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Classical conditioning

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Classical conditioning Video clips ... (D+) Explain how classical and operant conditioning can start and maintain a phobia (B+) Homework 1. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Classical conditioning


1
Classical conditioning
  • Video clips
  • http//www.psychexchange.co.uk/videos/view/20609/
    2 and a half men clip
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vJA96Fba-WHk Big
    Bang theory clip positive reinforcement

2
http//www.psychexchange.co.uk/_hotpotatoes/810264
4451233992961.htm pavlov cloze
  • http//www.psychexchange.co.uk/videos/view/20088/
    recreation of Pavlovs dogs

http//www.psychexchange.co.uk/videos/view/20445/
boy and bbgun
http//www.psychexchange.co.uk/videos/view/20218/
basic CC
http//www.psychexchange.co.uk/videos/view/20132/
John Watson Little Albert
http//www.psychexchange.co.uk/_hotpotatoes/540835
4791237315696.htm match quiz Pavlov
3
Atypical Behaviour Core Theory
  • The Behaviourist Theory

What was the weirdest phobia you could find?
4
BATs
  • Outline the behaviourist theory of phobias (D)
  • Explain how classical and operant conditioning
    can start and maintain a phobia (B)
  • Homework
  • 1. Describe Classical Conditioning in relation to
    a phobia of your choice. (5 marks)
  • 2. Explain how the idea of Operant Conditioning
    can explain why the phobia continues and isnt
    extinguished. (3 marks)

5
The Behaviourist Theory
  • Behaviourists are Psychologists who believe that
    behaviours are LEARNED not NATURAL.
  • They believe we learn to be PHOBIC.
  • Many people can link their phobia to a bad
    experience
  • Children often have similar phobias to parents

6
Classical Conditioning
  • Learning by Association people learn to
    associate a particular response with a particular
    stimulus.
  • e.g. When asked a question (stimulus) in class
    you have learnt to automatically put your hand up
    (response)

7
Classical Conditioning
  • Behaviourists accept that some behaviours are
    not learnt, but INSTINCTIVE e.g. responses like
    vomiting, sexual arousal and anxiety
  • They called these UNCONDITIONED RESPONSES (UCR)
  • These responses are triggered by UNCONDITIONED
    STIMULI (UCS)
  • Objects and events that naturally cause the
    reaction e.g. poison, stimulating genitals and a
    threat

8
Classical Conditioning
  • BUT sometimes these responses happen because of
    a NEUTRAL STIMULUS (NS) one that normally
    doesnt cause a reaction.
  • e.g. NS burger. You may once have been sick
    after eating one.
  • you then ASSOCIATE the burger(NS) with the
    response (vomiting)
  • Next time you have a burger it makes you feel
    sick!! You have been Classically Conditioned

9
Classical Conditioning
  • The Neutral Stimulus (e.g. burger)is now known as
    a
  • CONDITIONED STIMULUS (CS) because it triggers a
    learnt response
  • The response itself doesnt change (i.e.
    vomiting), but as it is a response to a CS
  • It is now known as a CONDITIONED RESPONSE (CR)

http//www.psychexchange.co.uk/videos/view/20445/
boy and bbgun see also African Land snails
10
Over to you
  • Do activities 5.4 and 5.5 p66-67 use the
    worksheet.
  • http//www.psychexchange.co.uk/videos/view/20088/
    recreation of Pavlovs dogs
  • Copy diagrams on p67 to illustrate Pavlovs
    experiment
  • EXTENSION Activity 5.6 p67
  • What does Stimulus Generalisation mean?

Breaktime!
11
Classical Conditioning Pavlovs Experiment
UCS
UCR
SALIVATION
FOOD
NS
BELL
CS
CR
BELL
SALIVATION
12
How can Classical Conditioning be used to explain
the start of Phobias?
  • Phobias are the result of a negative experience
    with a feared object, context or activity
  • Fear is the Unconditioned Response (UR)
  • Feared object, action e.t.c is the US
  • A NS can be associated with the feared
    action/object e.t.c
  • Here is an example see p68

13
Apiphobia a fear of bees
UCS (sting)
UCR FEAR

association
NS (bee)
CR FEAR
CS (bee)
This can happen after one bad experience ONE
TRIAL LEARNING
14
How can Classical Conditioning be used to explain
how Phobias continue?
  1. Stimulus generalisation associate CR with
    stimuli similar to the original stimulus (e.g.
    apiphobics may also fear wasps)
  2. Extinction associations between stimulus and
    response gradually disappear but why dont
    people stop being phobic if they have not
    encountered the stimulus that causes their phobia
    for a while?

15
How can Classical Conditioning be used to explain
how Phobias continue?
  • 3. Operant Conditioning learning by
    consequences.
  • If consequence of an action is rewarding we learn
    to do it again (positive reinforcement)
  • If the consequence is negative we do not repeat
    the action (negative reinforcement - punishment)

16
How can Classical Conditioning be used to explain
how Phobias continue?
  • 3. Operant Conditioning ..
  • A phobia is also about avoiding the object or
    situation (Stimulus)
  • Avoidance feel relieved REWARDING keep
    avoiding the stimulus to get more relief
  • Facing fear (e.g. bee) ANXIETY PUNISHING
    dont want to face fear again
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vJA96Fba-WHk Big
    Bang theory clip positive reinforcement

17
Behaviourist theory of phobias
  • All behaviours, including phobias, are learnt.
  • In other words, phobias are conditioned.
  • Phobias start because of classical conditioning.
  • Phobias are maintained (kept going) by operant
    conditioning.

18
Over to you
  • Copy the definition of Operant conditioning into
    your Glossary, plus extinction, stimulus
    generalisation and one trial learning
  • Create a Classical Conditioning diagram like the
    one on p68 for a phobia other than Apiphobia
  • Extension Storyboard or role play a situation
    when a phobia might ne started and maintained
    using the ideas of CC and Operant Conditioning

19
Homework
  • 1. Describe Classical Conditioning in relation to
    a phobia of your choice. (5 marks)
  • 2. Explain how the idea of Operant Conditioning
    can explain why the phobia continues and isnt
    extinguished. (3 marks)
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