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Food Safety Content (Adult Appropriate)

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Title: Food Safety Concepts Author: Demetrius L. Bass Last modified by: hllin Created Date: 9/5/2004 4:49:47 AM Document presentation format: On-screen Show – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Food Safety Content (Adult Appropriate)


1
Food Safety Content(Adult Appropriate)
  • Food Safety Professional Development for
  • Early Childhood Educators

2
Food Safety Content
  • Goals
  • Introduce some common food safety terms
  • Introduce the types of food containments
  • Empower you to protect your center, classroom,
    and home from containments that could harm you

3
What is a foodborne illness?
  • A foodborne illness is a disease or illness that
    is carried or transmitted by food.
  • A food infection due to ingestion of food
    contaminated with bacteria, viruses, some molds,
    or parasites.

4
What is a foodborne illness outbreak?
  • A foodborne illness outbreak occurs when two or
    more people become ill after ingesting the same
    food and a laboratory analysis confirms that food
    was the source of the illness.

5
Q Who is most likely to get a foodborne illness?
  • A An immuno-compromised person

6
What is immuno-compromised?
  • The immune system is the bodily system that
    protects the body from foreign substances, cells,
    and tissues.
  • Immuno-compromised refers to anyone having an
    immune system impaired or weakened (as by drugs
    or illness).
  • Age and physical condition put some people at
    greater risk of contracting a foodborne illness.

7
Who might be immuno-compromised?
  • Pregnant women and their unborn babies
  • Infants and young children
  • Older adults, mid-50s and on
  • People taking antacids
  • People who have lowered immunity, such as those
    with HIV/AIDS or those treated for cancer or
    organ transplantation

8
People who are immuno-compromised are at a
HIGH RISK of contracting a foodborne illness.
9
What are the three major types of containments?
  • Biological
  • Chemical
  • Physical

10
Biological Contamination
  • Contamination caused by living organisms
    (microorganisms).
  • Bacteria
  • Viruses
  • Parasites

11
Types of Biological containments
  • Bacteria are one-celled microorganisms
  • Examples
  • Salmonella
  • Shigella
  • Campylobacter
  • Listeria

12
Types of Biological containments
  • Viruses are small, simple life forms that often
    cause disease.
  • Examples
  • Hepatitis
  • Norwalk

13
Types of Biological containments
  • Parasites are organisms that grow, feed, and live
    on or in other organisms
  • Examples
  • Trichinella
  • Giardia

14
Environmental Needs of Bacteria
  • Temperature and Time
  • pH (Acidity )
  • Water
  • Air

15
Environmental Needs of Bacteria
  • Temperature and Time
  • Microorganisms like to grow at room temperature.
  • A single bacterial cell can multiply into one
    million cells in five hours under ideal
    conditions.

16
Danger Zone
The temperature range from 40F to 145 F
17
Environmental Needs of Bacteria
  • Temperature and Time
  • pH (Acidity)
  • Bacteria like neutral pH (pH 7.0) like most
    foods

18
pH of Foods
  • Acid Fresh Meat Alkaline
  • Limes Chicken Water
    Most fruits and veggies
    I__I__I__I__I__I__I__I__I__I__I__I__I__I__I
  • 0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0
    7.0 8.0 9.0 10 11 12 13
    14

19
Environmental Needs of Bacteria
  • Temperature and Time
  • pH (Acidity)
  • Water
  • Bacteria need water just like people to live and
    grow
  • Bacteria grow in foods with a higher water content

20
Environmental Needs of Bacteria
  • Temperature and Time
  • pH (Acidity )
  • Water
  • Air
  • Aerobic
  • Require oxygen to grow
  • Anaerobic
  • Will not grow in the presence of oxygen

21
Environmental Needs of Bacteria
  • Temperature and Time
  • pH (Acidity )
  • Water
  • Air

22
Potentially Hazardous Foods
Bacteria generally prefer foods that are high in
protein such as meat, poultry, eggs, and diary
products.
23
Examples
Milk and Milk Products Sauces
Puddings Gravies Meat and Meat Products
Chicken Pot Pie Meat Loaf Shellfish
or Fish
Egg and Egg Products Custards Cream Pies
24
Pathogens in Alabama(Ranked from Most to Least
Common)
  • Salmonella
  • Giardia
  • Shigella
  • Campylobacter
  • Hepatitis
  • Listeria
  • Vibrio

25
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26
Chemical Contamination
  • Chemical contamination of food products can occur
    when food additives, cleaning chemicals,
    pesticides or naturally occurring toxins are
    present in food products.

