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Chapter Twelve

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Title: Chapter Twelve


1
Chapter Twelve
  • Nutrition Basics

2
Nutrients
  • Essential nutrients substances the body must
    get from food because it cannot manufacture them
    at all or fast enough to meet its needs
  • Proteins
  • Carbohydrates
  • Fats
  • Vitamins
  • Minerals
  • Water

3
Energy from Food
  • Kilocalorie a measure of energy content in
    food the amount of heat it takes to raise the
    temperature of 1 liter of water 1C commonly
    referred to as calorie
  • Three classes of essential nutrients supply
    energy
  • Fat 9 calories per gram
  • Protein 4 calories per gram
  • Carbohydrates 4 calories per gram

4
ProteinsThe Basis of Body Structure
  • Protein a compound made of amino acids that
    contains carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen
  • Of twenty common amino acids in foods, nine are
    essential
  • Proteins form key parts of the bodys main
    structural componentsmuscles and bonesand of
    blood, enzymes, cell membranes, and some hormones

5
Complete and Incomplete Proteins
  • Complete protein sources foods that supply all
    the essential amino acids in adequate amounts
  • Meat, fish, poultry, eggs, milk, cheese, and soy
  • Incomplete protein sources foods that supply
    most but not all essential amino acids
  • Plants, including legumes, grains, and nuts

6
Recommended Protein Intake
  • Adequate daily intake of protein 0.8 gram per
    kilogram (0.36 gram per pound) of body weight
  • Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range
    1035 of total daily calories as protein

7
FatsEssential in Small Amounts
  • Fats supply energy, insulate the body, support
    and cushion organs, absorb fat-soluble vitamins,
    add flavor and texture to foods
  • Essential fats (linoleic acid and alpha-linolenic
    acid) are key regulators of body process such as
    the maintenance of blood pressure and the
    progress of a healthy pregnancy

8
Types and Sources of Fats
  • Saturated fat a fat with no carbon-carbon
    double bonds usually solid at room temperature
  • Found primarily in animal foods and palm and
    coconut oils
  • Monounsaturated fat a fat with one
    carbon-carbon double bond usually liquid at room
    temperature
  • Found in certain vegetables, nuts, and vegetable
    oils
  • Polyunsaturated fat a fat with two or more
    carbon-carbon double bonds usually liquid at
    room temperature
  • Found in certain vegetables, nuts, and vegetable
    oils and in fatty fish

9
Types and Sources of Fats
  • Two key forms of polyunsaturated fats
  • Omega-3 fatty acids the endmost double bond of
    a polyunsaturated fat occurs three carbons from
    the end of the fatty acid chain
  • Found primarily in fish
  • Omega-6 fatty acids the endmost double bond of
    a polyunsaturated fat occurs six carbons from the
    end of the fatty acid chain
  • Found primarily in certain vegetable oils,
    especially corn, soybean, and cottonseed oils

10
Trans Fatty Acids
  • The process of hydrogenation, in which hydrogens
    are added to unsaturated fats, produces a mixture
    of saturated fatty acids and standard and trans
    forms of unsaturated fatty acids
  • Trans fatty acids have an atypical shape that
    affects their chemical activity

11
Trans Fatty Acids
12
Fats and Health
  • Fats affect blood cholesterol levels
  • Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) bad cholesterol
  • High-density lipoprotein (HDL) good
    cholesterol
  • Saturated and trans fats raise levels of LDL
    trans fats also lower levels of HDL
  • Unsaturated fats lower levels of LDL

13
Fats and Health
  • Fats also affect triglyceride levels,
    inflammation, heart rhythm, blood pressure, and
    cancer risk
  • Best choices monounsaturated fats and
    polyunsaturated omega-3 fats
  • Limit intake of saturated and trans fats

14
Saturated and Trans Fats Comparing Butter and
Margarine
SOURCE Food an Drug Administration
15
Total, Saturated, and Trans Fat Content of
Selected Foods
SOURCE Food an Drug Administration
16
Recommended Fat Intake
  • Adequate daily intake of fat
  • about 34 teaspoons of vegetable oil
  • Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range
    2035 of total daily calories as fat

