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Next Generation Science Standards for English Language Learners

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Title: Next Generation Science Standards for English Language Learners


1
Next Generation Science Standards for English
Language Learners
  • Washington Association of Bilingual Education
  • May 11, 2012
  • Okhee Lee
  • New York University

2
Topics
  • Diversity
  • Changing demographics
  • Persistent science achievement gaps
  • National Initiatives
  • Next Generation Science Standards
  • Understanding Language
  • 3. What (Science) Teachers Need to Know and Do
    with ELLs

3
Diversity Changing Demographics
  • Race
  • Poverty
  • Language

4
Race
  • According to the 2010 U.S. Census
  • 36 of the U.S. population are minorities
  • 45 of the U.S. population under 19 years old are
    minorities
  • U.S. Census Bureau. (2012). Statistical abstract
    of the United States, 2012. Washington, DC
    Government Printing Office. Accessed online at
    http//www.census.gov/compendia/statab/cats/educat
    ion.html

5
2042
6
2022
7
Poverty
  • Poverty gaps by race narrowed from 1970 to 2000
  • Poverty gaps by race have persisted since 2000
  • U.S. Census Bureau, Income, Poverty, and Health
    Insurance Coverage in the United States 2009,
    Current Population Reports, series P60-238, and
    Historical Tables -- Tables 2 and 6, September
    2010.
  • Accessed online at http//www.census.gov/hhes/www
    /poverty/poverty.html

8
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9
Language
  • Today, over 1 in 5 students (21) speak a
    language other than English at home
  • Limited English Proficient (LEP) students (the
    federal term) have more than doubled from 5 in
    1993 to 11 in 2007
  • National Center for Education Statistics.
    (2011). The condition of education 2011 (NCES
    2011-033). Washington, DC U.S. Department of
    Education.

10
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12
Diversity Persistent Achievement Gaps
  • National Assessment of Educational Progress
    (NAEP) in Science
  • 4th grade
  • 8th grade
  • 12th grade
  • National Center for Education Statistics. (2011).
    The nations report card Science 2009.
    Washington, DC U.S. Department of Education.

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20
Your Thoughts
  • What does the information about changing
    demographics and persistent achievement gaps urge
    you to think about your own practices?

21
Review
  • School-aged students from racial or ethnic
    minority backgrounds will soon become the
    majority in terms of number, although they are
    likely to remain minorities in terms of status.
  • The ELL student population is increasing.
  • Achievement gaps persist.
  • We have kept pace, but how can get ahead of the
    curve (i.e., close the gaps)?

22
National Initiatives
  • 1. Next Generation Science Standards 2.
    Understanding Language

23
Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS)
24
A Mile Wide, An Inch Deep
25
Lots of Work Completed, Underway, and Left To Do
  • Completed Underway Left To Do

26
Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS)
  • A Framework for K-12 Science Education
    Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas
    (National Research Council, 2011) is guiding
    development of NGSS
  • Achieve, Inc. is overseeing the development
  • The design team consists of classroom teachers,
    state and district supervisors, faculty from
    higher education institutions, and
    representatives from the private sector
  • Currently, 26 states have signed with state teams
    to provide feedback to the NGSS design team
  • There will be public release of drafts for
    feedback
  • The first draft of NGSS is expected in early 2013

27
Shifts in the NGSS
  • Standards as performance expectations
  • Science and engineering practices and
    crosscutting concepts are continuums
  • Greater focus on understanding and application of
    content as opposed to memorization of scientific
    facts
  • Science concepts build over K-12
  • Integration of science and engineering
  • Coordination with Common Core State Standards in
    English language arts (ELA) and math

28
Dimension 1 Science and Engineering Practices
  • Ask questions (for science) and define problems
    (for engineering)
  • Develop and use models
  • Plan and carry out investigations
  • Analyze and interpret data
  • Use mathematics and computational thinking
  • Construct explanations (for science) and design
    solutions (for engineering)
  • Engage in argument from evidence
  • Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information

29
Dimension 2 Crosscutting Concepts
  1. Patterns
  2. Cause and effect
  3. Scale, proportion, and quantity
  4. Systems and system models
  5. Energy and matter
  6. Structure and function
  7. Stability and change

30
Dimension 3 Disciplinary Core Ideas
  • Physical sciences
  • Life sciences
  • Earth and space sciences
  • Engineering, technology and applications of
    science

31
Diversity and Equity All Standards, All Students
(Tentative Title)
  • Standards Statements
  • - To reflect diversity and equity issues
  • - To avoid bias
  • Stand-alone Chapter
  • - Context (demographics, achievement, policy)
  • - Implementation (classroom/school,
    home/community)
  • - Teacher professional development
  • Vignettes of Specific Student Groups
  • - Story
  • - Context
  • - Implementation Effective strategies

32
Implications for Diversity and Equity For
Example, Practices
  • From hands-on science, to science inquiry, to
    science and engineering practices
  • Inter-related to one another in the sense-making
    process
  • Relatively unfamiliar to most science teachers
    today and require shifts for teaching
  • Language intensive
  • Common across English language arts (ELA), math,
    science, and other subjects

33
Your Thoughts
  • As we strive to close achievement gaps among
    demographic subgroups, how do you think the Next
    Generation Science Standards will impact science
    education of all students, especially ELLs?

