The chapter will address the following questions: - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

About This Presentation
Title:

The chapter will address the following questions:

Description:

The chapter will address the following questions: What is the systems implementation process in terms of the construction and delivery phases of the life cycle? – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:67
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 59
Provided by: anvariNet3
Category:

less

Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: The chapter will address the following questions:


1
Introduction
  • The chapter will address the following questions
  • What is the systems implementation process in
    terms of the construction and delivery phases of
    the life cycle?
  • Can you describe the systems implementation
    phases in terms of your information building
    blocks?
  • Can you describe the systems implementation
    phases in terms of purpose, activities, roles,
    inputs and outputs, techniques, and steps?

2
What is Systems Implementation?
  • What is Systems Implementation?
  • Systems implementation is the construction of the
    new system and the delivery of that system into
    production (meaning day-to-day operation).

3
(No Transcript)
4
The Construction Phase of Systems Implementation
  • Introduction
  • The purpose of the construction phase is twofold
  • To build and test a functional system that
    fulfills business and design requirements, and
  • To implement the interfaces between the new
    system and existing production systems.
  • The project team must construct the database,
    application programs, user and system interfaces,
    and networks.
  • Some of these elements may already exist (subject
    to enhancement).

5
(No Transcript)
6
(No Transcript)
7
The Construction Phase of Systems Implementation
  • Activity Build and Test Networks (if Necessary)
  • Purpose
  • The purpose of this activity is to build and test
    new networks and modify existing networks for use
    by the new system.
  • Roles
  • This activity will normally be completed by the
    same system specialists that designed the
    network(s).
  • System Owners and system users - not involved
    in this activity.
  • System analyst - The systems analysts role is
    more in terms of a facilitator and ensures that
    business requirements are not compromised by the
    network solution.
  • Network designer - The network designer is a
    specialist in the design of local and wide area
    networks and their connectivity.

8
The Construction Phase of Systems Implementation
  • Activity Build and Test Networks (if Necessary)
  • Roles (continued)
  • System builders.
  • Network administrator - This person has the
    expertise for building and testing network
    technology for the new system. He/she will also
    be familiar with network architecture standards
    that must be adhered to for any possible new
    networking technology.
  • Prerequisites (Inputs)
  • This activity is triggered by the approval from
    the system owners to continue the project into
    systems design.
  • The key input is the network design requirements
    defined during systems design.

9
The Construction Phase of Systems Implementation
  • Activity Build and Test Networks (if Necessary)
  • Deliverables (Outputs)
  • The principle deliverable of this activity is an
    installed network that is placed into operation.
  • Network details will be recorded in the project
    repository for future reference.
  • Applicable Techniques
  • Skills for developing networks are becoming an
    increasingly important skill for systems analyst
    -- especially given the industry trend toward
    downsizing existing applications.

10
The Construction Phase of Systems Implementation
  • Activity Build and Test Networks (if Necessary)
  • Steps
  • The following steps are suggested to complete
    this activity.
  • Step 1 - Review the network design requirements
    outlined in the technical design statement
    developed during systems design.
  • Step 2 - Make any appropriate modifications to
    existing networks and/or develop new networks.
  • Step 3 - Revise network specifications for future
    reference.

11
The Construction Phase of Systems Implementation
  • Activity Build and Test Databases
  • This task must immediately precede other
    programming activities because databases are the
    resources shared by the computer programs to be
    written.
  • Purpose
  • The purpose of this activity is to build and test
    new databases and modify existing databases for
    use by the new system.
  • Roles
  • This activity will typically be completed by the
    same system specialist that designed the
    databases.
  • System owner and system users - are not involved
    in this activity.
  • Systems analyst - (optional) When the database to
    be build is a non-corporate, applications-oriented
    database the systems analyst often completes
    this activity.

12
The Construction Phase of Systems Implementation
  • Activity Build and Test Databases
  • Roles (continued)
  • System designers - The system designer will often
    times become the system builder responsible for
    the completion of this activity.
  • System builder - is primarily responsible for
    this activity.
  • Database administer - When the database to be
    build is a corporate database, the database
    administrator will be play a large role in
    completing this activity.
  • Prerequisites (Inputs)
  • The primary input to this activity is the
    database design requirements specified in the
    technical design statement during systems design.
  • Sample data from production databases may be
    loaded into tables for testing the databases.