17
CarbohydratesAn Ideal Source of Energy
  • The primary function of dietary carbohydrate is
    to supply energy to body cells.
  • Cells in the brain, nervous system, and blood,
    use only carbohydrates for fuel
  • During high-intensity exercise, muscles get most
    of their energy from carbohydrates
  • During digestion, carbohydrates are broken into
    single sugar molecules such as glucose for
    absorption the liver and muscles take up glucose
    and store it in the form of glycogen

18
Simple and Complex Carbohydrates
  • Simple carbohydrates contain one or two sugar
    units in each molecule
  • Found naturally in fruits and milk and added to
    many other foods
  • Include sucrose, fructose, maltose, and lactose
  • Complex carbohydrates consist of chains of many
    sugar molecules
  • Found in plants, especially grains, legumes, and
    tubers
  • Include starches and most types of dietary fiber

19
Whole Grains
  • Before they are processed, all grains are whole
    grains consisting of an inner layer of germ, a
    middle layer called the endosperm, and an outer
    layer of bran
  • During processing, the germ and bran are often
    removed, leaving just the starchy endosperm
  • Refined carbohydrates usually retain all the
    calories of a whole grain but lose many of the
    nutrients

20
Refined Carbohydrates Versus Whole Grains
  • Whole grains are higher than refined
    carbohydrates in fiber, vitamins, minerals, and
    other beneficial compounds
  • Whole grains take longer to digest
  • Make people feel full sooner
  • Cause a slower rise in glucose levels
  • Choose foods that have a whole grain as the first
    item on the ingredient list on the label
  • Whole wheat, whole rye, whole oats, oatmeal,
    whole-grain corn, brown rice, popcorn, barley,
    etc.

21
Glycemic Index
  • Consumption of carbohydrates causes insulin and
    glucose levels in the blood to rise and fall
  • Glycemic index a measure of how the ingestion
    of a particular food affects blood glucose levels
  • Foods with a high glycemic index cause quick and
    dramatic changes in glucose levels
  • Diets rich in high glycemic index foods are
    linked to increased risk of diabetes and heart
    disease

22
Recommended Carbohydrate Intake
  • Adequate daily intake of carbohydrate 130 grams
  • Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range
    4565 of total daily calories as carbohydrate
  • Limit on intake of added sugars
  • Food and Nutrition Board 25 or less of total
    daily calories
  • World Health Organization 10 or less of total
    daily calories
  • MyPyramid 32 grams (8 tsp) in a 2000-calorie diet

23
Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges
Summary
  • Protein 1035 of total daily calories
  • Fat 2035 of total daily calories
  • Carbohydrate 4565 of total daily calories

24
FiberA Closer Look
  • Dietary fiber nondigestible carbohydrates and
    lignin that are present naturally in plants
  • Functional fiber nondigestible carbohydrates
    isolated from natural sources or synthesized in a
    lab and added to a food or supplement
  • Total fiber dietary fiber functional fiber
  • Fiber does not provide calories

25
Types of Fiber
  • Soluble (viscous) fiber fiber that dissolves in
    water or is broken down by bacteria in the large
    intestine (oat bran, legumes)
  • Slows the bodys absorption of glucose
  • Binds cholesterol-containing compounds
  • Insoluble fiber fiber that doesnt dissolve in
    water (wheat bran, psyllium seed)
  • Makes feces bulkier and softer
  • Helps prevent constipation, hemorrhoids, and
    diverticulitis

26
Sources of Fiber
  • All plant foods contain fiber, but processing can
    remove it
  • Good sources of fiber
  • Fruits (especially whole, unpeeled fruits)
  • Vegetables
  • Legumes
  • Oats (especially oat bran)
  • Whole grains and wheat bran
  • Psyllium (found in some cereals and laxatives)

27
Recommended Intake of Fiber
  • Women 25 grams per day
  • Men 38 grams per day
  • Americans currently consume about half this amount

28
VitaminsOrganic Micronutrients
  • Vitamins organic (carbon-containing) substances
    needed in small amounts to help promote and
    regulate chemical reactions and processes in body
    cells.
  • Four vitamins are fat-soluble (A, D, E, and K)
  • Nine vitamins are water-soluble (C and the eight
    B-complex vitamins thiamin, riboflavin, niacin,
    vitamin B-6, folate, vitamin B-12, biotin, and
    pantothenic acid)

29
Vitamins
  • Vitamins are abundant in fruits, vegetables, and
    grains they are also added to some processed
    foods
  • If you consume too much or too little of a
    particular vitamin, characteristic symptoms of
    excess or deficiency can develop

