suspended
    and there is an increase of activity in any
    system that is needed to fight or flee the
    external threat.

  • Person is in survival mode and on the
    defense. All behaviors become self protective.
    Behaviors are most primitive when a person feels
    threatened, even if the perceived threat is not a
    realistic one.

Some Things People Fear
  • Fear of being harmed by others
  • Fear of loss of a loved one
  • Fear of loss of material wealth/possession
  • Fear of failure
  • Fear of embarrassment/ridicule

(Kaufman, Gershen, Ph.D., Raphael, Lev
Espeland, Pamela, Stick Up For Yourself, 1990)
Things People Fear (cont)
  • Fear of rejection/not belonging
  • Fear of loss of power/control
  • Fear of loss of freedom/privileges
  • Fear of loss of independence
  • Fear of being caught doing wrong

(Kaufman, Gershen, Ph.D., Raphael, Lev
Espeland, Pamela, Stick Up For Yourself, 1990)
Psychological Needs
  • Need for relationships
  • Need for touching and holding
  • Need to belong and feel one with others
  • Need to be different, unique
  • Need to nurture
  • Need to feel worthwhile, valued, admired and
  • Need for power in our lives relationships

(Kaufman, Gershen, Ph.D., Raphael, Lev
Espeland, Pamela, Stick Up For Yourself, 1990)
All children come to school with unmet needs.
Most have the ability to delay these needs.
Troubled children focus on nothing else until
these needs are met. Meet the needs early or
consume your time fighting them. The choice is
yours, not theirs.
(L. Tobin, What Do You Do With a Child Like
This?, 1991)
Adult Approaches to Students
  • Thanks to Jim Levelle, Ph.D. from the Louisiana
    Office for Citizens with Developmental
    Disabilities for his contribution to this
    section. Adapted with permission from his
    training Effective Behavioral Strategies for
    Paraprofessionals, 2004.

Our Values
  • influence what we think, the way we teach and the
    way that we live.
  • are based on family, cultural and personal life
  • can and should change in response to changing
    life experiences.
  • are not always expressed the way we want them to
    be expressed.
  • affect the people around us.

Approaches to Students
  • Authoritarian - do as I say
  • Laissez-faire - do what you want
  • Dependent - you need me
  • Mechanical - going through the
  • Growth Oriented- we will learn
  • (Gerald Patterson and Marion Forgatch, Parents
    And Adolescents Living Together The Basics

Authoritarian Approach
  • the boss
  • directive
  • rule-oriented
  • inflexible
  • care is conditional
  • I will like you if you
  • do as I say

Problems With This Approach
  • encourages sneaky behaviors
  • can induce fear of making a mistake
  • does not encourage or
  • allow problem-solving or
  • decision-making
  • destroys desire or
  • ability to initiate

Laissez-faire Approach
  • hands off approach live and let live
  • opposite of authoritarian
  • lack of structure and limit setting
  • lack of supervision- do what you want
  • boys will be boys attitude
  • indifferent or lack of interest
  • in progressing

Problems With This Approach
  • positive behaviors are not modeled or learned
  • negative or nonproductive behaviors are used and
  • negative behaviors tend to increase in order to
    get attention

Dependent Approach
  • grandmotherly and warm
  • You need me approach
  • Let me do that for you
  • overly protective
  • treats child like a victim

Problems With This Approach
  • negative behaviors like crying, screaming and
    whining are used to get what is wanted
  • mature communication is not learned or reinforced
  • child does not develop skills needed to problem
    solve or make decisions
  • child does not develop confidence needed to
    initiate or complete tasks independently

Mechanistic Approach
  • focus on doing things by the book
  • must follow and complete schedule
  • focus on completing requirements rather than on
  • lack flexibility and warmth
  • treats child as part of a
  • system, not as an individual

Problems With This Approach
  • battle of the wills, power struggles for control
  • not motivated to learn or participate
  • avoids activities or tasks
  • need to look to others (peers) for attention,
  • depression

Growth-Oriented Approach
  • best approach
  • warm and connected
  • concerned with overall
  • well-being of child
  • sets clear rules and expectations
  • often includes student input in setting rules so
    student is invested in the rule

Growth-Oriented Approach
  • learning is mutually beneficial
  • we both learned something here
  • learning is a part of our relationship
  • mutually rewarding
  • independence is valued, promoted and reinforced
    through fading and praise
  • fading gradual removal of help
  • reinforcement increasing behavior through
    rewards or praise after the desired behavior

