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Performance Nutrition

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Title: Sports Nutrition for the Adolescent Athlete Author: BarbAmyOlson Last modified by: macalester Created Date: 3/22/2005 11:43:21 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Performance Nutrition


1
Performance Nutrition
  • Carrie Peterson MS, RD, LD, CSSD
  • cmpeters_at_umn.edu

2
Brief History of Sports Nutrition
  • Documentation of special foods and nutrition
    strategies dating WAY back.
  • Greek Olympians in 300BC used specific mushrooms
    to enhance performance
  • In 1800s Dutch swimmers used caffeine before
    races, Belgian swimmers dipped sugar cubes in
    ether before racing.

3
Brief History of Sports Nutrition
  • Evolution of Gatorade in 1960s by 4 physicians
    at the University of Florida to help the football
    team. Initially met with skepticism that taking
    in sugar and salt could be beneficial it caught
    on fast!
  • Late 1980s some colleges, university and
    professional teams began hiring and consulting
    with RD
  • Well-known athletes started crediting nutrition
    with their success.

4
Brief History of Sports Nutrition
  • Lab-Based Sports Nutrition research started in
    1960s at Ball State University under direction
    of Dr. David Costill
  • Effects of nutrition on performance, muscle
    biopsies, gastric emptying studies.

5
Completing the Puzzle
Training
Rest/Recovery
Supplementation
Treatment
Diet/Nutrition
6
What InfluencesAthletic Ability?
  • Genetic Endowment
  • Optimal Training
  • Good Nutrition
  • No secret ingredient!

7
Performance Nutrition Means
  • Fueling to boost activity performance on a daily
    basis
  • Fueling to decrease the risk of injuries, recover
    fully after workouts and stay healthy
  • Fueling with foods that taste good, foods you
    enjoy, foods that can be prepared easily, and
    foods you feel confident eating

8
Consequences of Poor Nutrition
  • Weight loss
  • Strength loss
  • Lethargy
  • Chronic Fatigue
  • Soreness, joint pain
  • Micronutrient Deficit
  • Respiratory Infections
  • Diminished Performance
  • Overtraining Syndrome

9
Physical Activity Factor Varies Widely
  • Examples
  • Female Olympic Gymnasts
  • 1900 kcal/day
  • Tour de France Cyclists
  • 7,000 kcal/day
  • College Football Players (in wt gain mode)
  • 7,500-8,500 kcal/day

10
  • Marvin Austin
    Jordan Hasay
  • 63, 312 pounds 51,
    98 pounds
  • 21 years old
    19 years old
  • 4.69 40 yd dash
    442.21 mile

11
Energy Needs
  • Basic Calorie Requirement

15-30 kcal/
12
Calorie Needs for Athletes
Calories expended RMR TEF PA
Calories Consumed
Calories Expended
Rule of Thumb Walk or run 1 mile 100 kcals
burned
13
Energy Needs
  • Calories/ 120
    160 240
  • LOW - sedentary 1560- 1800
    2080-2400 3120-3600
  • ACTVE (30-60min) 1920-2160
    2560-1880 3840-4320
  • MODERATE (1-1.5hr) 2280-2520
    3040-3360 4560-5040
  • HIGH (1.5-2hr) 2640-2880
    3520-3840 5280-5760
  • VERY HIGH (2-3hr) 3000-3600
    4000-4800 6000-7200

14
Carbohydrates (CHO) Fuel Muscle
  • A muscle is like a sponge
  • Keep muscles full of fuel
  • Carbohydrates reach muscles quickly
  • Substrate used to form Glycogen
  • Glycogen is the PRIMARY energy source

15
The Effect of Diet on Physical Endurance
Maximum endurance time
Fat and protein diet
57 min
Normal mixed diet
114 min
High-carbohydrate diet
167 min
16
Carbohydrate
  • THE CHALLENGE?
  • Maintain CHO supply to muscles and slow its
    depletion by using fat as fuel

17
Carbohydrates FUEL
  • Carbohydrate Needs
  • 30 minutes moderate exercise 4-6 gm/kg (1.8-2.7
    gm/)
  • 1 hour intense training/day 7gm/kg (3gm/)
  • 1-2 hours intense training/day 8-9 gm/kg
    (3.5-4gm/)
  • 2-4 hours intense training/day 9-10gm/kg (4-4.5
    gm/)
  • Ultra endurance athlete gt12gm/kg (5.5gm/)