13
The Construction Phase of Systems Implementation
  • Activity Build and Test Databases
  • Deliverables (Outputs)
  • The end-product of this activity is an
    unpopulated database structure for new database.
  • The term unpopulated means that the database
    structure is implemented but that data has not
    been loaded into the database structure.
  • Revised database schema and test data details are
    also produced during this activity and placed in
    the project repository for future reference.

14
The Construction Phase of Systems Implementation
  • Activity Build and Test Databases
  • Applicable Techniques
  • Sampling. Sampling methods are used to obtain
    representative data for testing database tables.
  • Data Modeling. This activity requires a good
    understanding of data modeling.
  • Database Design. Understanding database design
    requirements is essential for completing this
    phase.
  • Steps
  • The following steps are suggested to complete
    this activity.
  • Step 1 - Review the technical design statement
    for database design requirements.

15
The Construction Phase of Systems Implementation
  • Activity Build and Test Databases
  • Steps (continued)
  • Step 2 - Locate production databases that may
    contain representative data for testing database
    tables. Otherwise, generate test data for
    database tables.
  • Step 3 - Build/modify databases per design
    specifications.
  • Step 4 - Load tables with sample data.
  • Step 5 - Test database tables and relationships
    to adding, modifying, deleting, and retrieving
    records. All possible relationships paths and
    data integrity checks should be tested.
  • Step 6 - Revise database schema and as necessary
    for future reference.

16
The Construction Phase of Systems Implementation
  • Activity Install and Test New Software Package
    (if Necessary)
  • Purpose
  • The purpose of this activity is to install any
    new software packages and make them available in
    the software library.
  • Roles
  • This is the first activity in the life cycle that
    is specific to the applications programmer.
  • System owner and system users - are not involved
    in this activity.
  • Systems analyst - (optional) The systems analyst
    typically participates in the testing of the
    software package by clarifying requirements.

17
The Construction Phase of Systems Implementation
  • Activity Install and Test New Software Package
    (if Necessary)
  • Roles (continued)
  • System designers - The system designer may be
    involved in clarification of integration
    requirements and program documentation that is
    used in testing the software.
  • System builder - is primarily responsible for
    this activity.
  • Applications programmer - The applications
    programmer (or programming team) is responsible
    for the installation and testing of new software
    packages.
  • Network Administrators - Network administrators
    may be involved in actually installing the
    software package upon the network server.

18
The Construction Phase of Systems Implementation
  • Activity Install and Test New Software Package
    (if Necessary)
  • Prerequisites (Inputs)
  • The main input to this activity is the new
    software packages and documentation that is
    received from the system vendors.
  • The applications programmer will complete the
    installation and testing of the package according
    to integration requirements and program
    documentation that was developed during system
    design.

19
The Construction Phase of Systems Implementation
  • Activity Install and Test New Software Package
    (if Necessary)
  • Deliverables (Outputs)
  • The principle deliverable of this activity is the
    installed and tested software package(s) that are
    made available in the software library.
  • Any modified software specifications and new
    integration requirements that were necessary are
    documented and made available in the project
    repository to provide a history and serve as
    future reference.

20
The Construction Phase of Systems Implementation
  • Activity Install and Test New Software Package
    (if Necessary)
  • Applicable Techniques
  • There are no specific techniques applicable to
    this activity. Successful completion of this
    activity is primarily dependent upon programming
    experience and knowledge of testing.
  • Steps
  • The following steps are suggested to complete
    this activity.
  • Step 1 - Obtain the software packages and review
    documentation.
  • Step 2 - Install the software package.
  • Step 3 - Conduct tests upon the software packages
    to ensure that it works properly - making
    revisions as necessary.

21
The Construction Phase of Systems Implementation
  • Activity Install and Test New Software Package
    (if Necessary)
  • Steps (continued)
  • Step 4 - For future reference, revise software
    specifications to reflect modifications.
  • Step 5 - Add the software to the information
    systems shop's software library.