27
Chemical Contamination
  • Examples of chemical contamination include
  • Food additives to which some people are allergic,
    such as sulfites and MSG
  • Cleaning chemicals and pesticides, which should
    be stored away from food or food handling areas
  • Naturally occurring toxins that can be found in
    foods such as in wild mushrooms

28
What if chemicals are ingested?
  • Call
  • 911

29
Physical Contamination
  • Physical contamination of a food product can
    occur when objects such as glass, hair, dirt,
    paint chips, insects, etc. become mixed with
    food.

30
Physical Contamination
  • In our homes, we can help to reduce physical
    contamination by following these simple steps
  • Ensure the food preparation surface is clean
    prior to using
  • Wash hands thoroughly before and after handling
    any food products, especially raw meats
  • Cover and properly store any excess ingredients

31
Beware of Allergies
  • Allergies are reactions (as by sneezing,
    breathing problems, itching, or skin rashes) to
    substances, situations, or physical states that
    are without comparable effect on the average
    individual.

32
Food Allergies
  • A food allergy is an immune system response to a
    food that the body mistakenly believes is
    harmful.
  • Once the immune system decides that a particular
    food is harmful, it creates specific antibodies
    to fight it.

33
Food Allergies
  • The next time the individual eats that food, the
    immune system releases massive amounts of
    chemicals, including histamine, in order to
    protect the body.
  • These chemicals trigger a cascade of allergic
    symptoms that can affect the respiratory system,
    gastrointestinal tract, skin, and/or
    cardiovascular system.

34
Food Allergies
  • Scientists estimate that approximately 11 million
    Americans suffer from true food allergies.
  • At the present time, there is no cure for food
    allergy.
  • Avoidance is the only way to prevent an allergic
    reaction.

35
What are the symptoms of of food allergies?
  • The most common symptom of a food-allergy
    reaction is hives.
  • Other symptoms can include one or more of the
    following
  • tingling in the mouth
  • swelling in the tongue and throat
  • difficulty breathing
  • abdominal cramps
  • vomiting
  • diarrhea
  • eczema

36
What are the symptoms of of food allergies?
  • Anaphylaxis is a sudden, severe allergic reaction
    that involves several of the symptoms listed in
    the previous slide, as well as difficulty
    breathing, drop in blood pressure, and loss of
    consciousness.
  • In rare cases, it can cause death in a matter of
    minutes.

37
Allergies Associated with Food
  • Eight (8) foods account for 90 of all
    food-allergic reactions
  • Milk
  • Eggs
  • Peanuts
  • Tree nuts
  • Walnut, Cashew, etc.
  • Fish
  • Shellfish
  • Soy
  • Wheat

38
Learn more about food allergies managing
allergy issues at your home or center
  • http//www.foodallergy.org/

39
What are the three types of contaminations
discussed today?
  • Biological
  • Chemical
  • Physical

40
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41
What can you do to protect yourself?
  • Wash your hands
  • Handle foods properly
  • Store foods properly
  • Serve food properly
  • Implement Hazard Analysis and Critical Control
    Point (HACCP)

42
WASH YOUR HANDSProcedures for properly washing
your hands
  1. Before starting, make sure clean, disposable
    paper is available for drying.
  2. Turn on warm water to a comfortable temperature.
  3. Wet hands with warm, running water.
  4. Add soap and rub your hands to make a lather. Do
    this away from the running water so you won't
    wash suds away.
  5. Wash front and back of hands, between the
    fingers, around nail beds, under fingernails and
    jewelry for 20 seconds (Old McDonald).

