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Mental and Emotional Health

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Title: Mental and Emotional Health


1
Mental and Emotional Health
Defining Health and Wellness
2
Well-Being
  • A state of health and wellness.
  • People in a state of well-being.
  • Feel good about their present condition
  • Are productive at school, work, and home
  • Do not have mental and physical illnesses

3
Dimensions of Health and Wellness
  • Wellness is a balance of dimensions
  • Physical
  • Emotional
  • Intellectual
  • Social
  • These dimensions interact with andaffect each
    other.

4
Physical Health
  • Refers to how well your body functions
  • Qualities of a healthy body
  • Not slowed by disease
  • Able to take part in activities of daily life
  • Able to cope with stress, injury, and aging

5
Emotional Health
  • Emotional health includes
  • Your mood and how you feel about yourself
  • How you view the world
  • Good emotional health means
  • You are not affected by mental illness
  • You can express thoughts and feelings clearly
  • You can cope well with stress
  • Many teens experience problems with emotional
    health but may not realize it.

6
Intellectual Health
  • Intellectual health involves
  • Ability to think clearly and critically
  • Ability to learn and solve problems
  • People who are intellectually healthy are able to
    adapt, learn, and grow.

7
Social Health
  • Social health involves
  • Communication skills
  • Relationships
  • Ability to interact with others
  • Social skills and healthy relationships help
    people enjoy life and meet challenges.

8
A Continuum of Health
  • The range of a persons health status can be
    described as a continuum.
  • IDeally, health status should be near optimal
    health.
  • Diseases and disorders can affectthe mind and
    body, preventing optimal health.

9
  • 1. What are some examples of factors that
    increase health and wellness?
  • Avoiding smoking, drinking, and drugs
  • Eating a healthy diet and exercising regularly
  • 2. What are some examples of factors that reduce
    health and wellness?
  • Not getting enough sleep
  • Inability to manage stress

10
Communication
11
Communication Skills
I-message expresses your feelings or thoughts on
a subject. You-message is a statement that
blames or shames another person.
12
Listening Skills
Active listening is the way you respond in
conversation to show that you hear and understand
what the speaker is saying.
Active listening includes clarifying, restating,
summarizing, or affirming what was said.
13
Environment
  • Positive Social-Emotional exists when you receive
    plenty of social-emotional boosters.
  • Negative Social-Emotional Environment exists when
    you experience too many social-emotional
    pollutants.
  • Resiliency Able to bounce back

14
Decision-Making
  • The decision-making process can help you make
    choices about health and wellness.
  • Setting health-related goals is important for
    improving your health

15
  • Inactive Decision-Making Style
  •  
  • A person who has an inactive decision-making
    style fails to make choices
  • Teens who use this style have difficulty gaining
    the self-confidence that would result if they
    took responsibility for making decisions when
    they should

16
  • Reactive Decision-Making Style
  • Reactive decision-making style is a habit in
    which a person allows others to make his or her
    decisions.
  • Teens using this style are easily influenced by
    what others think and give control of the
    direction of their lives to others.

17
  • Proactive Decision-Making Style 
  • The proactive decision-making style when a person
    describes the situation that requires a decision,
    identifies and evaluates possible decisions,
    makes a decision, and takes responsibility for
    the outcome.
  • Teens who use this style are not driven by
    circumstances and conditions, have principles,
    and are empowered.

18
Making Sense of Your Emotions
19
Emotional Health
  • Emotions are the moods or feelings you
    experience.
  • Figuring out which emotions you feel and why can
    be difficult.
  • Both pleasant and unpleasant emotions are part of
    daily life.

20
Managing Emotions
  • First, identify the emotions you are feeling.
  • Second, try to acknowledge and accept the
    emotions.
  • Third, express your emotions.
  • Finally, find a way to make yourself feel better.

21
Emotional Intelligence
  • People with high emotional intelligence can
    identify the emotions they are feeling.
  • They also understand the emotions of others.
  • They have high levels of empathy.
  • They are able to express their emotions in
    healthy, positive ways.