30
MineralsInorganic Micronutrients
  • Minerals inorganic (non-carbon-containing)
    compounds needed in small amounts for regulation,
    growth, and maintenance of body tissues and
    functions
  • There are about 17 essential minerals
  • Major minerals (those that the body needs in
    amounts exceeding 100 mg per day) include
    calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium,
    potassium, and chloride
  • Essential trace minerals include copper,
    fluoride, iodide, iron, selenium, and zinc

31
Minerals
  • If you consume too much or too little of a
    particular mineral, characteristic symptoms of
    excess or deficiency can develop
  • Minerals commonly lacking in the American diet
  • Iron low intake can cause anemia
  • Calcium low intake linked to osteoporosis
  • Potassium low intake linked to elevated blood
    pressure and bone mineral loss
  • Magnesium

32
OsteoporosisThinning of Bones
  • Dietary factors that build bone mass
  • Calcium
  • Vitamin D
  • Vitamin K
  • Other possible dietary factors vitamin C,
    magnesium, potassium, manganese, zinc, copper,
    boron
  • Weight-bearing exercise and strength training
    also build and maintain bone mass
  • Dietary factors linked to loss of bone mass
  • Alcohol
  • Sodium
  • Caffeine
  • Retinol
  • Soda
  • Protein (if intake of calcium and vitamin D is
    low)

33
WaterA Vital Component
  • Human body is composed of about 5060 water you
    can live only a few days without water
  • Foods and fluids you consume provide 8090 of
    your daily water intake
  • Adequate intake to maintain hydration
  • Women about 9 cups of fluid per day
  • Men about 13 cups of fluid per day
  • Drink in response to thirst consume additional
    fluids for heavy exercise

34
Other Substances in Food Antioxidants
  • Antioxidant a substance that protects against
    the breakdown of body constituents by free
    radicals actions include binding oxygen,
    donating electrons to free radicals, and
    repairing damage to molecules
  • Free radical a chemically unstable,
    electron-seeking compound that can damage cell
    membranes and mutate genes in its search for
    electrons
  • Many fruits and vegetables are rich in
    antioxidants such as vitamin C, vitamin E,
    selenium, and carotenoids

35
Other Substances in Food Phytochemicals
  • Phytochemical a naturally occurring substance
    found in plant foods that may help prevent and
    treat chronic diseases
  • Examples
  • Certain proteins in soy foods
  • Sulforaphane in cruciferous vegetables (cabbage,
    broccoli, brussels sprouts, kale, cauliflower)
  • Allyl sulfides in garlic and onions
  • Fruits and vegetables are rich in phytochemicals

36
Nutritional Guidelines Planning Your Diet
  • Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) standards for
    levels of nutrient intake to prevent nutrient
    deficiencies and reduce the risk of chronic
    disease
  • Dietary Guidelines for Americans general
    principles of good nutrition intended to help
    prevent certain diet-related diseases
  • MyPyramid a food-group plan that provides
    practical advice to ensure a balanced intake of
    essential nutrients

37
Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs)
  • Set by the Food and Nutrition Board of the
    National Academies
  • Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) or Adequate
    Intake (AI) recommended intake
  • Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) maximum daily
    intake unlikely to cause health problems
  • Example of calcium recommendations for an
    18-year-old woman
  • RDA 1300 mg/day
  • UL 2500 mg/day

38
Should You Take Supplements?
  • The Food and Nutrition Board recommends
    supplements only for certain groups
  • Folic acid for women capable of becoming pregnant
    (400 µg/day)
  • Vitamin B-12 for people over age 50 (2.4 mg/day)
  • Other possible situations for supplements
  • Vitamin C for smokers
  • Iron for menstruating women
  • Vitamin K for newborns
  • People with certain special health concerns

39
Daily Values
  • Daily Values a simplified version of the RDAs
    used on food labels
  • Also included in Daily Values are standards for
    nutrients with no established RDA
  • Shown on food labels in terms of a 2000-calorie
    diet

40
Dietary Guidelines for Americans
  • Adequate Nutrients within Calorie Needs
  • Focus on nutrient dense foods.
  • Eat more dark green vegetables, orange
    vegetables, legumes, fruits, whole grains, and
    low-fat and fat-free milk and milk products.
  • Eat less refined grains, saturated fat, trans
    fat, cholesterol, added sugars, and calories.
  • Plans that meet the goals include MyPyramid and
    DASH.