Benefits of Growth-Oriented Approach
  • the student gains
  • a greater desire to learn and cooperate
  • a desire to show off skills and knowledge
  • better ability to work with others
  • better relationships
  • better behavior
  • self confidence in own abilities
  • faster learning

Benefits Continued
  • staff gain an understanding of
  • why a child behaves the way they do
  • what situations will lead to the child doing well
    and succeeding
  • the childs viewpoint
  • what leads to poor work and negative behavior
  • staff gain a closer, more meaningful relationship
    with the child
  • staff experience a more rewarding job

Which approach do you want to use?
  • we all have tendencies from each
  • our responses are influenced by
  • our families
  • our values and expectations
  • what society values and expects
  • what we have learned from experience and
  • how we process all of the above

Ive come to the frightening conclusion that I
am the decisive element in the classroom. Its my
personal approach that creates the climate. Its
my daily mood that makes the weather. As a
teacher, I possess a tremendous power to make a
childs life miserable or joyous. I can be a tool
of torture or an instrument of inspiration. I can
humiliate or humor, hurt or heal. In all
situations, it is my response that decides
whether a crisis will be escalated or
de-escalated and a child humanized or
(Dr. Haim G. Ginott, Teacher and child A book
for parent and teachers, 1993)
Defusing Anger and Aggression Safe strategies
for secondary school educators By Geoff Colvin,
Ph. D. University of Oregon
Understanding Students With Emotional or
Behavioral Challenges
  • one in five American children has a diagnosable
    mental, emotional or behavioral disorder.
    Estimates range from 7.7 million to 12.8 million
  • as many as one in ten may suffer from a serious
    emotional disturbance. Less than one percent are
    identified by schools as having an emotional
    disturbance (CECP)
  • seventy percent of these children do not receive
    any mental health services
  • Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder affects
    3 to 5 percent of school-age children

Statistics Continued
  • eight to ten percent of American children and
    adolescents are seriously troubled by anxiety
  • anxious children are two to four times more
    likely to develop depression, and more likely to
    engage in substance abuse as adolescents
  • as many as one in 33 children and one in eight
    adolescents may have depression at any given time
  • almost one-third of six- to twelve-year-old
    children diagnosed with major depression will
    develop bipolar disorder within a few years

And More
  • suicide is the third leading cause of death for
    15- to 24-year-olds and the sixth leading cause
    of death for five- to 15-year-olds. Between
    500,000 and 1 million young people attempt
    suicide each year
  • 15,000 children with mental illnesses were
    improperly incarcerated in detention centers in
    2003 because of a lack of access to treatment.
    Sixty-six percent of detention centers held youth
    with mental illness because there was no place
    else for them to go

Factors that Contribute to Emotional and
Behavioral Problems
  • biological/physical/cognitive factors genetic
    links to some mood disorders, schizophrenia and
    some neurological conditions
  • environmental
  • family factors
  • school factors
  • community factors

Troubled Children Often
  • are more rigid and inflexible
  • are more explosive
  • lack resiliency
  • lack ability to regulate emotions
  • have poor impulse control
  • have poor frustration tolerance
  • have poor social skills
  • have poor coping skills

Federal Definition of Emotional Disturbance
  • Students who exhibit some or all of the factors
    that follow over a long period of time, to a
    marked degree, and it adversely affects the
    childs educational performance

Factors That Contribute to the Federal Definition
of Emotional Disturbance
  • An inability to learn that cannot be explained by
    intellectual, sensory or health factors.
  • An inability to build or maintain interpersonal
    relationships with peers and teachers.
  • Inappropriate types of behavior or feelings under
    normal circumstances.
  • A general, pervasive mood of unhappiness or
  • A tendency to develop physical symptoms or fears
    associated with personal or school problems.
  • IDEA Regulations 34 CFR 300.7 (c)(4)

Some Characteristics and Behaviors of Emotionally
Disturbed Students
  • hyperactivity (short attention span, poor
    concentration, poor impulse control)
  • aggression/self-injurious behavior (hitting,
    throwing, head banging, cutting on self)
  • withdrawal (failure to initiate or engage in
    interaction with others, poor social skills
    excessive fear or anxiety, hiding or running)
  • immaturity (inappropriate crying, yelling,
    laughing, temper tantrums, poor coping skills)
  • learning difficulties (performing below grade
    level academically)

