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Classical Conditioning

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Classical Conditioning Ivan Pavlov: Russian Scientist Pavlov s Apparatus Pavlov s Apparatus ctd. Pavlov harnessed a dog and placed food on the dog s tongue. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Classical Conditioning


1
Classical Conditioning
  • Ivan Pavlov Russian Scientist

2
Pavlovs Apparatus
3
Pavlovs Apparatus ctd.
  • Pavlov harnessed a dog and placed food on the
    dogs tongue. What do you think the dog did?
  • Then, Pavlov paired the food with the sound of a
    bell. What did the dog do?
  • Eventually, Pavlov only sounded the bell. What
    was the dogs response at the sound of the bell?

4
Classical Conditioning Terms
  • Unconditioned Response (UR)
  • A reflexive, natural behavior (dog drooling)
  • Unconditioned Stimulus (US)
  • A stimulus that brings about unconditioned
    response (the food)
  • Neutral Stimulus
  • Doesnt initially bring about a response (what
    was it in the Pavlovian model?)
  • Conditioned Response (CR)
  • Happens through repeated pairings of the neutral
    stimulus (bell) and the US (the food)
  • Conditioned Stimulus (CS)
  • A previously neutral stimulus (the bell) is
    paired repeatedly with an US and begins to get a
    CR

5
Processes of Classical Conditioning
6
Classical Conditioning More Terms
  • Trial the pairing of the UCS CS
  • Acquisition initial stage in learning
  • when the dog drools for the first time at only
    the sound of the bell

7
Classical Conditioning More Terms
  • Extinction The CR (drool) will gradually weaken
    and eventually disappear when CS (bell) is
    presented without the US (food)
  • Spontaneous Recovery the CR (drool) will
    suddenly appear in response to a CS (bell)
  • Reconditioning when CS (bell) and US (food) are
    paired together, the CR (drool) is likely to be
    learned more quickly

8
Acquisition, Extinction, Recovery
9
More Classical Conditioning Terms
  • Stimulus Generalization
  • CR (drool) is brought about by stimuli similar to
    the original CS (bell)
  • Stimulus Discrimination
  • The ability to differentiate among related
    stimuli
  • Higher-Order Conditioning
  • A previously neutral stimulus comes to elicit a
    CR when it is paired with a CS that already
    produces the CR

10
Higher-Order Conditioning
11
Stimulus Characteristics that Strengthen the CR
  • The more often the CS (bell) is paired with the
    US (food), the stronger the CR (drool) will be.
  • The strongest CR occurs when the CS is presented
    first and remains present throughout the
    administration of the US.
  • A stronger US will lead to faster conditioning
    than a weak one.

12
Examples of Classical Conditioning
  • Classical conditioning helps explain the
    development of conditioned emotional reactions

13
Examples of Classical Conditioning
  • Principles of classical conditioning may help
    explain phenomena that range from drug cravings
    to acquired taste aversion.
  • Even immune-system responses can be classically
    conditioned!
  • How have you been classically conditioned?
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