Chapter 9 Infant Nutrition: Conditions and Interventions - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Chapter 9 Infant Nutrition: Conditions and Interventions PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 75f2c2-NzZhZ



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Chapter 9 Infant Nutrition: Conditions and Interventions

Description:

Chapter 9 Infant Nutrition: Conditions and Interventions Nutrition Through the Life Cycle Judith E. Brown ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:69
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 33
Provided by: Cols9
Learn more at: http://csulancb12.files.wordpress.com
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Chapter 9 Infant Nutrition: Conditions and Interventions


1
Chapter 9Infant NutritionConditions and
Interventions
Nutrition Through the Life Cycle Judith E. Brown
2
Key Terms
  • Children with Special Health Care Needs
    Infants, children or adolescents with, or at risk
    for, a physical or developmental disability, or
    with a chronic medical condition
  • Low-Birthweight (LBW) Weighing lt2500 g
  • Very Low Birthweight (VLBW) lt1500 g
  • Extremely Low Birthweight (ELBW) lt1000 g

3
Infants at Risk
  • Key questions regarding infants
  • How is the baby growing?
  • Is the diet providing all required nutrients?
  • How is the infant being fed?

4
Infants at Risk
  • Families of infants with special health care
    needs should be considered
  • Emotional impact of having sick newborn may be
    overwhelming to parents
  • Healthcare providers must be sensitive to
    parents emotional needs

5
Energy and Nutrient Needs
  • Energy Needs
  • May be the same, more or less depending on the
    special needs
  • Increased calories required for
  • Difficulty breathing Infections
  • Temperature regulation Fever
  • Recovery from surgery
  • Decreased calories recommended for spina bifida
    or Down syndrome

6
Energy and Nutrient Needs
  • Energy Needs
  • AAP suggests 120 cal/kg for preterm infants
  • The European Society for Gastoenterology and
    Nutrition gives a caloric range of 95-165 cal/kg
  • Recovering infants may need as much as 180 cal/kg

7
Energy and Nutrient Needs
  • Protein Requirements
  • 2.2 g/kg adequate if growth or digestion are not
    affected
  • 3.0-3.5 g/kg required for preterm or recovery
    from illness
  • 4 g/kg may be needed for ELBW
  • Form of protein
  • Hydrolyzed protein or single amino acid formulas
  • Specific amino acid formulas such as for PKU

8
Energy and Nutrient Needs
  • Fats
  • Provide up to 55 calories from fat
  • Low-fat diet rarely required
  • Medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) beneficial to
    VLBW and ELBW infants because of low pancreatic
    and liver enzymes
  • Essential fatty acids and DHA and AA important

9
Energy and Nutrient Needs
  • Vitamins and Minerals
  • May need additional vitamins and minerals to
    support catch-up growth or during recovering
    from illness
  • Human-milk fortifiers provide additional calories
    and nutrients
  • Preterm infant formulas may have higher amounts
    of vitamins and minerals

10
Growth
  • Tracking growth reflects nutritional status for
    most infants
  • Additional methods to use if underlining
    conditions exist include
  • Growth charts for specific conditions
  • Biochemical indicators
  • Body composition
  • Head circumference
  • Medications that impact growth

11
Growth
  • Growth in Preterm Infants
  • Neonatal Research Network Growth Observational
    Study Research Network tracks infant BW between
    501 and 1501 g
  • Infant Health and Development Growth Charts
  • For LBW Premature
  • For VLBW Premature
  • Correction for Gestational Age
  • Gestation-adjusted age calculated by subtracting
    GA at birth from 40 weeks

12
Growth
  • Does Intrauterine Growth Predict Outside Growth?
  • Depends on
  • Intrauterine environment
  • Fetal origins theory
  • Other factors like air pollution
  • Interpretation of growth
  • Based on a pattern of weight gain

13
Growth
  • Interpretation of Growth
  • Rate of growth frequently used to measure
    improvement in preterm or sick infants
  • Microcephaly or macrocephaly may affect body
    composition and growth
  • Great variability in growth of infants