43
WASH YOUR HANDSProcedures for properly washing
your hands
  • Rinse hands well under running water to wash away
    the germs that are suspended by the soap.
  • If your taps do not shut off automatically use
    the disposable paper towel to shut off the taps.
  • If your bathroom doors cannot be pushed open with
    your foot, use the same paper towel to open the
    bathroom door.
  • Discard the used paper towel in a lined trash
    container.

44
When Should You Wash Your Hands?
  • When arriving at work in the morning
  • If moving from one child care group to another
  • Before and after food preparation, handling, or
    serving
  • Before and after eating meals or snacks
  • Before and after giving medications
  • Before and after playing in water that more than
    one person is using

45
When Should You Wash Your Hands?
  • After toileting or changing diapers
  • After assisting a child with toilet use
  • After handling pets or other animals
  • After playing in sandboxes
  • After contamination with body fluids (e.g. blood,
    saliva, urine, mucous from the nose)
  • After handling uncooked food, especially raw meat
    and poultry

46
When Should You Wash Your Hands?
  • Before working
  • Before putting on gloves to work with food
  • Before touching food
  • After handling nonfood items, such as cleaning
    and laundry supplies
  • Between handling different food items

47
When should you wash your hands?
  • ALL THE TIME!!!

48
Handle Foods Properly
  • Handle food with washed hands
  • Clean surface areas where food will be handled
  • Avoid cross-contamination

49
Handle Foods ProperlyCleaning Surfaces
  • It is important that we use care when cleaning
    and sanitizing surfaces in our homes.
  • Some cleaning products can adversely affect our
    ability to breath or cause a severe skin reaction
    in some individuals (chemical contamination
    allergies).

50
Handle Foods ProperlyTips for Cleaning Surfaces
  • Always make sure to read and follow the
    directions on the label of the cleaning products.
  • Read and follow all safety precautions
    recommended by the manufacturer.

51
Handle Foods ProperlyTips for Cleaning Surfaces
  • Use rubber gloves when cleaning blood, vomit, or
    other bodily fluids.
  • It is particularly important to use gloves when
    you or someone in your environment has open
    wounds or a bloodborne disease such as HIV or
    hepatitis.

52
Handle Foods ProperlyTips for Cleaning Surfaces
  • After cleaning and disinfecting, wipe the surface
    with paper towels that can be thrown away or
    cloth towels that can be washed afterwards.
  • Cloth towels should be washed using the
    sanitation cycle on your washing machine (or the
    hottest cycle if a sanitation cycle is not
    available).

53
Handle Food ProperlySanitation of Food Service
Areas
  • The tables should be washed with a chlorine
    bleach solution
  • Before each meal
  • After each meal
  • Before each snack
  • After each snack

54
Handle Foods ProperlyCross-Contamination
  • Cross contamination is a term used to describe
    how pathogens spread from one source, such as a
    food or person, to another, e.g., bacteria in
    meat drippings spreading to fresh produce in the
    grocery cart.

55
Handle Foods ProperlyTips to Avoid
Cross-Contamination
  • Keep it clean. Always wash hands, cutting boards,
    dishes, and utensils with hot, soapy water after
    they come in contact with raw meat, poultry, or
    other raw foods.
  • Use separate surfaces. If possible, use one
    cutting board for fresh produce and use a
    separate one for raw meat, poultry, and seafood.
    If you only have one cutting board, wash with hot
    water and soap and rinse thoroughly before using
    it for the next food item.

56
Handle Foods ProperlyTips to Cross-Contamination
  • Separate foods. Try to separate raw meats from
    other food in your shopping cart and in your
    refrigerator.
  • Seal it. Make sure juices from raw meat or
    poultry do not drip onto other foods. Seal raw
    foods in containers or plastic bags.
  • Take special precaution when using marinades!
    Sauce which has been used to marinate raw meats
    should NOT be used on cooked foods unless it is
    boiled first.

57
Handle Foods ProperlyUSDA FDA Recommendations
  • Always make sure to refrigerate or freeze
    perishables, prepared foods, and leftovers within
    two hours of purchase or preparation.
  • If the temperature is above 90 F, reduce the
    time frame to 1 hour.
  • When marinating, store the foods in the
    refrigerator.

