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Ballast Water Management Engineering Technologies and Opportunities

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Title: Ballast Water Management Engineering Technologies and Opportunities


1
Ballast Water Management Engineering Technologies
and Opportunities
  • Spencer Schilling
  • President
  • Herbert Engineering Corp.

2
Overview
  • Shipboard Ballast Operations
  • Typical Ballast System Components
  • AIS and Ballast Water
  • Shipboard Ballast Water Management Solutions
  • Exchange
  • Treatment
  • Treatment Technologies Engineering Challenges

3
Shipboard Ballast Operations
  • Why is ballast used?
  • Maintain seaworthy condition when lightly loaded
  • Draft, trim, stability, bending moment, shear
    force, slamming, propeller immersion, motions

4
Shipboard Ballast Operations
  • How is it handled?
  • Loading condition is assessed and ballast
    allocated to remain within safe operational
    limits
  • Ballast movements coordinated with cargo
    operations
  • Impact on Crew
  • Provides for vessel safety
  • Controls vessel motion for better comfort
  • Requires daily management of ballast and
    maintenance of systems and tanks

5
Typical Ballast System Components
  • Simple liquid storage/handling system
  • Tanks, piping, valves, pumps
  • Vents, overflows, sounding tubes, level
    indicators
  • Remotely operated
  • Sea chests and overboard discharges

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11
Ballast System Design Considerations
  • Total ballast volume 6,000 to gt100,000 m3
  • Flow rates 200 to 5000 m3/hr
  • Head requirements up to 30m
  • In service flexibility ( tks, pipe, valves, )
  • Ballast Exchange Options
  • Partial Ballast Conditions
  • Control systems

12
What are AIS?
  • Aquatic Invasive Species (AIS) are organisms
    transported by human activities to a region where
    they did not occur historically and have
    established reproducing populations in the wild.
  • (Ref. Dobroski, Aquatic Invasive Species and
    Ballast Water Management)

13
How do we manage AIS?
  • Prevention Best line of defense, vector
    management
  • Eradication Costly and often impossible, over
    6 million to eradicate Caulerpa (algae)
    from two small southern CA embayments
  • Species management once established restrict
    local movement, control populations in sensitive
    habitats if possible
  • (Ref. Dobroski, Aquatic Invasive Species and
    Ballast Water Management)

14
How do they get here?
  • Many mechanisms (vectors) capable of transporting
    AIS around the world
  • Aquaculture, live seafood shipments, bait, pet
    store trade, intentional release
  • Commercial ships responsible for up to 80 of
    introductions in coastal habitats
  • Includes ballast water and vessel fouling
  • (Ref. Dobroski, Aquatic Invasive Species and
    Ballast Water Management)

15
Ballast Water and AIS
  • Species are introduced upon ballast water
    discharge in recipient regions
  • (Ref. Dobroski,
    Aquatic Invasive Species and Ballast Water
    Management)

16
Ballast Water Management Options in California
  • Retain all ballast on board the vessel
  • Ballast water exchange
  • Discharge to an approved shoreside treatment
    facility (currently no such facilities in CA)
  • Use of alternative, environmentally sound CSLC or
    USCG approved method of treatment
  • (Ref. Dobroski, Aquatic Invasive
    Species and Ballast Water Management)