41
Dietary Guidelines for Americans
  • Weight Management
  • Evaluate body weight in terms of BMI.
  • Balance food intake and physical activity to
    avoid weight gain.
  • To lose weight, decrease calorie intake, maintain
    adequate nutrient intake, and increase physical
    activity.

42
Dietary Guidelines for Americans
  • Physical Activity
  • 30 minutes per day to reduce risk of chronic
    disease
  • 60 minutes per day to prevent weight gain
  • 60-90 minutes per day to sustain weight loss

43
Dietary Guidelines for Americans
  • Food Groups to Encourage
  • Fruits and vegetableschoose a variety of colors
    and kinds
  • Whole grainshalf of all servings of grains
    should be whole grains
  • Low-fat and fat-free milk and milk products

44
Dietary Guidelines for Americans
  • Fat Intake Goals
  • Total fat 20-35 of total daily calories
  • Saturated fat Less than 10 of total daily
    calories
  • Trans fat As little as possible
  • Cholesterol Less than 300 mg per day

45
Dietary Guidelines for Americans
  • Carbohydrate Intake
  • Choose high-fiber foods
  • Limit intake of added sugars
  • Sodium and Potassium
  • Limit sodium intake (2300 mg per day 1500 mg per
    day for those at high risk)
  • Consume adequate potassium
  • Alcohol intakemoderate if at all

46
MyPyramid
  • Food guidance system that promotes healthy food
    choices and physical activity
  • Choosing a balance of servings from different
    food groups meets nutrient needs and reduces
    chronic disease risk
  • Balancing food choices and activity promotes
    weight management

47
MyPyramid
48
MyPyramid Grains
  • For a 2000-calorie diet, choose 6
    ounce-equivalents per day
  • 1 ounce-equivalent
  • 1 slice of bread
  • 1 small muffin
  • 1 cup ready-to-eat cereal flakes
  • 1/2 cup cooked cereal, rice, grains, pasta
  • 1 6-inch tortilla

49
MyPyramid Vegetables
  • For a 2000-calorie diet, choose 2-1/2 cups (5
    servings) per day
  • 1/2 cup or equivalent
  • 1/2 cup raw or cooked vegetables
  • 1/2 cup vegetable juice
  • 1 cup raw leafy salad greens

50
MyPyramid Vegetables
  • Choose vegetables from five groups
  • Dark green vegetables (spinach, kale, collards,
    bok choy, other leafy greens)
  • Orange and deep yellow vegetables (carrots,
    winter squash, sweet potatoes)
  • Legumes
  • Starchy vegetables (corn, potatoes, peas)
  • Others (e.g., tomatoes, bell peppers, green
    beans, cruciferous vegetables)

51
MyPyramid Fruits
  • For a 2000-calorie diet, choose 2 cups (4
    servings) per day
  • 1/2 cup or equivalent
  • 1/2 cup fresh, canned, or frozen fruit
  • 1/2 cup fruit juice (100 juice)
  • 1 small whole fruit
  • 1/4 cup dried fruit
  • Choose whole fruits often

52
MyPyramid Milk
  • For a 2000-calorie diet, choose 3 cups or the
    equivalent per day
  • 1 cup or equivalent
  • 1 cup milk or yogurt
  • 1/2 cup ricotta cheese
  • 1-1/2 ounces natural cheese
  • 2 ounces processed cheese
  • Choose low-fat and fat-free items

53
MyPyramid Meat and Beans
  • For a 2000-calorie diet, choose 5-1/2
    ounce-equivalents per day
  • 1-ounce equivalents
  • 1 ounce cooked lean meat, poultry, fish
  • 1/4 cup tofu or cooked legumes
  • 1 egg
  • 1 tablespoon peanut butter
  • 1/2 ounce nuts or seeds
  • Choose lean cuts, limit serving sizes, and try
    one plant protein source daily

54
MyPyramid Oils
  • For a 2000-calorie diet, choose 6 teaspoons per
    day
  • 1 teaspoon or equivalent
  • 1 teaspoon vegetable oil or soft margarine
  • 1 tablespoon salad dressing or light mayonnaise
  • Food sources 8 large olives, 1/6 medium avocado,
    1/2 tablespoon peanut butter, 1/3 ounce roasted
    nuts

55
MyPyramid Discretionary Calories
  • If nutrient-dense forms are selected from food
    groups, the remaining discretionary calories may
    be used to increase intake of fats or added
    sugars.