22
The Construction Phase of Systems Implementation
  • Activity Write and Test New Programs
  • Purpose
  • The purpose of this activity is to write and test
    all programs to be developed in-house.
  • Roles
  • This activity is specific to the applications
    programmer.
  • System owner and system users - are not involved
    in this activity.
  • Systems analyst - (optional) The systems analyst
    typically serves merely in clarifying business
    requirements to be implemented by the programs.
  • System designers - The system designer may be
    involved in clarification of the programming
    plan, integration requirements, and program
    documentation (developed during systems design)
    that is used in writing and testing the programs.

23
The Construction Phase of Systems Implementation
  • Activity Write and Test New Programs
  • Roles (continued)
  • System builder - is primarily responsible for
    this activity.
  • Applications programmer or programming team - The
    applications programmer is responsible for
    writing and testing in-house software.
  • Application tester - an application or software
    tester specializes in building and running test
    scripts that are consistently applied to programs
    to test all possible events and responses.

24
The Construction Phase of Systems Implementation
  • Activity Write and Test New Programs
  • Prerequisites (Inputs)
  • The primary input to this activity is the
    technical design statement, plan for programming,
    and test data that was developed in during
    systems design.
  • Since any new programs or program components may
    have already been written and in use by other
    existing systems, the experienced applications
    programmer will know to first check for possible
    reusable software components available in the
    software library.

25
The Construction Phase of Systems Implementation
  • Activity Write and Test New Programs
  • Prerequisites (Inputs) (continued)
  • Some information systems shops have a quality
    assurance group staffed by specialists who review
    the final program documentation for conformity to
    standards.
  • This group will provide appropriate feedback
    regarding quality recommendations and
    requirements (OPT).
  • Deliverables (Outputs)
  • The principle deliverable of this activity is the
    new programs and reusable software components
    that are placed in the software library.
  • This activity also results in program
    documentation that may need to be approved by a
    quality assurance group.

26
The Construction Phase of Systems Implementation
  • Activity Write and Test New Programs
  • Applicable Techniques
  • If modules are coded top-down, they should be
    tested and debugged top-down and as they are
    written.
  • There are three levels of testing to be
    performed stub testing, unit or program testing,
    and systems testing.
  • Stub testing is the test performed on individual
    modules, whether they be main program,
    subroutine, subprogram, block, or paragraph.
  • Unit or program testing is a test whereby all the
    modules that have been coded and stub tested are
    tested as an integrated unit.
  • Systems testing is a test that ensures that
    application programs written in isolation work
    properly when they are integrated into the total
    system.

27
The Construction Phase of Systems Implementation
  • Activity Write and Test New Programs
  • Steps
  • The following steps are suggested to complete
    this activity.
  • Step 1 - Review the design specifications.
  • Step 2 - Develop a detailed programming plan.
  • (Optional) Formulate the project team and assign
    responsibilities.
  • Write and document programs and perform unit
    testing.
  • Review program documentation for quality
    standards. Note that this step may be required in
    some organizations.
  • Conduct system testing to ensure all programs
    work properly together.

28
The Construction Phase of Systems Implementation
  • Activity Write and Test New Programs
  • Steps
  • The following steps are suggested to complete
    this activity.
  • Step 2 - Develop a detailed programming plan.
    (continued)
  • (Optional) Update the project repository with
    revised program documentation for future
    referencing.
  • (Optional) Place new programs and reusable
    components in the software library.

29
The Delivery Phase of Systems Implementation
  • Introduction
  • This is the last system implementation phase in
    the life cycle -- deliver the new system into
    operation.
  • To achieve the purpose of this phase, we must
    accomplish the following objectives
  • Conduct a system test to ensure that the new
    system works properly.
  • Prepare a conversion plan to provide a smooth
    transition to the new system.
  • Install databases to be used by the new system.
  • Provide training and documentation for
    individuals that will be using the new system.
  • Convert from the old system to the new system and
    evaluate the project and final system.