150-lb student who does
Aerobics classes 300 gm/day
165 Pound Soccer Player
675 gm/day
18
Sample Athlete
  • Male soccer player
  • Training 2-3 hours/day
  • 165 lbs 75kg
  • 9gm CHO/kg
  • 675 gm CHO

19
What does 675gm of CHO mean to an athlete?
  • 2 large bagels 70g
  • 2 cups cereal 90g
  • 2 slices bread 30g
  • 2 cups milk 25g
  • 1 cup fruit yogurt 45g
  • 2 cups pasta/sauce 100g
  • 1 cup beans 45g
  • 2 pc fruit 50g
  • 1 cup fruit juice 30g
  • 2 starchy veggies 60g
  • 4 cups Sport Drink 60g
  • 20oz Soda 70g
  • 675g

20
Protein
  • Role in Exercise?
  • Muscle growth and repair
  • Supplies 10 of fuel when glycogen stores are low
  • Supplies 5 of fuel when glycogen stores are high
  • Aids in repair/recovery following muscle damage

21
Individuals with Higher Protein Needs
  • New training program
  • Energy Restriction
  • Diet or extreme expenditure
  • Vegetarians
  • Disease
  • Injury rehab
  • Young or old athletes

These arent the people typically using
protein supplements!
22
Protein for Tissue and Muscle Building and Repair
Protein Needs 1.2 to 1.7 g/kg (0.5 0.8g/)
  • Some research supports up to 2 gm/day
  • Protein intake and timing of protein intake are
    both important for increasing lean muscle mass
  • Eating protein several times a day may enhance
    availability of amino acids during workout
  • Going into strength workouts well nourished may
    enhance strength gains and decrease protein
    losses
  • Refueling immediately after workouts with a
    carbohydrate/protein mix is essential for
    strength gains

23
Vegetarian Athletes
  • Vegetarian athletes (like others) must learn to
    complement proteins
  • Vitamin B12, calcium, iron, and zinc
  • Eating enough calories can be difficult
  • Vegetarian diets are in bulk in
    calories

24
Nutrition MISTAKE
  • Thinking that.
  • All vegetarian athletes are healthy eaters
  • Some vegetarian athletes suffer less heart
    disease, cancers, high BP, and DM but studies
    show it is more likely to be from a generally
    healthier lifestyle
  • Vegetarian diets can be unhealthy if meat and
    other animal products are not substituted by
    nutritionally appropriate foods
  • Vegetarian athletes need to pay particular
    attention to iron intake because iron from plant
    sources is more difficult for the body to absorb!

25
2,500 kcal Vegetarian Meal Plan
  • Breakfast
  • 1 cup iron-fortified cereal (5mg)
  • 1 cup skim milk or soy milk
  • 12oz Orange Juice (vitamin C)
  • Lunch
  • Spinach Salad w ¼ c sunflower seeds Drg (7mg)
  • Veggie Burger w cheese on bun (3mg)
  • 1 fruit yogurt (vit C)
  • Snack
  • 2 oatmeal raisin cookies (3mg)
  • Dinner
  • Tofu/Broccoli stir fry or 2 slices cheese pizza
    (6mg)
  • 1 cup rice (1mg)
  • 1 cup ice cream

Iron from plant sources Contains 25 mg iron
26
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28
Vitamins Minerals Which Are Most Important?
  • Antioxidants A,C,E
  • Blood-building nutrients (folic acid, B12, iron)
  • Calcium
  • Thiamin, riboflavin, niacin
  • Sodium electrolytes

29
Nutrition MISTAKE
  • Thinking that.
  • Vitamins and minerals give athletes extra energy
    they need to compete
  • Act as co-factors to unlock the chemical energy
    stored in food
  • Meals rich in grains, vegetables, fruit, meat and
    dairy give athletes energy
  • Multi vitamin/mineral supplement may be necessary
    for some as an insurance policy

30
Iron Calcium
  • Both
  • Increased small losses in athletes in sweat
    urine.
  • Calcium
  • Increased risk of stress fractures
  • (stress fractures account for 15 of all
    running injuries)
  • Decreased bone-mineral content density
  • Most girls age 12-19 consume 790mg/day
  • 50 of adult women consume lt 700mg
  • (Exercise Sport
    Science Review, 2006)

31
Popular Vitamins for Athletes
  • Mega Men
  • 20 vitamins Minerals listed
  • 11 in amounts gt 100 US RDA
  • 3 in amounts gt 1000 US RDA
  • 18 other substances
  • Some interact with corticosteroids,
    anti-coagulants, antiplatelet agents