58
Handle Foods ProperlyUSDA FDA Recommendations
  • Your refrigerator should be set at 40 F to
    discourage the growth of foodborne bacteria.
  • You can use a refrigerator or freezer thermometer
    to check the temperature of your refrigerator.

59
Handle Foods ProperlyUSDA FDA Recommendations
  • Never place frozen foods on the counter and
    attempt to defrost food at room temperature.
  • To safely thaw food, place it in the refrigerator
    the night before.
  • For quick thawing, submerge food in cold water in
    airtight packaging. You can also use your
    microwave to thaw food if you plan to cook it
    immediately.

60
Storing Foods ProperlyUSDA FDA Recommendations
  • When storing leftover food products, it is
    important that the temperature of food products
    be reduced rapidly to discourage bacterial
    growth.
  • To help reduce temperatures quickly, separate
    large amounts of leftovers into small, shallow
    containers, which will allow for quicker cooling
    of the foods when placed in the refrigerator.

61
Food Storage Myth
  • Food cannot be placed into the refrigerator while
    hot.

62
Storing Foods ProperlyUSDA FDA Recommendations
  • Hot food can be placed directly in the
    refrigerator
  • Make sure to divide large quantities of food into
    shallow containers for quicker cooling.

63
Storing Foods Properly
  • Store dry foods away from moisture
  • Dont store raw meat above raw produce
  • Dont store chemicals with food products
  • Label and date leftovers in the refrigerator
  • Wrap and label foods stored in the freezer
  • Cover foods when stored in the refrigerator

64
Storing Serving Foods Properly
  • General rules
  • Keep cold foods cold (milk, eggs, meats)
  • Keep hot foods hot
  • BEWARE OF
  • Proper cooking temperatures
  • Proper storage temperatures

65
Serving Food Properly
  • Do not eat foods that have fallen on the floor
  • Do not eat foods that have been handled with
    dirty hands or utensils
  • Do not handle the service end of utensils
  • Do not serve foods with your hands, use a clean
    utensil
  • Never place cooked food on the plate that
    contained the raw food

66
Serving Foods Properly Proper Temperatures
  • Cook foods to the proper temperatures
  • Use a thermometer to check the internal
    temperature of food products
  • Never eat ground meat that is pink when you break
    a hamburger into two halves
  • Never eat chicken that is not cooked to well done
  • Cook eggs until the white and yolk is firm
  • Be sure to heat leftovers to 165 F

67
Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP)
  • HAACP is a food safety and self-inspection system
    that highlights potentially hazardous foods and
    how they are handled in the food service
    department.
  • The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
    recommends implementation of HACCP because it is
    the most effective and efficient way to ensure
    that food products are safe.

68
Seven Principles of HACCP
  1. Conduct a hazard analysis.
  2. Determine the critical control point (places
    where hazards are identified and can be prevented
    or controlled).
  3. Establish critical limits.
  4. Establish monitoring procedures.
  5. Establish corrective actions.
  6. Establish record-keeping and documentation
    procedures.
  7. Establish verification procedures.

69
Where can I find out more about HAACP?
  • www.nal.usda.gov/foodborne/

70
What can you do to protect yourself?
  • Wash your hands
  • Handle foods properly
  • Store foods properly
  • Serve foods properly
  • Implement Hazard Analysis and Critical Control
    Point

71
What have you learned so far?
  • Foodborne illness
  • Immuno-compromised individuals
  • Three types of containments
  • Biological
  • Chemical
  • Physical

72
What have you learned so far?
  • Environmental needs of bacteria
  • Temperature and time
  • Acidity (pH)
  • Water (moisture)
  • Air
  • Aerobic
  • Anaerobic

73
What have you learned so far?
  • Potentially hazardous foods
  • Most common pathogens in Alabama
  • Allergies
  • Five ways to protect yourself from foodborne
    illness

74
Final Thought
  • WHEN IN DOUBT
  • THROW IT OUT!

75
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