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Nutrition

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Nutrition Objective: Analyze the function of nutrients Analyze dietary guidelines Identify characteristics and treatment of common eating disorders. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Nutrition


1
Nutrition
  • Objective
  • Analyze the function of nutrients
  • Analyze dietary guidelines
  • Identify characteristics and treatment of common
    eating disorders.

2
Nutrients Are
  • Water
  • Carbohydrates
  • Lipids
  • Proteins
  • Minerals
  • Vitamins
  • Fiber

3
Water
  • Essential nutrient
  • 55-65 body weight
  • Body loses water through evaporation, excretion,
    and respiration
  • The only nutrient we sense a need for---- Thirst

4
Carbohydrates
  • Monosaccharide simple sugar glucose
  • Disaccharide double sugar
  • Polysaccharides complex sugar
  • Main source of energy for the body
  • CALORIE unit that measures the amount of energy
    contained within the chemical bonds of different
    foods

5
Carbohydrate cont.
  • Empty calories found in foods like candy, cake,
    cookies that have no nutritional value
  • Complex carbohydrates containing starch and
    cellulose are healthier they supply ROUGHAGE
    the indigestible part of food.

6
Lipids
  • Source of energy twice as many calories as the
    same amount of carbohydrate or protein
  • Stored fat provides energy during emergencies
  • Body fat cushions internal organs
  • Body fat insulates against the cold
  • Fat carry fat-soluble vitamins

7
Cholesterol
  • Fat in animal products like meat, cheese, eggs
  • Excess cholesterol in the body will start to
    build up inside the artery walls causing
    atherosclerosis
  • Recommended blood level under 200 mg/dl
  • HDL High Density Lipoprotein good, removes
    excess cholesterol from the cells and carries it
    back to liver to be broken down/eliminated
  • LDL Low Density Lipoprotein carry fat to cells

8
Proteins
  • Many functions
  • Enzymes
  • Source of energy
  • Muscles, hormones, clotting, antibiotics all
    depend on proteins
  • AMINO ACIDS building blocks of proteins
  • Proteins that contain all amino acids are
    COMPLETE PROTEINS milk, eggs, meat

9
Proteins Cont.
  • Proteins that do not contain all amino acids are
    INCOMPLETE PROTEINS vegetables, beans, wheat
  • Cant store excess amino acids excreted as urea
  • Adults in US eat too much protein puts extra
    burden on liver and kidney which must eliminate
    urea from body.

10
Minerals and Trace Elements
Mineral Trace Elements Fluorine Iodine Iron
From inorganic compounds in food, many necessary form human growth and maintenance Most important are sodium, potassium, calcium iron Present in very small amounts, toxic levels are close to healthy levels. Most minerals present in average adult diet In drinking water, needed for bones and teeth In shellfish and iodized salt, needed to make thyroid hormone In liver, lean meats, needed to make hemoglobin
11
Vitamins
  • Vitamin- biologically active organic compound
  • Function as coenzyme for normal health and
    growth, some behave like hormones
  • A,D,E,K fat soluble vitamins can be stored by
    the body
  • B vitamins, pantothenic acid, folic acid, biotin
    and Vitamin C water soluble cant be stored,
    excess excreted by body

12
Fiber
  • Found in plant foods like whole-grain breads,
    cereals, beans, and peas, other vegetables and
    fruit
  • Eating a variety of plant food important for
    proper bowel function, may lower the risk of
    heart disease and some cancers.

13
Definitions
  • (RDA) Recommended dietary allowances
  • Chart that lists recommended intake of vitamins
    and minerals
  • Basal Metabolic Rate
  • Amount of energy needed to maintain life when the
    body is at rest
  • Metabolism- use of food nutrients by the body to
    produce energy

14
Food Guide Pyramid
  • The food guide pyramid was redesigned in 2005. A
    rainbow of colored, vertical stripes represent
    the five food groups, as well as fats and oils.
  • Orange- grains
  • Green -vegetables
  • Red -fruits
  • Blue -milk and dairy products
  • Purple -meat, beans, fish, and nuts
  • Yellow -oils

15
  • The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) changed
    the pyramid because they wanted to do a better
    job of telling Americans how to be healthy. They
    guy climbing the staircase up the side of the
    pyramid shows how important it is to exercise and
    be active.

16
Nutrition Labeling
  • FDA requires nutrition labeling for most foods
    Includes information on calories, nutrient
    contents
  • Includes recommended daily allowances of
    nutrients.

17
Regular Diet Balanced diet no restrictions
Liquid Diet Clear or full liquid Used after surgery or heart attack For pts. With digestive problems or before x-ray of digestive tract.
Low Cholesterol For pts. With atherosclerosis and heart disease Restrict foods high in saturated fat such as beef, liver, pork, lamb, egg yolk, cream cheese, shellfish, and whole milk
Sodium Restricted Reduced salt intake for pts with cardiovascular disease and kidney disease and edema NO added salt and avoid smoked or processed foods, pickles, olives, and some processed cheese.
Bland Diet Easily digested foods that dont irritate digestive tract Avoid fried foods, spices raw fruits and vegs., coffee or tea, alcoholic and carbonated beverages For pts with ulcers or GI disease
18
Guidelines for a Healthy Diet
  1. Eat a variety of foods
  2. Maintain desirable weight
  3. Avoid too much fat, saturated fat (animal fat)
    and cholesterol
  4. Eat foods with adequate starch and fiber
    (roughage)
  5. Avoid too much sugar
  6. Avoid too much sodium
  7. Dont drink alcohol!

19
Eating Disorders
  • Obesity
  • Most common nutritional disease
  • Weighs 15 more than optimal body weight for
    gender, height, and bone structure
  • Obesity affects physical and mental health
  • Causes- taking in more calories than are burned

20
Anorexia Nervosa
  • Serious mental disorder, mostly in teenage
    females
  • Criteria for diagnosis
  • Intense fear of becoming obese that does not go
    away with wt. loss
  • Distorted body image( feels fat even when
    emaciated)
  • Weight loss of at least 25 of original body
    weight
  • Refusal to maintain minimal normal wt.
  • No known physical illness
  • Amenorrhea

21
Bulimia
  • Episodic binge eating followed by PURGING
    (vomiting and laxative abuse)
  • Usually women, older than teens

22
Definitions
  • Anorexia loss of appetite
  • Malnutrition State of poor nutrition due to diet
    or illness
  • Fluorine Deficiency tooth decay
  • Iodine Deficiency Goiter (enlarged thyroid)
  • Iron Deficiency Anemia
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