22
Self-Image
  • Your self-image is your mental picture of
    yourself.
  • Your appearance
  • Your skills and abilities
  • Your weaknesses
  • Your self-image forms gradually over time.
  • It is influenced by your life experiences.

23
Self-Esteem
  • Self-esteem describes how you feel about
    yourself.
  • People who like themselves have high self-esteem.
  • People who have low self-esteem doubt their own
    self-worth.

24
Why Self-Esteem Matters
  • Your self-esteem has a major impact on different
    aspects of your life
  • How well you do in school
  • How easily you make friends
  • How you manage disappointments and frustrations

25
Critical Thinking
Self-Esteem Group Activity What are some
characteristics that people with high self-esteem
have? What are some characteristics that people
with low self-esteem have?
26
Factors that Affect Self-Esteem
  • Many factors can affect self-esteem
  • Social interactions
  • Home, school, and cultural environments
  • Life events
  • Media (television, books, and movies)
  • Body image
  • Personal perceptions

27
Self-Actualization
  • Self-actualization is the feeling that you are
    becoming the best person you can be.
  • According to psychologist Abraham Maslow,
    self-actualization occurs only after you meet
    your basic needs.

28
Good Mental and Emotional Health
  • People with good mental and emotional health
    share certain traits
  • Having a zest for life
  • Being responsible
  • Keeping a sense of balance
  • Being trustworthy, respectful, compassionate, and
    kind
  • Demonstrating good citizenship

29
Improving Mental Health
  • Strategies you can use to help improve your
    mental and emotional health
  • Spend time in nature
  • Develop strategies for reducing stress
  • Set and work toward goals
  • Have fun
  • Focus on the good, not the bad
  • Maintain close relationships

30
Critical Thinking
Relationships Why do you think maintaining close
relationships with other people is important for
good mental and emotional health?
31
Improving Physical Health
  • Improving your physical health will lead to
    better mental and emotional well-being
  • Follow these strategies
  • Get adequate sleep
  • Practice good nutrition
  • Get plenty of physical activity
  • Avoid risky behaviors

32
Improving Intellectual Health
  • There are many ways you can work on improving
    your intellectual health including
  • Make good decisions
  • Develop new skills and interests
  • Play games
  • Read a book for pleasure

33
Think Further!
  • Why is developing new skills and interests
    important for good mental and emotional health?
  • What are some activities you can do to explore
    new talents or interests?

34
Get Help When You Need It
  • Some people may make a real effort to improve
    their mental and emotional health but still do
    not feel better.
  • These people should consider getting help from a
    counselor or other mental health professional.

35
Anxiety
  • Symptoms of anxiety include
  • Increased heart rate
  • Rapid breathing
  • Sweaty palms
  • Upset stomach
  • People who experience these symptoms on a regular
    basis may have an anxiety disorder.

36
  • Stress Response of the body to the demands of
    daily living. (physical mental)
  • Stressor Cause or source of stress
  • Eustress Good stress
  • Distress Bad stress

37
Stress May Be
  • Acute (sudden and short-lived) or chronic
    (lasting over a long time period)
  • Caused by major events or daily struggles
  • Positive as well as negative

38
Acute Versus Chronic Stress
  • Acute stress is temporary (example a final exam)
  • Chronic stress is continual (example stress over
    an unsafe neighborhood)
  • The body can manage acute stress, but chronic
    stress harms the body

39
Mind-Body Connection
  • The relationship between a persons thoughts,
    emotions, and bodily responses.
  • Can trigger psychosomatic diseases
  • Psychosomatic diseases - illness or disorder
    caused by an emotional response.

40
Major Events Versus Daily Hassles
  • Major events (moving, a parents death) are the
    most stressful in a persons life
  • Daily hassles (being late, losing keys) create
    more overall stress since they occur frequently

41
  • How can stress be positive as well as negative?
  • Stress can produce positive feelings, such as
    excitement before a big game or motivation to do
    well on a test. Positive events, such as the
    birth of a sibling, can cause stress because they
    increase responsibilities.
  • Why is it possible for two people to have
    completely different responses to the same
    stressful event?
  • People may have different perceptions of an
    event, interpreting or thinking about it in a
    different way.