Some children with more serious emotional
disturbances may exhibit
  • distorted thinking
  • excessive anxiety (may indicate one of eight
    childhood anxiety disorders, including Post
    Traumatic Stress Disorder)
  • bizarre motor acts
  • abnormal mood swings (may indicate BiPolar
    Disorder or Major Depression)
  • symptoms of psychosis (may indicate Schizophrenia)

Aggressive Children
  • often fail to encode all relevant environmental
  • often assign hostile intentions to their social
    peers or interactions with others
  • generate fewer and less effective solutions for
    problematic situations

Aggressive Children (cont)
  • often pursue inappropriate social goals
  • exhibit deficiencies in the enactment of many
    social behaviors
  • may be egocentric in evaluating the social
    environments response to their behavior

Behavioral Reactions Are Influenced By
  • whether the student has the particular skill
    needed in his or her academic or behavioral
  • whether the student can identify the appropriate
    response needed in a situation
  • whether the student has succeeded or failed at a
    similar task
  • whether the student has recently displayed or
    used the appropriate response or not (behavioral

Handbook of Research in Emotional and Behavioral
Interventions, Strategies and Supports To Meet
The Challenge
If there is a solid academic program and if
positive behavioral expectations have been taught
by teachers, then strategies for responding to
behavior problems can be successful.
Handbook of Research in Emotional and Behavioral
Interventions, Strategies Supports
  • Sound Instructional/Curricular Strategies
  • Use of the Relationship as a Strategy
  • School-wide Positive Behavior Supports
  • Targeted Group Interventions for At-Risk Students
  • Individualized Positive Behavior Supports a.
    Functional Behavioral Assessment (FBA)
  • b. Behavior Intervention Plan (BIP)

Interventions, Strategies Supports
  • Proactive, Preventative Strategies
  • environmental
  • instructional/curricular
  • antecedent and consequences
  • Skills Building Strategies
  • Intervention Strategies
  • Supplemental Support Strategies
  • Community Support Services

Sound Instructional Strategies
  • Having a sound curriculum and instructional
    strategies will prevent most problem behaviors
    from occurring in the first place

Use of the Relationship
The relationship is the best tool that you have
to effect change in the student
Know Yourself
  • choose your approach or response to agitated or
    angry students carefully
  • remain calm and controlled
  • dont take their behavior personally
  • personal detachment
  • separate your negative self talk or feelings from
    your behavior
  • know what your triggers are and avoid reacting

You cannot control anyones behavior but your
own. You can influence their behavior by what you
do before and/or after their behavior

Get to Know the Child
  • listen
  • observe
  • connect

Know the Child (cont)
  • use that relationship when the student is upset
  • listen carefully to what the student is saying
  • recognize and address signs of agitation early
  • respond with empathy early and validate his/her
    feelings, needs and desires (not behavior) often
    this is enough to defuse the anger
  • determine and meet his/her needs as quickly as
    possible. Assist him/her in delaying
    gratification of wants and desires to an
    appropriate time

If Agitation Escalates To Anger
  • continue to remain calm and composed
  • model the appropriate way to handle anger so
    other students learn what to do
  • state expectations clearly and simply
  • inform student what you need him/her to do
  • do not command or demand compliance

  • state positive consequences for cooperating
  • inform student that you are willing to discuss
    his/her concern when the student is calm and able
    to speak in a normal tone of voice
  • acknowledge and praise cooperative efforts as
    well as appropriate behaviors

Before you respond
  • ask yourself
  • what am I thinking/feeling right now?
  • do I just want this student out of my class so I
    dont have to deal with the situation?
  • do I want revenge or want this student to pay for
    his/her behavior and is this appropriate?
  • will the student learn anything by being sent out
    of my room/to the office/home?
  • what do I want the student to do
  • why is this so hard for this student?
  • what can I do to help this student behave

When you respond
  • assess the situation and plan your action
    remember, you are the model
  • communicate respect and dignity to the child
  • verbally choose your words carefully
  • nonverbally watch your expressions, gestures,
    body position and personal space
  • para-verbal choose your tone of voice, volume
    and rate of speech carefully

And Finally
  • disengage if student is challenging or
    threatening and determine your next step
  • assess for crisis and seek assistance if needed
  • have a teaching buddy to exchange safe place with
    early in escalation process if possible
  • allow student to go to guidance counselor
  • implement schools crisis plan if student is
    physically aggressive