30
(No Transcript)
31
(No Transcript)
32
The Delivery Phase of Systems Implementation
  • Activity Conduct System Test
  • Purpose
  • The purpose of this activity is to test all
    software packages, custom-build programs, and any
    existing programs that comprise the new system to
    ensure that they all work together.
  • Roles
  • The systems analyst facilitates this activity.
  • System owner and system users - are not involved
    in this activity.
  • Systems analyst The systems analyst typically
    facilitates this activity by communicating
    testing problems and issues with the project team
    members.
  • System designers - System designer specialists
    are typically responsible for testing integration
    requirements and resolving design problems.

33
The Delivery Phase of Systems Implementation
  • Activity Conduct System Test
  • Roles (continued)
  • System builders - System builders, of various
    specialties, are involved in the systems testing.
    Applications programmers, database programmers,
    and networking specialists may need to resolve
    problems revealed during systems testing.
  • Prerequisites (Inputs)
  • The primary inputs to this activity include the
    software packages, custom-built programs, and any
    existing programs comprising the new system.
  • The system test is done using the system test
    data that was developed earlier by the systems
    analyst.

34
The Delivery Phase of Systems Implementation
  • Activity Conduct System Test
  • Deliverables (Outputs)
  • As with previous tests that were performed, our
    system test may result in required modifications
    to programs - thus, once again prompting the
    return to a previous activity in the
    implementation phase.
  • This iteration would continue until a successful
    system test was experienced.
  • Applicable Techniques
  • A good understanding of testing is essential.
  • Whereas this activity is concerned with systems
    testing, the identification of program specific
    problems may necessitate a return to previous
    activities and subsequent stub and unit level
    testing.

35
The Delivery Phase of Systems Implementation
  • Activity Conduct System Test
  • Steps
  • The following steps are suggested to complete
    this activity.
  • Step 1 - Obtain system test data.
  • Step 2 - Ensure that all software packages,
    custom-build programs, and existing programs have
    been installed and that unit testing has been
    completed.
  • Step 3 - Perform tests to check that all programs
    work properly together making appropriate
    revisions as needed and testing again.
  • Step 4 - Record any required modifications to
    programs in the project repository.

36
The Delivery Phase of Systems Implementation
  • Activity Prepare Conversion Plan
  • Purpose
  • Prepare a detailed conversion plan to provide a
    smooth transition from the old system to the new
    system.
  • Roles
  • The activity is facilitated by the project
    manager.
  • System owner roles
  • executive sponsor
  • user managers
  • system managers
  • project manager
  • steering body (optional) many organizations
    require that all project plans be formally
    presented to a steering body (sometimes called a
    steering committee) for final approval.

37
The Delivery Phase of Systems Implementation
  • Activity Prepare Conversion Plan
  • Roles (continued)
  • System user roles
  • business analysts (optional)
  • Systems analyst, system designer, and system
    builder roles are not typically involved in this
    activity unless deemed necessary by the project
    manager.
  • Prerequisites (Inputs)
  • This activity is triggered by the completion of a
    successful system test.
  • Using the design specifications for the new
    system, a detailed conversion plan can be
    assembled.

38
The Delivery Phase of Systems Implementation
  • Activity Prepare Conversion Plan
  • Deliverables (Outputs)
  • The principle deliverable of this activity is the
    conversion plan.
  • This plan will identify databases to be
    installed, end-user training and documentation
    that needs to be developed, and a strategy for
    converting from the old system to the new system.
  • Applicable Techniques
  • Project management.

39
The Delivery Phase of Systems Implementation
  • Activity Prepare Conversion Plan
  • Steps
  • The following steps are suggested to complete
    this activity.
  • Step 1 - Collect and review design specifications
    for the new system to identify databases to be
    installed and user training needs.
  • Step 2 - Establish a schedule for installation of
    databases.
  • Step 3 - Identify a training program and
    schedule for the system users.
  • Step 4 - Develop a detail installation strategy
    to follow for converting from the existing to a
    new production information system.
  • Step 5 - Develop a systems acceptance test plan.

