IKENWEIWE Bolatito Nafisat (PhD) DEPARTMENT OF AQUACULTURE AND FISHERIES MANAGEMENT UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE, ABEOKUTA - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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IKENWEIWE Bolatito Nafisat (PhD) DEPARTMENT OF AQUACULTURE AND FISHERIES MANAGEMENT UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE, ABEOKUTA

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Title: IKENWEIWE Bolatito Nafisat (PhD) DEPARTMENT OF AQUACULTURE AND FISHERIES MANAGEMENT UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE, ABEOKUTA


1
IKENWEIWE Bolatito Nafisat (PhD) DEPARTMENT OF
AQUACULTURE AND FISHERIES MANAGEMENT UNIVERSITY
OF AGRICULTURE, ABEOKUTA
  • PRODUCTION IN INLAND AND MARINE WATERS

titobola2007_at_yahoo.com, 08033770265
2
Production in inland and Marine Waters
  • FIS 702
  • (2 Units) Elective

3
Course outline
  • Types of aquatic ecosystem,
  • Limiting factors controlling fish production. 
  • Allochthonous and autochthonous
  • migration and
  • Resource distribution

4
INTRODUCTION
  • The current overall fish production is estimated
    at 500.000 metric tones, whereas the requirement
    or demand for fish production is about 5 million
    metric tones (Dada 2004).
  • This clearly shows that there exist a wide gap
    between fish production and demand for fish
    products.
  • Fish production can only be increased when the
    spatially variable production factors controlling
    aquaculture and inland fisheries are well
    understood and properly addressed.

5
CONCEPT OF ECOSYSTEM
  • An ecosystem is defined as a spatially explicit
    unit of earth that includes all of the organisms,
    along with all the components of the abiotic
    environment within its boundaries (Likens,
    1992).
  •  An Ecosystem is a combination of two words
    "Ecological" and " system.

6
  • An ecosystem is a biological environment
    consisting of all the organisms living in a
    particular area, as well as all the nonliving,
    physical components of the environment with which
    the organisms interact, such as air, soil, water
    and sunlight

7
Types of ecosystem
  • There are two broad classification of ecosystem
  • Natural and
  • Artificial

8
A. Natural ecosystem
  • It is classified into two parts
  • 1) Terrestrial ecosystem
  • Few examples are     Forest Ecosystem    
    Sahara Desert Ecosystem     A Grassland 
    Ecosystem     A Semi-forest Ecosystem     An
    ecosystem on a snow field     A Scrubland
    ecosystem     A Cold desert ecosystem    
    Wetland ecosystem     Wild Life Sanctuaries,
    National Parks, Animal Reserves
  • 2) Aquatic ecosystem (to be discuss later)

9
B. Artificial ecosystem
  •  Artificial ecosystems are created by humans.
  • Examples include
  • animal reserve or a giant terrarium e.g. zoo
  • Gardens are also artificial ecosystem
  • Crop lands like maize, sugarcane, rice-fields,
    wheat, orchards,
  • dams, aquarium, cities, and manned spaceship.

10
  • The basic biotic and abiotic components are
    defined by man in artificial ecosystem.

11
TYPES OF AQUATIC ECOSYSTEM
  • Aquatic ecosystem is divided into two parts-
    Marine ecosystem and freshwater ecosystem.

12
Marine
  • Marine ecosystems cover approximately 71 of the
    Earth's surface and contain approximately 97 of
    the planet's water. They generate 32 of the
    world's net primary production.

13
  • Marine ecosystems can be divided into the
    following zones
  • oceanic (the open part of the ocean where animals
    such as whales, sharks, and tuna live)
  • profundal (bottom or deep water)
  • benthic (bottom substrates)
  • intertidal (the area between high and low tides)
  • estuaries
  • salt marshes
  • coral reefs and
  • hydrothermal vents (where chemosyntheticsulfur
    bacteria form the food base).

14
  • Classes of organisms found in marine ecosystems
    include
  • brown algae,
  • dinoflagellates,
  • corals,
  • cephalopods,
  • echinoderms, and
  • sharks.
  • Fish caught in marine ecosystems are the biggest
    source of commercial foods obtained from wild
    populations.

15
  • Environmental problems concerning marine
    ecosystems include unsustainable exploitation of
    marine resources (for example overfishing of
    certain species), marine pollution, climate
    change, and building on coastal areas.

16
Freshwater
  • Freshwater ecosystems cover 0.80 of the Earth's
    surface and inhabit 0.009 of its total water.
    They generate nearly 3 of its net primary
    production. Freshwater ecosystems contain 41 of
    the world's known fish species.