Supporting Students through School-Wide Positive
Behavior Supports
Addressing Behavior of All Students
  • OSEP has funded research that suggests that
    schools consider a three-tiered prevention model
    to address the behavior of all students
  • school-wide primary prevention efforts to teach
    expected behaviors to all students
  • early interventions directed at students who are
    at risk of developing emotional disturbance or
    behavioral problems
  • more intensive services targeted at students with
    serious emotional or behavioral problems

OSEP Office of Special Education Programs Center
for Positive Behavior and Supports
Three-Tiered Prevention Model
The goal of school-wide positive behavioral
supports is to enhance the capacity of schools
to educate all students, especially students with
challenging social behaviors, by establishing
efficient and effective systems that support
staff efforts, practices that support student
success, and existing data utilization that guide
decision making (Sugai, Horner Gresham)
Successful SWPBS Systems
  • clearly define 3-5 behavioral expectations
  • teach behavioral expectations to all students
  • acknowledge/reinforce appropriate behaviors
  • correct behavioral errors proactively
  • monitor and evaluate effectiveness of practices
  • make decisions based on data collected regularly

Individualized Positive Behavior Supports
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)
  • requires that, in the case of a child whose
    behavior impedes his or her learning or the
    learning of others, the IEP team shall consider,
    if appropriate, strategies, including positive
    behavioral interventions, strategies, and
    supports to address that behavior.
  • requires that schools assess childrens
    challenging behavior and develop positive
    behavioral interventions to address that
    behavior. (we need to understand the relationship
    between learning and behavior when planning the
    individualized education plan IEP for a
    student with disabilities.)

Individualized Positive Behavior Supports
  • are based on a functional behavioral assessment
  • attempt to understand the purpose or function of
    the problem behavior
  • assist the student in replacing problem behavior
    with new and more appropriate behaviors that
    achieve the same purpose

Why Should We Consider Positive Behavioral
  • suppressing problem behaviors does not have
    long-term effects and often leads to more
    counter-aggressive behaviors from students
  • understanding why a students behavior occurs
    allows school personnel to respond more
    appropriately by teaching the student a more
    appropriate way to respond.

For students who need individual support
  • we need to complete a thorough functional
    behavioral assessment and then develop an
    effective behavior intervention plan.
  • then we need to monitor implementation of the
    plan and student progress, then make adjustments
    or enhancements as needed.

Comprehensive Assessment is critical in the
planning, development and implementation of
effective interventions and strategies

Functional Behavior Assessment (FBA)
  • FBA is the process of gathering and analyzing
    information about a students problem behavior
    (when, where and in what circumstances it occurs)
    in order to determine the purpose or function
    (why) of the behavior.

  • The FBA is the key to developing an effective
    Behavior Intervention Plan (BIP)

IEP Teams conduct the Functional Behavioral
Assessment, analyze the data, and then write and
implement Behavior Intervention Plans that
include positive behavioral interventions and
Function Based Process
Problem Behavior
Functional Assessment
Intervention and Support Plan
Fidelity of Implementation
Impact on Behavior Rob Horner, George Sugai
Develop Hypothesis
Setting Events
Triggering Antecedent
Problem Behavior
Maintaining Consequences
  • best guess about behavior and conditions under
    which it occurs or is observed to occur
  • when _____ occurs, the student ________ in order

antecedent behavior
of concern function
  • guides development of behavior intervention plan

Behavior Intervention Plans (BIPs)
Behavior Intervention Plans (BIPs)
  • are developed after gathering
  • and analyzing the data from
  • the functional behavioral assessment.
  • should teach and reinforce positive behaviors to
    be effective.
  • should not be a punishment plan to determine what
    happens after a student has violated a rule or
    code of conduct.

Behavior Intervention Plans Should Include
  • skills training to increase positive behaviors
  • changes that will be made in adult behavior, in
    the classroom or other environments to reduce or
    eliminate problem behaviors
  • strategies to replace problem behaviors with
    positive behaviors that serve the same function
    for the child
  • supports for the child to use the appropriate

This Approach Is Designed To
  • eliminate/reduce problem behavior
  • replace problem behavior with more appropriate
  • increase a persons skills and opportunities for
    enhanced quality of life

Focus on changing one or two behaviors at a
time. Dont expect changes to occur overnight. It
takes time and is a process. Reinforce small
successes and approximations.
The more proactive and inclusive the behavior
intervention plan and the more closely it
reflects the results of the functional behavioral
assessment, the more likely you are to succeed
with the plan.
Positive Behavioral Interventions are used
before problem behaviors occur to reduce or
prevent the problem behaviors so that punishment
does not become necessary
  • Punishment alone, without a balance of support
    and efforts to restore school engagement, weakens
    academic outcomes and maintains the antisocial
    trajectory of at risk students. Instead, the
    discipline process should help students accept
    responsibility, place high value on academic
    engagement and achievement, teach alternative
    ways to behave, and focus on restoring a positive
    environment and social relationships in the
    school. (Jeffrey
    Sprague, 2004)