40
The Delivery Phase of Systems Implementation
  • Activity Prepare Conversion Plan
  • Common conversion strategies
  • Abrupt cutover.
  • On a specific date (usually a date that coincides
    with an official business period such as month,
    quarter, or fiscal year), the old system is
    terminated and the new system is placed into
    operation.
  • Parallel conversion.
  • Under this approach, both the old and new systems
    are operated for some period of time.
  • This is done to ensure that all major problems in
    the new system have been solved before the old
    system is discarded.

41
The Delivery Phase of Systems Implementation
  • Activity Prepare Conversion Plan
  • Common conversion strategies (continued)
  • Location conversion.
  • When the same system will be used in numerous
    geographical locations, it is usually converted
    at one location (using either abrupt or parallel
    conversion).
  • As soon as that site has approved the system, it
    can be farmed to the other sites.
  • Staged conversion.
  • A staged conversion is based on the version
    concept introduced earlier.
  • Each successive version of the new system is
    converted as it is developed.

42
The Delivery Phase of Systems Implementation
  • Activity Prepare Conversion Plan
  • Acceptance Test Plan
  • A systems acceptance test is a final system test
    performed by end-users using real data over an
    extended period of time.
  • It is an extensive test that addresses three
    levels of acceptance testing verification
    testing, validation testing, and audit testing.
  • Verification testing runs the system in a
    simulated environment using simulated data.
  • This simulated test is sometimes called alpha
    testing.
  • The simulated test is primarily looking for
    errors and omissions regarding end-user and
    design specifications that were specified in the
    earlier phases but not fulfilled during
    construction.

43
The Delivery Phase of Systems Implementation
  • Activity Prepare Conversion Plan
  • Validation testing runs the system in a live
    environment using real data. This is sometimes
    called beta testing.
  • During this validation, we are testing a number
    of items.
  • 1. Systems performance.
  • 2. Peak workload processing performance.
  • 3. Human engineering test.
  • 4. Methods and procedures test.
  • 5. Backup and recovery testing.
  • Audit testing certifies that the system is free
    of errors and is ready to be placed into
    operation.

44
The Delivery Phase of Systems Implementation
  • Activity Install Databases
  • Purpose
  • The purpose of this activity is to populate the
    new systems databases with existing data from the
    old system.
  • Roles
  • This activity will normally be completed by
    application programmers.
  • System Owners and system users - are not involved
    in this activity.
  • System analysts and designers - may play a small
    role in completing this activity. Their primary
    involvement will be the calculation of database
    sizes and estimating of time required to perform
    the task of installing them.

45
The Delivery Phase of Systems Implementation
  • Activity Install Databases
  • Roles (continued)
  • System builders - play a primary role in this
    activity.
  • Application programmers - will write the special
    programs to extract data from existing databases
    and programs to populate the new databases.
  • Date entry personnel or hired help - may be
    assigned to do data entry for data that needs to
    be keyed.
  • Prerequisites (Inputs)
  • Existing data from the production databases,
    coupled with the database schema(s) models and
    database structures for the new databases will be
    used to write computer programs to populate the
    new databases with restructured existing data.

46
The Delivery Phase of Systems Implementation
  • Activity Install Databases
  • Deliverables (Outputs)
  • The principle deliverables of this activity is
    the restructured existing data that has been
    populated in the databases for the new system.
  • Applicable Techniques
  • Database and application programming skills are
    essential to the successful completion of this
    activity.

47
The Delivery Phase of Systems Implementation
  • Activity Install Databases
  • Steps
  • The following steps are suggested to complete
    this activity.
  • Step 1 - Review the database structures for new
    databases.
  • Step 2 - Identify existing data currently in
    production databases (and other sources) to be
    used to populate the databases for the new
    system.
  • Step 3 - (optional) Obtain additional manual
    resources to do on-time keying of data not
    obtained from existing production databases.
  • Step 4 - Write programs to extract data from
    production databases.
  • Step 5 - Write programs to load new databases.

48
The Delivery Phase of Systems Implementation
  • Activity Install Databases
  • Steps (continued)
  • Step 6 - Conduct another system test to ensure
    new system is unaffected (see Activity Conduct
    System Test). This preventative step will ensure
    that no task accomplished in this activity
    adversely affects the new system.
  • Step 7 - If necessary, revise the database schema
    and update the project repository.

