WATER QUALITY IN AQUACULTURE Introduction - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – WATER QUALITY IN AQUACULTURE Introduction PowerPoint presentation | free to view - id: 4b7103-NmZmZ



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

WATER QUALITY IN AQUACULTURE Introduction

Description:

(note: nitrites are usually not a problem in salt water systems) Nitrates are usually not toxic unless in very high concentrations. Title: PowerPoint Presentation – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:884
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 48
Provided by: Dr137
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: WATER QUALITY IN AQUACULTURE Introduction


1
WATER QUALITY IN AQUACULTURE Introduction Part 1
2
Aquaculture and Seafood
Capture from the oceans is maximized.
  • Aquaculture is growing as a source of the
    worlds seafood supply.

3
Benefits of Aquaculture
Asian fresh seafood market
Ability to bring fresh, or even live, seafood to
market at a specific time and quantity.
US seafood market
4
Aquaculture is based on water
  • The key to the successful culture of aquatic
    organisms is maintenance of water quality.
  • Poor water quality poor harvest.

Fish ponds in China
5
Water Quality
  • Source
  • During culture
  • Discharge
  • Water quality issues should be taken into
    account at every point of the aquaculture cycle.
  • Dr.Claude E. Boyd

6
Source
From where?
underground
surface
7
Source
well
reservoir
spring
How much?
irrigation canal
stream
8
Source
pasture
quality
Red tide
unpopulated
forested
underground
populated
9
Water Quality
Clear water
During culture
Fertile water
Turbid water
10
Water Quality
Discharge
Catfish pond
Shrimp pond
11
Factors that influence water quality
  • Photosynthesis/Respiration
  • Water temperature
  • Fertilization
  • Feeds
  • Aeration
  • Water exchange

12
Photosynthesis/Respiration
photosynthesis
6CO2 6H2O light energy ? C6H12O6 6O2
respiration
C6H12O6 6O2 ? 6CO2 6H2O heat energy
13
Water temperature

active
z
z
z

z
z
z
inactive
14
Fertilization
inorganic
organic
15
Feed
Marine shrimp
Common carp
Rainbow trout
Channel catfish
16
Aeration
Aspirator
Defused air
paddlewheel
Pond aeration
17
Water exchange
Salmon cages
Catfish raceways
Trout raceways
Carp cages
18
Testing Water Quality
Water quality parameters often tested
are Dissolved oxygen Water temperature pH Total
Ammonia Nitrogen Nitrite/Nitrate Alkalinity/Hardne
ss Salinity
Water test kit
19
How water quality values are expressed
Parameter Value
Dissolved oxygen mg/L O2
Water temperature C (Celsius)
pH
Total ammonia nitrogen mg/L N
Nitrite mg/L NO2-
Nitrate mg/L NO3-
Alkalinity/Hardness mg/L CaCO3
Salinity g/L salt
20
Dissolved oxygen and water temperature
Oxygen meter
dissolved oxygen and water temperature usually
vary over a 24 hour cycle.
Surface dissolved oxygen, mg/L
Surface water temperature, C
31
15
29
10
27
summer
5
25
0
6 a.m.
6 a.m.
midnight
6 p.m.
noon
21
Dissolved oxygen and water temperature
Stratification can cause dissolved oxygen and
temperature to vary at different depths in the
same system.
22
pH
pH is a measure of acidity (hydrogen ion
concentration) in water or soil.
pH - log H
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
neutral
acid
alkaline
23
Total Ammonia Nitrogen
Total ammonia nitrogen ( TAN ) is a measure of
the ammonia (NH3) and ammonium levels (NH4) in
the water
The ratio of ammonia and ammonium varies in an
equilibrium determined by pH and water
temperature.
Ammonia as a of total ammonia nitrogen
24
Nitrite/Nitrate
feces
Bacterial decomposition
25
Alkalinity and Hardness
hardness
alkalinity
Total titratable bases
Total divalent salts
calcium
magnesium
Mg2
Ca2
Calcium bicarbonate
Ca( HCO3 )2
26
Alkalinity and Hardness
The form alkalinity takes is linked to pH of the
system.
27
Alkalinity and Hardness
Alkalinity buffers against diurnal variations in
pH.
28
Salinity
Brackish water is 2 g/L to 34 g/L
Freshwater is less than 2 g/L
Sea water is more than 34 g/L
NaCl
29
End of Introduction Part 1
Good Water Quality Good Harvest
30
WATER QUALITY IN AQUACULTURE Introduction Part
2 Applications
31
Classification of aquaculture systems
  • Salinity of culture water.
  • Producer/consumer relationship.
  • Type of culture unit.
  • Species
  • Management intensity

32
Salinity
  • Freshwater has a low ionic concentration (i.e.
    streams, rivers, ponds and lakes).
  • Saltwater has a high ionic concentration (ocean
    waters).
  • Brackishwater has an ionic concentration between
    freshwater and saltwater ( mangroves ).

33
Producer/consumer relationship
  • Commercial
  • aquaculture
  • Subsistence
  • aquaculture

34
Type of culture unit
  • Many different culture units are used to grow
    aquatic organisms.
  • The culture unit selected is based on economic,
    space and water concerns.
  • The type and size of the culture unit will
    determine water quality management.

35
Type of culture unit
Earthen Pond
Levee ponds
Reservoir Pond
36
Type of culture unit Cage/Pen
Cages in lake
Cages in ocean
Pen
37
Type of culture unit Tank
Rectangular tank
Circular tank
38
Raceway culture
Trout farms using raceways
39
Species
  • The species cultured will determine stocking
    density, water quality levels desired and the
    most appropriate system to use.

40
Management intensity
  • Levels of aquaculture management are closely
    tied to water quality.

Extensive management no control of water
quality
Semi-intensive management some control of
water quality
Intensive management control of water quality
41
Extensive management
Marine shrimp
42
Semi-intensive management
Chemical fertilizer
Supplemental feeds
Animal manures
43
Intensive management
Aeration in ponds
Water exchange in tanks
Nutritionally complete
pelleted feeds
44
Public perceptions of aquaculture
  • Water quality concerns
  • Water pollution
  • Salinization
  • Sedimentation
  • Spread of disease
  • Other concerns
  • Wetland destruction
  • Wasteful of resources
  • Biodiversity
  • Land conversion
  • Social impacts

45
Water quality concerns
Shrimp pond effluent in Thailand
Cages in Indonesia
46
Other concerns
Preservation of saltwater mangrove
Preservation of freshwater wetlands
47
End
About PowerShow.com