32
Vitamins for Athletes
  • Look for no more than 100 USRDA of any one
    vitamin or mineral
  • Take only one each day

33
Hydration
34
Components of Muscle
20 Protein
75 Water
5 other
35
Fluids Hydration
  • Males - 60 body wt.
  • Females - 50 body wt.
  • Cardiovascular function
  • Thermoregulation
  • Injury prevention
  • Performance
  • Recovery
  • Sweat losses during 2 hours of exercise can 2
    liters or more

36
Physiological Effects of Dehydration
  • sweat rate blood volume
    heart rate
  • core body heat
  • cardiovascular function
  • -less O2 and nutrient-rich blood to
    muscles
  • -more reliance on anaerobic system
  • Slower removal of wastes cramping,
    fatigue

37
Impaired Performance!
  • Muscle strength
  • Speed
  • Stamina
  • Energy
  • Cognitive Process
  • Risk of Injury

95 of muscle cramps are due to dehydration!
38
Sweat Loss and Fatigue
  • Sweat loss in athletes 1-12
    quarts/day!
  • Sweat Rate Equation
  • 2 hour workout.. Pre weight 180.0
  • Post weight 178
  • Fluid Intake 32oz of water and
    sports drink
  • 140-13832 ounces of fluid lost 32 ounces
    consumed 64 ounces of sweat loss per 2 hours or
    32 ounces loss per hour!
  • This is an example to drink at least 8 ounces of
    fluid every 15 minutes or double current intake

39
When Should You Drink?
  • WHEN TO DRINK
    AMOUNT OF FLUID
  • 2 hr before exercise
    2-3 cups
  • 15 minutes before
    1-2 cups
  • Every 15 minutes DURING
    1-1.5 cups
  • After Activity 2-3 cups
    for every lb lost

ACSM Position Paper, 2006
40
What you already know
  • Dont rely on thirst
  • Already 1-2 dehydrated
  • Drink before, during after
  • 2 hrs before 14-24 oz
  • 20-36 oz/hr or 5-12 oz every 15 mins.
  • drink 150 or 24oz / lost
  • Water is fine for lt1 hr sport drinks gt 1 hr
  • 4-8 carb, 0.5-0.7 g Na/L
  • pop, fruit juices or fruit drinks gt10 may ?
    emptying

41
Dehydration
  • Planned rehydration is necessary
  • ? typically only 1/3 to 2/3 of the volume lost
    is replaced voluntarily
  • Hockey player ave. loss of 3-5
  • 1 weight loss 16 oz. of fluid
  • 160 player loses 5 ? 8
  • 8 ? requires 128 oz of fluid to equal loss
  • 6 ? 20 oz sport bottles 128oz 3.8L
  • actually recommend 150 ?
  • 10 20oz-sport bottles 5.9 L

42
Nutrition MISTAKE
  • Thinking that.
  • Sports drinks are only needed for exercise
    lasting more than an hour
  • Not always true if the activity is intense
    occurs in hot, humid conditions
  • Sports drinks actually drive thirst
  • Very easy way to improve performance, fight
    dehydration, and decrease recovery time

43
Sport Drinks per 8 oz serving
  • All Sport HFCS 20g 8 80 mg Na
  • Power Ade HFCS 19g 8 55
  • Gatorade sucrose/ 15g 6 110
  • glucose
  • PRSolution fructose 30g 12.5 50
  • maltodextrins/
  • Succeed Ultra sucrose/ 14g 6 trace
  • maltodextrins
  • Red Bull sucrose/ 28g 12 215
  • glucose
  • Coke HFCS 27g 11 35
  • Orange juice fructose/ 29 12 trace
  • glucose

44
Energy Drinks?
300mg caffeine!
WHAT ABOUT.
  • Different from Sports Drinks
  • Contain caffeine, other stimulants, sugar, herbs
    and vitamins
  • Safety concerns for athletes!
  • Use nutrition, hydration, and lifestyle changes
    to improve energy level

45
Hyponatremia
  • Fluid/electrolyte disorder that occurs when Na
    level in blood is below normal (lt136 mEq/L)
  • Headache, malaise, confusion, swollen hands and
    feet, wheezy breathing
  • Can lead to seizures, coma, death in severe cases
  • Potential causes include Excessive sweating,
    excessive Na losses in sweat, over drinking up to
    or during event, replacing sweat losses with only
    H2O, Intentional Urine Dilution (before drug
    testing)