14
Nutrition for Infants with Special Health Care
Needs
  • Health conditions in infants interfere with
    growth and development
  • Nutrition plays an important role in
  • Preventing illness
  • Maintaining health
  • Treating conditions in infancy

15
Nutrition for Infants with Special Health Care
Needs
16
Common Nutritional Problems
  • Nutrition Risks to Development
  • Developmental delaysrange of symptoms reflecting
    slow development such as
  • Slow growth and/or
  • Feeding problem

17
Common Nutritional Problems
  • Down syndrome
  • Incidence is 13 per 10,000 live births
  • Developmental delays seen in infancy
  • Nutrition concerns include
  • Weak facial muscles cause feeding difficulty
  • Overweight commonclose monitoring of growth
  • Low amount of movement resulting in reduced
    caloric needs

18
Severe Preterm Birth and Nutrition
  • Incidence and prognosis
  • About 60,000 VLBW born in U.S. each year
  • Survival rate 90
  • Nutrition support generally required
  • High metabolic rates
  • Preterm infants fed by nutrition support
  • Parenteralnutrients delivered directly to the
    bloodstream
  • Enteralnutrients delivered directly to GI tract

19
Severe Preterm Birth and Nutrition
  • How sick babies are fed
  • Conditions that require parenteral feeding
  • Gastrointestinal problems may interfere with oral
    feeding
  • Damage or inflammation to GI tract from
    necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC)

20
Severe Preterm Birth and Nutrition
  • How sick babies are fed
  • Conditions that require enteral feeding
  • Gastrointestinal reflux, constipation, spitting
    up, vomiting, etc.
  • Types of enteral tube feeding
  • Oral-gastric (OG)
  • Transpyloric
  • Gastrostomy
  • Jejunostomy

21
Severe Preterm Birth and Nutrition
  • Food Safety
  • Vital for preterm infants with immature immune
    systems

22
Severe Preterm Birth and Nutrition
  • What to feed preterm infants
  • Breastmilk
  • Human-milk fortifier
  • Preterm infant formulas
  • Vary in caloric content
  • MCT oil
  • Whey protein

23
Severe Preterm Birth and Nutrition
24
Severe Preterm Birth and Nutrition
25
Severe Preterm Birth and Nutrition
  • Preterm infants and feeding
  • Challenges in feeding VLBW or ELBW infants
    include
  • Fatigue
  • Low tolerance of volume
  • Disorganized feeding

26
Infants with Congenital Abnormalities and Chronic
Illness
  • GI tract disorders
  • Diaphragmatic hernia displacement of the
    intestines up into the lungs
  • Tracheoesophageal atresia incomplete connection
    between the esophagus and the stomach
  • Cleft lip and palate upper lip and roof or
    mouth are not formed completely

27
Infants with Congenital Abnormalities and Chronic
Illness
  • Genetic disorders
  • Small subset of congenital anomalies
  • Includes
  • Galactosemia
  • Maple syrup urine disease
  • Urea cycle disorders
  • Fat-related and carbohydrate disorders
  • Disorders sensitive to high-dose vitamins
  • Renal or Bone genetic disorders

28
Feeding Problems
  • Seen in 40-45 of VLBW infants
  • Feeding problems may cause frustration to
    families
  • Recommendations for introducing solids and
    weaning with preterm infants are based on
    corrected gestational age
  • Table 9.5 lists Signs of feeding problems in
    high-risk infants

29
Nutrition Interventions
  • Frequent growth assessment
  • Monitor intake
  • Adjust feeding frequency/volume
  • Adjust timing or nursing, snacks or meals
  • Assess feeding position and support
  • Nutrient density to facilitate eating
  • Parent education
  • Observe parent-infant interactions
  • Consider developmental abilities

30
Infant Formulas for Special Needs
  • Special infant formulas may be used for some
    conditions.

31
(No Transcript)
32
(No Transcript)
About PowerShow.com