17
  • There are three basic types of freshwater
    ecosystems
  • Lentic slow-moving water, including pools,
    ponds, and lakes.
  • Lotic rapidly-moving water, for example streams
    and rivers.
  • Wetlands areas where the soil is saturated or
    inundated for at least part of the time

18
Lake ecosystems
  • Lake ecosystems can be divided into zones
  • pelagic (open offshore waters)
  • profundal
  • littoral (nearshore shallow waters) and
  • riparian (the area of land bordering a body of
    water).
  • Two important subclasses of lakes are ponds,
    which typically are small lakes and water
    reservoirs.

19
Abiotic characteristics
  • Abiotic environmental factors of aquatic
    ecosystems include temperature, salinity, and
    flow.
  • The amount of dissolved oxygen in a water body is
    frequently the key substance in determining the
    extent and kinds of organic life in the water
    body.
  • Fish need dissolved oxygen to survive.
    Conversely, oxygen is fatal to many kinds of
    anaerobic bacteria.

20
Biotic characteristics
  • The organisms (also called biota) found in
    aquatic ecosystems are either autotrophic or
    heterotrophic.
  • Autotrophic organisms
  • Autotrophic organisms are producers that generate
    organic compounds from inorganic material.
  • Algae use solar energy to generate biomass from
    carbon dioxide and are the most important
    autotrophic organisms in aquatic environments.
  • Chemosynthetic bacteria are found in benthic
    marine ecosystems. These organisms are able to
    feed on hydrogen sulfide in water that comes from
    volcanic vents.

21
  • Heterotrophic organisms
  • Heterotrophic organisms consume autotrophic
    organisms and use the organic compounds in their
    bodies as energy sources and as raw materials to
    create their own biomass.
  • Euryhaline organisms are salt tolerant and can
    survive in marine ecosystems, while
  • stenohaline or salt intolerant species can only
    live in freshwater environments.

22
  • Other forms of Aquatic ecosystem
  • lake
  • ocean  
  • creek    
  • lagoon   
  • bog    
  • sea    
  • glacier   
  • tidal pool    
  • geyser    
  • fen  
  • flood plain    
  • bog   
  • estuary   
  • aquifer   
  • salt lake

23
  • Marsh - shallow water with non-woody plants
    growing above water level
  • Swamp - like a marsh but with bushes and trees
    growing from the water as well
  • Pond - a small and shallow body of water with
    plants growing above water level only on the
    edges
  • River - a moving body of water that flows from
    one place to another.
  • Stream - smaller than a river,
  • Puddles - body of water that lasts for a few days
  • Spring - area where underground water is
    discharged onto the land surface forming a pond
    or stream

24
LIMITING FACTORS CONTROLLING FISH PRODUCTION
25
  • Fish production is dependent on a number of
    factors these factors have been termed
    production factors because fish yield/output is'
    a function of various combinations of parameters
    or factors.
  • The factors fall under environmental, physical,
    economic, and social factors and all these will
    show spatial variability within and between given
    areas or zones.

26
  • Attempt is made here to identify some production
    functions controlling aquaculture and inland
    fisheries based on FAO 1991 are
  • Land availability
  • Capital ownership
  • Topography
  • Climate
  • Season and area
  • Water availability
  • Water quality
  • Potential for competitive water use

27
  • Soil properties
  • Predators
  • Adjacent land uses
  • Proximity to supporting infrastructure
  • Access roads
  • Local political, social economic factors
  • Environmental constraints
  • Security
  • Availability of skilled manpower
  • Exploitation method
  • Pollution
  • Aquatic macrophytes
  • Communication, Etc

28
  • The greatest threat to the maintenance of
    ecological integrity is habitat destruction
    (Biodiversity Working Party 1991).
  • Such changes could include serious pollution of
    sediments, reduction in stream flow by river
    regulation, removal of habitat (de-snagging,
    draining wetlands) or significant changes in
    catchment land use, any of which could cause
    significant ecosystem deterioration.

29
Further Readings
  • Beverton, R.J.H. 1984. Dynamics of single
    species. p.13-58, in R.M. May (ed). Exploitation
    of Marine Communities. Berlin Springer Verlag.
  • Beverton, R.J.H. 1990. Small marine pelagic fish
    and the threat of fishing are they endangered?
    Journal of Fish Biology, 37(Supplement A) 5-16.
  • Christensen, V. 2000. Indicators for marine
    ecosystems affected by fisheries. Marine and
    Freshwater Research, 51 447-450.

30
THANK YOU
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