17
Ballast Water Treatment Standards
Organism Size Class California1,2 IMO Regulation D-21 Washington
Organisms greater than 50 µm in minimum dimension No detectable living organisms lt 10 viable organisms per cubic meter Technology to inactivate or remove 95 zooplankton 99 bacteria and phytoplankton
Organisms 10 50 µm in minimum dimension lt 0.01 living organisms per ml lt 10 viable organisms per ml Technology to inactivate or remove 95 zooplankton 99 bacteria and phytoplankton
Organisms less than 10 µm in minimum dimension Escherichia coli Intestinal enterococci Toxicogenic Vibrio cholerae (01 0139) lt 103 bacteria/100 ml lt 104 viruses/100 ml lt 126 cfu3/100 ml lt 33 cfu/100 ml lt 1cfu/100 ml or lt 1cfu/gram wet weight zoological samples lt 250 cfu/100 ml lt 100 cfu/100 ml lt 1 cfu/100 ml or lt 1 cfu/gram wet weight zooplankton samples Technology to inactivate or remove 95 zooplankton 99 bacteria and phytoplankton
1 See Implementation Schedule (below) for dates
by which vessels must meet California Interim
Performance Standards and IMO Ballast Water
Performance Standard 2 Final discharge standard
for California, beginning January 1, 2020, is
zero detectable living organisms for all organism
size classes 3 Colony-forming-unit Implementati
on Schedule for Performance Standards
(Ref. Dobroski, Aquatic Invasive Species and
Ballast Water Management)
Ballast Water Capacity of Vessel Standards apply to new vessels in this size class constructed on or after Standards apply to all other vessels in this size class beginning in
lt 1500 metric tons 2009 2016
lt 1500 5000 metric tons 2009 2014
gt 5000 metric tons 2012 2016
18
Treatment Technology Challenge
  • Achieve desired kill rate
  • Work at high flow rates and with large volumes
  • Work with water of varying salinity, temperature,
    nutrients, clarity
  • Do not introduce other personnel/environmental
    hazards
  • Provide mechanism/process for testing/monitoring
  • Do not disrupt ship operations/schedule
  • Fit in limited space and survive ship conditions
    (vibration, pitch/roll motions,...)
  • Use available power
  • Do not add to ship maintenance
  • Be economical to buy, install, use and maintain

19
Treatment Technology Solutions
  • Chemical Biocides (Active Substances)
  • Chlorine (Generated on Board)
  • Ozone (Generated on Board)
  • Proprietary Chemicals (some delivered pre-mixed)
  • Mechanical Separation - Filters
  • Physical Change to Ballast Water Environment
  • Irradiate (UV light)
  • Deoxygenate
  • Heat

20
Chlorine NaCl H2O 2e NaOCl H2
  • Generate Chlorine / Sodium Hypochlorate (bleach)
    with electrolytic cells on board
  • Add solution when taking on ballast, maintain
    levels during voyage
  • Lethal in hours
  • gt80 chance can meet IMO 2004 criteria
  • Systems designed but limited testing to date
  • High dosage levels can promote steel corrosion
  • Concern about chemical residuals

21
Ozone
  • Ozone generator on board using high voltage AC
    current
  • Applied at uptake or discharge
  • Lethal in 5-15 hours
  • Short half life limits corrosion and makes safe
    at discharge
  • lt60 chance can meet IMO 2004 criteria
  • Systems designed but limited testing to date

22
Proprietary Chemicals
  • Pre-Mixed proprietary chemicals introduced at
    metered dosage rate when taking on ballast
  • Chemicals degrade over time, designed to be safe
    at discharge
  • Lethal in 24 hrs
  • gt80 chance can meet IMO 2004 criteria
  • Full size testing ongoing
  • High dosage levels can promote steel corrosion
  • Concern about chemical residuals

Example Peracetic Acid C2H4O3 acetic acid,
hydrogen peroxide with sulfuric acid
catalyst. Produced on shore, delivered to ship in
chemical tanks
23
Mechanical Separation Filters and Cyclones
  • Filters for larger organisms
  • Done at uptake and/or discharge
  • Lethal at time of treatment
  • lt80 chance can meet IMO 2004 criteria
  • Full scale testing on going

24
Filtration with Backflush
  • 50 microns is the practical lower limit
  • Automatic backflush is required to allow for
    unattended operation
  • Backflush process reduces the net flow rate and
    increases the system pressure drops
  • External backflushing pump is required
  • Probably not practical for bulkers and tankers
    with high flow rates and volumes

25
Filtration with Backflush
  • Can remove most of the larger life forms
  • A 50 micron screen will remove most or all of the
    zooplankton and some of the phytoplankton and
    dinoflagellates.
  • Filters of a practical size are not effective
    against bacteria and viruses
  • Useful in reducing turbidity (suspended solids)