42
Sources of Stress for Teenagers
  • Relationships (conflict with family, friends, and
    peers)
  • School (academic pressure balancing schoolwork
    with other activities)
  • Home environment (crowded, noisy, lack of
    privacy lack of food or money crime in your
    neighborhood)
  • Inner conflict (making difficult life choices)

Click here for the Unit 6 video, Stressed Out
43
Stages of Stress
  • The body responds to stress in three stages
  • Alarm
  • Resistance
  • Exhaustion

shutterstock.com/Hans Kim
44
The Bodys Response to Stress
  • Fight-or-flight response
  • Heart rate, blood flow, breathing, and sweat
    production increase
  • Pupils widen
  • Other body processes are stopped or slowed
  • Resisting stress over time leads to exhaustion

45
What are some infections or diseases that could
be triggered by chronic stress?
  • Colds and flu Headaches
  • Back pain
  • Asthma
  • Eczema and hives
  • Hernias
  • Ulcers
  • Cardiovascular disease
  • Diabetes
  • Cancer

46
Stress and Body Systems
  • Nervous systemthe brain, sensing a threat, sends
    out signals to mobilize the body
  • Endocrine systemproduces stress hormones,
    epinephrine and norepinephrine
  • Cardiovascular systempumps blood at a faster
    rate
  • Immune systemgets fewer resources to produce
    disease-fighting lymphocytes
  • Reproductive systemstress hormones such as
    cortisol cause sex hormones to decrease, reducing
    fertility

47
  • Stress and Your Intellectual and Emotional Health

48
Stress and Cognitive Problems
  • Stress affects cognitive abilities (thinking and
    reasoning), leading to
  • Trouble focusing
  • Risk of injury
  • Negative thoughts
  • Impulsive decisions
  • Forgetfulness (stress hormones disrupt the
    hippocampusthe brains memory center)

49
Stress and Emotional Problems
  • Stress can cause many emotions fear, anxiety,
    helplessness, anger, shock, or numbness
  • Chronic stress can lead to depression, a feeling
    of low self-worth and disinterest in life
  • Extremely stressful events can cause
    post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)

Stress from combat can lead to post-traumatic
stress disorder, or PTSD.
50
  • What are some symptoms of Post-Traumatic Stress
    Disorder, or PTSD?
  • Nightmares and recurring thoughts about the event
  • Feeling detached, numb, uncaring, irritable,
    angry, or guilty
  • Inability to remember parts of the event
  • Lack of interest in normal activities
  • Avoidance of people associated with the event
  • Being easily startled
  • Difficulty concentrating
  • Difficulty sleeping

51
Stress and Behavioral Problems
  • Stress can lead to behavioral problems
  • Conflict (arguments and domestic violence)
  • Unhealthy lifestyle choices (smoking, drinking,
    taking drugs, bad eating habits, infrequent
    exercise, lack of sleep)

52
  • Managing Stress

53
Tips for Reducing or Avoiding Stress
  • Manage time
  • Set limits by saying no when too busy
  • Stay positive
  • Distract yourself
  • Laugh
  • Use relaxation techniques
  • Take care of yourself
  • Express feelings to a friend or in a journal

54
Staying Positive
  • Use positive reappraisal to focus on the
    positives of a stressful event
  • Distract yourselfgo for a walk, read, or
    volunteer
  • Watch a funny movie or talk to a friend who makes
    you laugh

55
Relaxation Techniques
  • Breathe deeply to decrease heart rate and blood
    pressure
  • Visualize yourself in a peaceful environment
  • Progressively relax muscles by tensing and
    relaxing each part of your body
  • Meditate to clear your mind
  • Practice yoga, a series of postures and breathing
    exercises

56
  • What are ways to take care of your body when
    youre stressed?
  • Eat well
  • Exercise regularly
  • Get plenty of sleep
  • Avoid smoking, drinking, and drugs