49
The Delivery Phase of Systems Implementation
  • Activity Train System Users
  • Purpose
  • Provide training and documentation to system
    users to prepare them for a smooth transition to
    the new system.
  • Roles
  • The activity is facilitated by the systems
    analyst.
  • System owner - System owners must support this
    activity. They must be willing to approve the
    release time necessary for their people to obtain
    the training needed to become successful users of
    the new system.
  • System user - Remember, the system is for the
    user! User involvement is important in this
    activity because the end-users will inherit your
    successes and failures from this effort.

50
The Delivery Phase of Systems Implementation
  • Activity Train System Users
  • Roles (continued)
  • System analyst - This activity is typically
    performed by systems analysts is to train system
    users to use the new system. Given appropriate
    documentation for the new system, the systems
    analysts will provide end-user documentation
    (typically in the form of manuals) and end-user
    training for the system users.
  • System designers and builders are not normally
    involved in this activity.
  • Prerequisites (Inputs)
  • Given appropriate documentation for the new
    system, the systems analyst will provide the
    system users with documentation and training
    needed to properly use the new system.

51
The Delivery Phase of Systems Implementation
  • Activity Train System Users
  • Deliverables (Outputs)
  • The principle deliverable of this activity is
    user training and documentation.
  • The golden rule should apply to user manual
    writing Write unto others as you would have
    them write unto you.''
  • You are not a business expert.
  • Don't expect the reader to be a technical expert.
  • Every possible situation and its proper procedure
    must be documented.

52
(No Transcript)
53
The Delivery Phase of Systems Implementation
  • Activity Train System Users
  • Applicable Techniques
  • Written and oral communications skills are
    critical.
  • Familiarity with organizational behavior and
    psychology may also prove helpful.
  • Steps
  • The following steps are suggested to complete
    this activity.
  • Step 1 - Collect documentation that may prove
    useful in developing user documentation and
    training guides.
  • Step 2 - Write user documentation manuals.
  • Step 3 - Referring to the conversion plan, review
    the training needs of the system users.

54
The Delivery Phase of Systems Implementation
  • Activity Train System Users
  • Steps (continued)
  • Step 4 - Schedule training sessions. (individual
    and group sessions).
  • Step 5 - Conduct training sessions and distribute
    user documentation.

55
The Delivery Phase of Systems Implementation
  • Activity Convert to New System
  • Purpose
  • Convert to the new system from the old system and
    evaluate the project experience and final system.
  • Roles
  • The activity is facilitated by the project
    manager who will oversee the conversion process.
  • System owner - provide feedback regarding their
    experiences with the overall project. They may
    also provide feedback regarding the new system
    that has been placed into operation.
  • System user - will provide valuable feedback
    pertaining to the actual use of the new system.
    They will be the source of the majority of the
    feedback used to measure the systems acceptance.

56
The Delivery Phase of Systems Implementation
  • Activity Convert to New System
  • Roles (continued)
  • System analyst, designers, and builders - will be
    involved in assessing the feedback received from
    the system owners and users once the system is in
    operation. In many cases, that feedback may
    stimulate actions on their part to correct
    shortcomings that have been identified.
    Regardless, the feedback will be used to help
    benchmark new systems project down the road.
  • Prerequisites (Inputs)
  • The input to this activity is the conversion plan
    that was created in an earlier delivery phase
    activity.
  • Deliverables (Outputs)
  • The principle deliverable of this is the product
    information system that is placed into operation
    in the business.

57
The Delivery Phase of Systems Implementation
  • Activity Convert to New System
  • Applicable Techniques
  • Project and process management.
  • Steps
  • The following steps are suggested to complete
    this activity.
  • Step 1 - Review the conversion plan.
  • Step 2 - Complete the detailed steps outline in
    the conversion plan.
  • Step 3 - Schedule meeting with project team to
    evaluate the development project and the
    production system.
  • Step 4 - Conduct review meeting - record
    enhancement/fix requirements that are identified.

58
Summary
  • Introduction
  • What is Systems Implementation?
  • The Construction Phase of Systems Implementation
  • The Delivery Phase of Systems Implementation
Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
About PowerShow.com