26
Cyclonic Separation
  • figure

27
Cyclonic Separation
  • Can remove solids heavier than the sea water and
    larger than about 50 microns
  • About 5 to 10 of the total flow rate is removed
    in the sludge discharge
  • Pressure drop is about 0.8 bar plus backpressure
    valve at 1.2 to 1.5 bar

28
Cyclonic Separation
  • Effectively remove the large vertebrates and
    invertebrates
  • Not effective in reducing zooplankton density,
    but it does reduce live densities
  • Not that effective in reducing bacteria, viruses,
    or phytoplankton

29
Physical Change to Environment Ultraviolet (UV)
Light
  • Inactivates living organisms by causing DNA
    mutations
  • Proven effective against zooplankton,
    phytoplankton, bacteria and viruses.
  • Need pretreatment to reduce size of organisms and
    exposure time
  • Can be used on intake and discharge

30
Ultraviolet (UV) Light
  • Can be automatically controlled and monitored
  • Long history in the marine industry and
    demonstrated low maintenance requirements
  • Basic technology is readily available on the
    market
  • Turbid materials in the ballast flow attenuate
    and scatter the UV radiation

31
Physical Change to Environment Deoxygenate
  • Inert gas generated on board
  • When mixed with water, lowers Oxygen and pH
  • Lethal in 4 to 6 days
  • gt80 chance can meet IMO 2004 criteria
  • Full scale testing on going, some systems
    approved by IMO
  • Reduces corrosion, but can require closed tank
    vent system to maintain low oxygen atmosphere.

32
Physical Change to Environment Heat Treatment
  • Heat water to threshold temperature (42 degC)
  • Lethal in hours to days
  • Requires large amount of energy and can be
    difficult to generate heat in port when ME not
    running
  • lt60 chance can meet IMO 2004 Criteria
  • Full scale testing on going
  • Heat promotes corrosion

33
Combined Systems Cyclonic UV System (courtesy
Optimar/Hyde Marine)
34
2- Stage Treatment Cyclonic Separator UV
35
3 - Stage Treatment Filter UV Chemical
  • 50 micron filtration
  • remove large particles
  • remove sediments
  • UV light
  • inactivate living organisms
  • reduced efficacy with cloudy water
  • Catalysts
  • activated by UV energy producing oxidizing
    chemicals
  • increases efficacy of UV in cloudy water

36
Life Cycle Costs
  • Acquisition
  • 250 m3/hr 5000 m3/hr
  • 100k to 400k 400k to 1800k
  • Installation
  • 50k to 125k 200k to 800k
  • Operating
  • 0.02/m3 to 0.45/m3
  • 7000 m3 140 3,150
  • 70,000 m3 1,400
    31,500
  • Maintenance ?

37
Safety Issues
  • Handling and storage of chemicals, radiation and
    other equipment meant to kill living organisms
  • New risks to personnel and the environment
  • IMO G9 Procedures considering eco-toxicology,
    human health and ship and crew safety
    (MEPC.126(53))
  • Local, State, National water quality regulations

38
Regulatory Compliance and Testing
Organism Size Class California1,2
Organisms greater than 50 µm in minimum dimension No detectable living organisms
Organisms 10 50 µm in minimum dimension lt 0.01 living organisms per ml
Organisms less than 10 µm in minimum dimension Escherichia coli Intestinal enterococci Toxicogenic Vibrio cholerae (01 0139) lt 103 bacteria/100 ml lt 104 viruses/100 ml lt 126 cfu3/100 ml lt 33 cfu/100 ml lt 1cfu/100 ml or lt 1cfu/gram wet weight zoological samples
  • Stricter standards
  • Testing is time consuming
  • Lab results may not scale well to full size
  • Functional testing and equipment certification
    Type Approval, or
  • In service testing (end of pipe) for continuous
    monitoring

39
Need for Engineered Solutions
  • Develop treatment technologies (Entrepreneur
    stage)
  • Design testing methods and process for type
    approval or continuous monitoring
  • Automatic ballast water analyzers (bug counters)
  • Ship design adjustments and system integration
  • Regulatory development/evaluation

40
Ballast Water Management Engineering Technologies
and Opportunities
  • Spencer Schilling
  • President
  • Herbert Engineering Corp.
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