57
When to Seek Professional Help
  • Seek the help of a counselor, social worker,
    therapist, or psychologist
  • After experiencing major stress such as the death
    of a loved one or parents divorce
  • When youve experienced stress for more than a
    couple of weeks

58
STUDENT STRESS RATING SCALE
  • The following are events that occur in the life
    of a college student. Place a check in the
    left-hand column for each of those events that
    has happened to you during the last 12 months.
  • ___ Death of a close family member - 100 points
  • ____ Jail term - 80 points
  • ____ Pregnancy (to you or caused by your) - 60
    points
  • ____ Severe personal illness or injury - 53
    points
  • ____ Marriage - 50 points
  • ____ Any interpersonal problems - 45 points
  • ____ Financial difficulties - 40 points
  • ____ Death of a close friend - 40 points
  • ____ Arguments with your roommate (more than
    every other day) - 40 points
  • ____ Major disagreements with your family - 40
    points
  • ____ Major change in personal habits - 30 points
  • ____ Change in living environment - 30 points
  • ____ Beginning or ending a job - 30 points
  • ____Problems with your teacher-30

59
  • ____ Outstanding personal achievement - 25 points
  • ____ Failure in some course - 25 points
  • ____ Final exams - 20 points
  • ____ Increased or decreased dating - 20 points
  • ____ Changes in working conditions - 20 points
  • ____ Change in your sleeping habits - 18 points
  • ____ Several-day vacation - 15 points
  • ____ Change in eating habits - 15 points
  • ____ Family reunion - 15 points
  • ____ Change in recreational activities - 15
    points
  • ____ Minor illness or injury - 15 points
  • ____ Minor violations of the law - 11 points
  • Score _________________

60
INTERPRETING YOUR SCORE
  • Less than 150 points relatively low
    stress level in relation to life events
  • 150 - 300 points borderline range
  • Greater than 300 points high stress in
    relation to life events

61
Depression
  • Depression is a feeling of hopelessness,
    loneliness, and inability to care about anything
  • Most people experience depression at some point
    in their lives, but the feelings typically go
    away over time
  • Depression that lasts a long time or is
    especially severe is called major depression or
    clinical depression
  • https//www.youtube.com/watch?vaqu4ezLQEUA

62
  • Symptoms of Major Depression?
  • Extreme tiredness and lack of energy
  • Difficulty sleeping
  • Difficulty concentrating
  • Irritability, anger, and hostility
  • Recurrent thoughts of death
  • How is major depression different from typical
    feelings of loss and sadness?
  • Major depression is very intense and lasts for
    two weeks or more. People experience changes in
    thinking and behavior. If left untreated, it can
    have serious effects.

63
  • A mental disorder is a behavioral or
    psychological syndrome or pattern that occurs in
    an individual and that is associated with
    distress or disability or with significantly
    increased risk of suffering, death, pain,
    disability, or an important loss of freedom.
  • Codependency Tries to fix the problem, an
    enabler
  • Enabler Supports harmful behavior

64
Anxiety Disorders
  • Panic disorder causes panic attacks (episodes of
    intense fear)
  • Generalized anxiety disorder causes extreme or
    unrealistic worries over daily experiences
  • Phobias are unrealistic fears about an object or
    situation (e.g., social phobia or social anxiety
    disorder)
  • Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) causes
    obsessive thoughts and behavior
  • Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) occurs
    after a terrifying event or experience

65
Bipolar Disorder and Schizophrenia
  • Bipolar disorder
  • Recurring depression alternating with mania, a
    hyperactive mood with poor judgment, little need
    for sleep, and a lack of self-control
  • Schizophrenia
  • A mental illness characterized by delusions,
    hallucinations, and irregular thoughts

People in the mania phase of bipolar disorder may
show lack of self-control by overspending.
66
What Is a Personality Disorder?
  • A consistent pattern of inappropriate behavior
  • People with antisocial personality disorder
    disregard rules and are indifferent to other
    peoples rights and feelings
  • People with borderline personality disorder have
    unstable self-esteem and relationships