56
The Vegetarian Alternative
  • Types of vegetarian diets
  • Vegan vegetarian who eats no animal products
  • Lacto-vegetarian vegetarian who includes milk
    and cheese products in the diet
  • Lacto-ovo-vegetarian vegetarian who includes
    milk and cheese products and eggs in the diet
  • Partial vegetarian, semivegetarian, or
    pescovegetarian vegetarian who includes eggs,
    dairy products, and small amounts of poultry and
    seafood in the diet

57
Vegetarian Diets and Health
  • Vegetarian diets are lower in saturated fat and
    cholesterol and higher in complex carbohydrates,
    fiber, folate, vitamins C and E, carotenoids, and
    phytochemicals
  • Nutrients of concern for vegetarians include
    vitamin B-12, vitamin D, calcium, iron, and zinc

58
Dietary Challenges for Special Population Groups
  • Womennutrient density, calcium, iron
  • Menfruits, vegetables, grains
  • College studentsoverall quality of food choices
  • Older adultsnutrient density, fiber, vitamin
    B-12
  • People with special health concerns discuss with
    physician or dietitian

59
Food Labels
  • Read labels to learn more about your food
    choices.

60
Dietary Supplements
  • May contain powerful bioactive chemicals
  • Not regulated the way drugs are by the FDA in
    terms of testing and manufacture
  • May interact with prescription and
    over-the-counter drugs and supplements

61
Foodborne Illness
  • Most foodborne illness is caused by pathogens
    (disease-causing microorganisms)
  • You cant tell by taste, smell, or sight whether
    a food is contaminated
  • To prevent foodborne illness, handle, cook, and
    store foods in ways that prevent microorganisms
    from spreading and multiplying
  • New threat bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE
    or mad cow disease)

62
FoodSafety
  • Cook foods to an appropriate temperate
  • Keep hot foods hot and cold foods cold

63
Organic Foods
  • Organic a designation applied to foods grown
    and produced according to strict guidelines
    limiting the use of pesticides, nonorganic
    ingredients, hormones, antibiotics, genetic
    engineering, irradiation, and other practices
  • Organic foods tend to have lower levels of
    pesticide residues than conventionally grown crops

64
Environmental Contaminants
  • Follow FDA/EPA limits for fish consumption to
    avoid consuming excess mercury
  • Consider the sources of fish (farmed vs. wild)

65
Food Additives
  • Most widely used are sugar, salt, corn syrup,
    citric acid, baking soda, vegetable colors,
    mustard, pepper
  • Concerns about some additives
  • Monosodium glutamate (MSG) causes some people to
    experience episodes of sweating and increased
    blood pressure
  • Sulfites cause severe reactions in some people
  • Check food labels

66
Irradiated FoodsA Technique of Biotechnology
  • Food irradiation treatment of foods with gamma
    rays, X rays, or high-voltage electrons to kill
    potentially harmful pathogens and increase shelf
    life

67
Genetically Modified Foods
  • GM organism a plant, animal, or microorganism
    in which genes have been addded, rearranged, or
    replaced through genetic engineering
  • Many GM crops are already grown in the United
    States (soybeans, corn)
  • No labeling requirement unless a GM food contains
    a known allergen

68
Food Allergies
  • Reaction by the immune system to a food or food
    ingredient
  • Common food allergens include peanuts, milk,
    eggs, tree nuts, soy, wheat, fish, and shellfish
  • Severe allergic responses can include anaphylaxis

69
Food Intolerance
  • More common than true food allergies
  • Reaction to a food or food ingredient, usually
    based on a problem with metabolism
  • Common intolerances include lactose intolerance,
    in which people are deficient in the enzyme
    lactase, and gluten intolerance
  • Problems can be avoided by avoiding or limiting
    trigger foods
  • Keep a food diary to help identify problems

70
A Personal Plan Applying Nutritional Principles
  • Assess your current diet
  • Set goals for change
  • Try additions and substitutions to bring your
    current diet closer to your goals
  • Plan ahead for challenging situations

71
Chapter Twelve
  • Nutrition Basics
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