So, then what
  • we need to look at and be willing to adjust our
    own practices it is difficult for many of us to
    admit that our own approach or practices may
    contribute to the problem (Sprague, 2004)
  • kids do not learn thru aversives, so we need to
    teach, or re-teach, alternative behaviors
  • Kids learn better ways of behaving by being
    taught directly and receiving positive feedback.
    (Sugai, PBIS, 2004)

When we focus on the needs of the child who is
engaging in challenging behaviors, prevention
becomes the goal and the focus of intervention
planning shifts from what we might change about
the child to what we might change about our own
practices. (Strain Hemmeter), 1997
Positive Behavioral Interventions May Include
  • replacing problem behaviors with appropriate
    behaviors that serve the same or similar function
    as the inappropriate ones
  • increasing rates of existing appropriate
  • making changes to the environment that eliminate
    the possibility of engaging in inappropriate
  • providing the supports necessary for the child to
    use the appropriate behaviors

Group Activity
  • Read case study of Sally see handout
  • Divide into small groups of 5 to 8 people
  • Complete fill in the box handout on Sally
  • defining the problem behavior in specific terms
  • identifying antecedents and consequences
  • determining the function of behavior
  • define desired or replacement behaviors
  • brainstorm interventions for a behavior plan
  • One person from small group will share with whole

Examples of Positive Behavioral Strategies or
  • Environmental Changes
  • predictable structure, routine and defined limits
  • seating arrangement, location of materials
  • adjust grouping, staffing pattern
  • adjust noise level, room temperature, lighting
  • frequent breaks, cooling off period, place
  • vary activities

Examples of Positive Behavioral Strategies or
  • Accommodations
  • extra assistance from adults or peer tutors
  • reduce/eliminate timed tests
  • shortened assignments
  • provide choice in learning activities
  • extended time for completion of assignments,
  • oral tests, reports or assignments

More Examples
  • Proactive Strategies
  • use clear, concise and simple language teach
    expectations and behavior you want prior to
    problem behavior
  • preventive cueing use cues or signals to let
    student know to stop a behavior
  • use schedule boards or cueing for transitions
  • give positive reinforcement (verbal, tangible)
    for appropriate behavior
  • use polite, respectful language and tone of voice
  • apply consequences fairly and consistently

And Instructional Strategies
  • Teach
  • expectations and behavior you want
  • study, organization, memory, prioritizing skills
  • communication skills
  • and model social skills
  • Problem-solving skills
  • relaxation skills for frustration, anxiety or
  • positive self-talk

Proactive, Preventative Strategies
Proactive, Preventative Strategies
  • Focus on making changes to
  • the environment
  • adult responses
  • antecedents
  • consequences
  • instructional strategies

Lets Review Proactive Strategies
  • know yourself and your triggers
  • build a trusting relationship with each
  • student before problem behaviors arise
  • teach expectations as well as expected behavior
  • know the child
  • recognize and address signs of agitation
  • and frustration early (changes in behavior)
  • respect personal space/boundaries

Proactive Strategies (cont)
  • show concern and empathy to the agitated student
    (empathic reflective listening)
  • do not take the students behavior personally
  • (personal detachment)
  • talk to student respectfully, calmly and in
    private if possible
  • allow student time and space to calm
  • talk student through problem-solving process
  • reinforce positive behavior immediately

Proactive, Preventative Strategies Create An
Emotionally Safe Educational Environment
  • that challenges the students intellectual
    capabilities and builds self-esteem while
    accommodating special needs.
  • that maintains a supportive and stress-less
    environment where the student can learn.
  • if a student does not feel emotionally safe to
    make mistakes, the student experiences anxiety,
    frustration, anger and/or stress
  • these feelings decrease attention and
    concentration, interfere with learning,
    exacerbate hyperactivity and impair self esteem
  • (Dornbush and Pruitt, Teaching the Tiger)

To create an emotionally safe environment
  • do not humiliate, demean or degrade the students
  • allow students to express their thoughts and
    feelings in appropriate ways at appropriate times
  • do not allow others to bully, tease or humiliate
    anyone in your classroom
  • speak privately with student when possible