46
Hyponatremia and Women
  • Women MAY be more susceptible than men although
    the data is inconclusive
  • Females are more diligent drinkers
  • Female athletes are more likely to heed advice
    (exceed?) from coaches, experts
  • One theory Estrogen inhibits an enzyme
    responsible for helping the brain shed excess H2O

47
2007 Chicago Marathon
  • Exceptionally hot and humid day for October (88
    degrees, 86 humidity at 10 am)
  • Race was stopped at 3 ½ hour mark
  • 250 racers hospitalized for heat related
    ailments
  • Water stations ran out of water early
  • Very limited sports drinks

48
Pre-Exercise Fuel
  • Pre-exercise fuel should
  • Provide energy to working muscles
  • Maximize blood sugar and glycogen stores
  • Provide a psychological edge
  • Minimize hunger during play
  • Maximize hydration
  • Be individualized

49
Pre-Exercise Fuel
  • Meals should be 2/3 normal size
  • Meals 3-4 hours before competition
  • Snacks 1-2 hours before competition
  • The closer they are to competition, rely more on
    liquids and small snacks
  • CHO AMOUNT RECOMMENDED
  • 1 hour before 0.5 gm CHO/
  • 2 hours before 0.5-1.0gm CHO/
  • 3-4 hours before 1.0-1.5gm CHO/

50
Carbohydrate guidelines
  • Pre-event ? 1-2 g/kg 1-2 hrs prior or 4-
    5 g/kg 3-4 hrs prior
  • During ?1 g/min later in exercise or
    40-65 g/hr or .5-1.0 g/kg/hr
  • Sport drink
  • After ? .75-1.6 g/kg/hr

51
Timing of protein carbohydrate
  • To enhance protein synthesis in muscle and
    replace glycogen stores
  • Dont exercise in fasted state
  • Eat immediately after exercise window of
    opportunity
  • 6-8 g protein 1-1.5g CHO/kg BW within 30
    minutes 1 oz meat, 1 c milk, 1 Power Bar, OR
    1/2c mac cheese 50 carb
  • 6-10g CHO/kg BW per 24 hours

52
Recovery
  • Defined Helping athletes bounce back for future
    exercise bouts
  • Considerations
  • Intensity of exercise
  • When will athlete exercise again?
  • Nutrition Recovery Goals
  • Glycogen restoration
  • Fluid electrolyte replacement
  • Muscle repair and adaptation

53
Refueling after Exercise
  • VERY Important for Athletes
  • For those in multiple events in one day
  • For those training daily
  • Window for Refueling
  • First 30 minutes after exercise is critical
  • Glycogen repletion occurs faster after exercise
  • Increased blood flow to the muscle
  • Enzymes that produce glycogen are most active

54
Refueling after Exercise
  • Facts
  • Muscles replace glycogen _at_ 5 /hour
  • 20-24 hrs post exercise to maximally replenish
    glycogen stores
  • How?
  • 0.5 g / kg CHO immediately after activity
  • 0.5 g / kg CHO in next 90 min.
  • Rest

55
Nutrition MISTAKE
  • Thinking that.
  • Sports shakes, bars, and drinks can replace a
    balanced diet
  • Sports foods can provide an effective, convenient
    method for the athlete to boost his/her nutrient
    needs during training and competition.
  • Missing key nutrients including phytochemicals,
    antioxidants, and fiber.

56
Bigger and Stronger
  • 1950
    1975 2000
  • Average Height
  • Of pro BB player 63 65
    67
  • Average weight
  • Of pro FB player 209 225
    244

Source ESPN
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58
In the recent media.
  • Over 50 of the 2100 active NFL players were
    obese with a BMI over 30 (2004)
  • JAMA 2005
  • No body comp, data taken from websites
  • 40 of top high school football recruits weighed
    in gt300 pounds
  • Scripps Howard News Service 2006

59
Yet, What do we do for the BIG Guys?
  • EDUCATE them about increased risk for heat
    illness, asthma, future obesity, cardiac death
  • Emphasize gain LBM
  • Assess body composition, performance parameters,
    injuries
  • Teach that bigger is not necessarily better (OK
    if genentics support)
  • Make health a priority or at least on the radar

60
First Things First
  • Must eat breakfast everyday
  • Eat every 3-4 hours to keep blood sugar level
  • Stay hydrated through day

61
If we could give every individual the right
amount of nourishment and exercise, not too
little and not too much, we would have found the
safest way to health." Hippocrates c.
460 - 377 BC
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