People with antisocial personality disorder may
disregard the law and commit crimes.
67
Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)
  • People with ASD have problems with normal
    interpersonal interactions
  • Symptoms include
  • Avoiding eye contact
  • Failing to respond when spoken to
  • Engaging in repetitive motions or unusual
    behaviors
  • Needing a familiar routine
  • Using gestures inappropriately
  • Having delayed language development

68
Attention Deficit Disorders
  • ADD and ADHD are the most common mental disorders
    in children and adolescents
  • Symptoms
  • Difficulty focusing, organizing and completing
    tasks, sitting still, and listening to
    instructions
  • Becoming bored quickly
  • Talking too much or blurting out inappropriate
    things
  • People with ADD/ADHD get bored quickly and
    struggle to pay attention.

69
Causes of Mental Illness
  • The causes of most mental illnesses and disorders
    are unknown
  • They may be caused by a combination of
  • Biological factors
  • Environmental factors
  • Psychological factors

70
Biological Factors Genetics
  • Certain genes inherited from parents can give
    someone a genetic predisposition for mental
    illness, meaning they are more likely to develop
    that illness
  • Genes influence the levels of chemicals in the
    brain
  • Low serotonin can cause depression
  • People with high levels of dopamine
  • may have schizophrenia

71
Biological Factors Brain Injury
  • Traumatic brain injury (TBI) such as a concussion
    results from a severe blow or jolt to the head
    that damages the brain
  • Brain injuries can lead to temporary or permanent
    changes in the brain, including
  • Depression
  • Anxiety
  • Personality changes
  • Aggression
  • Substance abuse to control mood and pain

72
Biological Factors Prenatal Environment
  • Developing babies risk mental illness if the
    mother
  • Uses alcohol or drugs
  • Eats poorly
  • Has stress or trauma
  • Is exposed to a virus, toxins, or certain
    chemicals
  • Babies may also experience brain damage during a
    difficult birth

A healthy environment during pregnancy may
decrease a childs risk of mental illness.
73
Environmental Factors
  • Mental disorders can be triggered by stressful
    events and experiences in a persons environment
  • Death of a loved one
  • Divorce
  • Family conflict
  • Financial pressures
  • Moving or changing jobs or schools
  • Abuse or neglect
  • Substance abuse

74
Psychological Factors
  • Unhealthy thinking patterns, or cognitive
    distortions, can lead to mental disorders.
  • Examples include black-and-white thinking and
    catastrophizing.
  • Changing these ways of thinking can improve
    mental health.

Therapy can help people change unhealthy thinking
patterns, leading to improved mental health.
75
  • Understanding and Preventing Suicide
  • Suicide The taking of ones own life

76
Why Do People Commit Suicide?
  • People consider suicide because they believe
    their life can never get better.
  • A mental illness such as depression is often the
    cause of these feelings.
  • It is important for people to get help if they
    are contemplating suicide.

77
Risk Factors for Suicide
  • Past suicide attempts
  • A history of mental illness or substance abuse
  • Troubled home environment
  • Crisis such as financial hardship
  • Experience of abuse, neglect, or bullying
  • Hearing about someone else who has committed
    suicide (this can lead to suicide contagion or
    suicide clusters, in which others copy the
    behavior)

78
Myth or Fact?
  • Hearing about other peoples suicides may
    increase the risk for certain people to commit
    suicide.
  • Fact Hearing about another person, even a
    stranger, who has committed suicide can lead
    certain people to copy the behavior. Copying of
    suicide attempts is known as suicide contagion.
  • Fact When a community or group experiences a
    series of suicides in a relatively short period
    of time, it is known as a suicide cluster.

79
Impact of Suicide on Others
  • Survivors who have lost a loved one to suicide
    may feel
  • Guilt for not being able to prevent the death
  • Abandonment and rejection
  • Embarrassment or shame
  • Since others feel uncomfortable with the topic of
    suicide, survivors may not get the support they
    need.

80
(No Transcript)
81
Jordan Burnham Story / Depression Suicide
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vbfj3Suuk4Tksafeac
    tive
  •  

82
80 of all modern diseases have their origins in
stress.
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