Also remember to
  • make environmental changes when needed
  • make individual/personal instructional
    accommodations when needed
  • provide a safe place for the student to calm
    themselves when needed
  • have each student create a safe place mentally
    and then draw, color or paint a picture of
    his/her safe place

Minimize Academic Failure
  • give the student tasks at the appropriate
    instructional level
  • present teacher-directed and teacher-monitored
    lessons at the instructional level
  • homework or unmonitored seatwork should be at the
    independent level
  • do not give work at the frustration level

Make It Safe For Students To Risk Failure
  • The major obstacle to learning is fear fear of
    failure, fear of criticism, fear of appearing
    stupid. An effective teacher makes it possible
    for each child to err with impunity. To remove
    fear is to invite attempt. To welcome mistakes is
    to encourage learning.
  • Dr. Haim G. Ginott

Instructional and Skills Building Strategies
Instructional Strategies
  • teach expectations and behavior you want
  • teach study, organization, memory, prioritizing
  • teach communication skills
  • teach and model social skills
  • teach problem-solving skills
  • teach relaxation skills for frustration, anxiety
    or anger
  • teach positive self-talk

Skills Building Strategies
  • communication skills
  • social skills
  • anger management skills
  • cognitive/problem-solving skills
  • relaxation/stress management skills

Cognitive Strategies
  • problem-solving
  • positive self-talk

Problem-Solving Process
  • have student identify problem behavior
  • have student identify trigger to
  • escalating behavior
  • ask the student to ask him/herself
  • what did I do that was problematic?
  • why did I do it?
  • what triggered my behavior?
  • do I want to change my behavior?

  • have student brainstorm alternative ways to cope
    with the trigger/s in the future
  • ask student to ask him/herself
  • what could I have done differently? (name several
  • what else could I have done differently?
  • what are the best ways that I calm myself when
    Im upset?
  • what are some other ways I could calm myself when
    Im upset?

Continue Problem-Solving
  • assist student in developing a plan or contract
  • ask student to ask him/herself
  • what did I do well in this situation?
  • what do I need to do next?
  • can I do it?
  • what am I willing to do differently?

Complete The Plan
  • have student write what he/she agrees
  • to do differently in the future
  • have student and adult assisting the student
  • in developing the plan sign the plan or
  • date it
  • keep the original, give copy
  • to student parent

Complete The Plan
  • implement the plan
  • monitor progress
  • have student and adult implementing the plan
    evaluate the effectiveness of the plan
  • revise plan as needed

Positive Self-Talk
  • post positive quote or affirmation daily
  • help students identify negative self-talk
  • teach students to replace negative self talk with
    positive statements that are realistic or
    believable to the student.
  • use guided imagery to teach positive self-talk

Relaxation Skills
  • deep breathing exercises
  • physical exercise, movement and stretching
  • progressive muscle relaxation
  • relaxation music
  • visualization through guided imagery

Supplemental Support Strategies
  • Offering a Continuum of Services for Students
    with Disabilities
  • instruction in regular classes
  • special classes
  • special schools
  • home instruction
  • instruction in hospitals and institutions

  • Additional Support Services, Specialists and
    Community Supports
  • counseling as a related service school- based
    mental health services
  • family involvement
  • behavior specialist
  • Child-specific aide, paraprofessionals
  • support room
  • tutors, mentors, life coach

  • Additional Support Services, Specialists and
    Community Supports
  • liaison between the school, the child, family
    members, and community agencies (social services
    facilitator or case manager)
  • coordination of services for students who are
    currently involved in the juvenile justice system

  • to teach children to be self-disciplined

How Do We Help A Child Develop Internal Control?
  • We must have some knowledge and understanding of
    basic principles of behavior and be able to apply
    them effectively and efficiently as needed

Teaching Self-Discipline To Our Children
  • helping children develop internal control takes
    time and is a process
  • they must believe that they have some control
    over their external world in order to develop
    internal control
  • they have to unlearn old habits and behaviors

We Need To
  • teach new, more positive and effective behaviors
    and provide them with opportunities to practice
  • build problem-solving, coping skills and
    resiliency into our childrens lives

Encouragement, support and positive strokes lead
to cooperation and ongoing motivation

Dr. Joe Massengill
Contact Information
  • Cheryl Steckley, MSW, LCSW
  • Education Program Consultant II
  • La. Dept. Of Education
  • Office of School and Community Support
  • 225-219-0479 Office
  • 877-453-2721 Toll free
  • 225-342-0938 Fax

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