34
Understanding Language Initiative Three Goals
  • Engage in a healthy public dialogue around what
    the CCSS and NGSS imply for English language
    learners (ELLs)
  • Develop exemplars of what CCSS and NGSS-aligned
    instruction looks like
  • Develop a vibrant, inquisitive, engaging online
    community
  • http//ell.stanford.edu

35
  • Dimensions of ELA Standards

Student Portraits 1. Demonstrate independence 2. Build strong content knowledge 3. Respond to the varying demands of audience, task, purpose, and discipline 4. Comprehend as well as critique 5. Value evidence 6. Use technology and digital media strategically and capably 7. Understand other perspectives and cultures Key Features Reading Text complexity and the growth of comprehension Writing Text types, responding to reading, and research Speaking Listening Flexible communication collaboration Language Conventions, effective use, and vocabulary
36
  • Dimensions of Math Standards

Mathematical Practices 1. Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them 2. Reason abstractly and quantitatively 3. Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others 4. Model with mathematics 5. Use appropriate tools strategically 6. Attend to precision 7. Look for and make use of structure 8. Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning Core Ideas K-5 Counting Cardinality (K) Operations Algebraic Thinking Number Operations Fractions (3) Measurement Data Geometry 6-8 Ratios Proportional Relationships Number System Expressions Equations Functions (8) Geometry Statistics Probability 9-12 Number Quantity Algebra Functions Modeling Geometry Statistics Probability
37
  • Three Dimensions of Science Framework

Scientific Engineering Practices 1. Ask questions (for science) and define problems (for engineering) 2. Develop and use models 3. Plan and carry out investigations 4. Analyze and interpret data 5. Use mathematics and computational thinking 6. Construct explanations (for science) and design solutions (for engineering) 7. Engage in argument from evidence 8. Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information Crosscutting Concepts 1. Patterns 2. Cause and effect 3. Scale, proportion and quantity 4. Systems and system models 5. Energy and matter 6. Structure and function 7. Stability and change Core Ideas Physical Sciences Life Sciences Earth and Space Sciences Engineering, Technology and Applications of Science
38
SCIENCE
MATH
M1. Make sense of
S1. Ask questions
S2. Develop and use models
problems persevere in solving them
define problems
S3. Plan carry out
S5. Use mathematics computational thinking
investigations
M6. Attend to precision
M4. Model with mathematics
S4. Analyze interpret
M7. Look for make use of structure
data
E2. Build strong content knowledge E4.
Comprehend as well as critique E5. Value
evidence M2. Reason abstractly
quantitatively M3. Construct viable argument
critique reasoning of others S7. Engage in
argument from evidence S6. Construct explanations
design solutions S8. Obtain, evaluate
communicate information E6. Use technology
digital media M5. Use appropriate tools
strategically
M8. Look for express
regularity in repeated reasoning
E1.Demonstrate independence
E3. Respond to the varying demands of audience,
talk, purpose, discipline
E7. Come to understand other perspectives
cultures
ELA
Source Working Draft, 12-6-11 by Tina Cheuk,
ell.stanford.edu
39
Your Thoughts
  • How can teachers promote science learning
    according to the NGSS while supporting language
    development for ELLs?

40
Promoting Both Science and Language Learning for
ELLs
  • ELLs can participate in classroom discourse
    focused on rich and exciting academic content
  • ELLs learn language best when they engage with
    academic content
  • Focusing on both text and discourse gives ELLs
    opportunities for extended engagement with
    complex ideas

41
What Science Teachers Need to Know and Do with
ELLs
  • Literacy strategies for all students
  • ESOL strategies for ELLs
  • Discourse strategies for ELLs
  • Home language support
  • Home culture connections

42
Literacy Strategies for All Students
  • Incorporate reading and writing strategies
  • Activate prior knowledge
  • Promote comprehension of expository science texts
  • Promote scientific genres of writing
  • Connect science process skills (e.g., describe,
    explain predict, conclude, report) to language
    functions (e.g., explain, compare, contrast)
  • Use graphic organizers (e.g., concept map, word
    wall, Venn diagram, KWL)

43
ESOL Strategies for ELLs
  • Use language support strategies
  • Promote hands-on inquiry
  • Use realia (real objects or events)
  • Encourage multiple modes of representations
    (gestural, oral, pictorial, graphic, textual)
  • Use graphic devices (graphs, charts, tables,
    drawings, pictures)
  • Use a small number of key terms in multiple
    contexts

44
Discourse Strategies for ELLs
  • Reduce language load while maintaining the rigor
    of science content and process
  • Recognize ELLs varying levels of developing
    language proficiency and adjust norms of
    interaction with a student accordingly
  • Build students understanding and discourse
    skills (e.g., from it is foggy to water
    vapor condenses into little water drops)
  • Encourage students to share ideas, even as the
    process reveals flaws in a model or explanation,
    or flawed use of language (flawed English)

45
Home Language Support
  • Use home language support
  • Present science terms in multiple languages in
    the beginning of each lesson
  • Use cognates (and highlight false cognates) in
    home language
  • Allow code-switching
  • Allow ELLs to discuss the lesson in class using
    their home language
  • Encourage bilingual students to assist less
    English proficient students in their home
    language
  • Allow ELLs to write about activities in home
    language

46
Home Culture Connections
  • Incorporate the ways students cultural
    experiences influence science instruction
  • Build on students lived experiences at home and
    in the community (i.e., funds of knowledge)
  • Explore culturally-based ways students
    communicate and interact in their home and
    community (i.e., cultural congruence)
  • Use students cultural artifacts, culturally
    relevant examples, and community resources
  • Use texts with content that is familiar to ELLs

47
Take Home Message
  • Changing demographics
  • Persistent achievement gaps
  • High academic rigor through the NGSS
  • Both language demands and learning opportunities
    through the NGSS
  • A new set of teachers knowledge and practices to
    enable all students, particularly ELLs, learn
    science according to the NGSS

48
Thank you!
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