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Brief Survey of American Literature

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Title: Brief Survey of American Literature


1
Brief Survey of American Literature
2
1. Beginnings to 1700
  • Great mixing of peoples from the whole Atlantic
    basin
  • Bloody conflicts between Native Americans (or
    American Indians) and European explorers and
    settlers who had both religious and territorial
    aspirations
  • - Native American oral literature / oral
    tradition
  • - European explorers letters, diaries,
    reports, etc., such as Christopher Columbuss
    letters about his voyage to the New world.
  • - Anglo (New England) settlers books,
    sermons, journals, narratives, and poetry

3
Native American / American Indian oral literature
/ oral tradition
  • creation stories(????)
  • trickster tales(??????)
  • rituals / ceremonies(??)
  • songs / chants(??)

4
Anglo Settlers Writings
  • Highly religious and pragmatic
  • - John Smith, founder of Jamestown, Virginia
    Pocahontas
  • - John Winthrop, A Model of Christian
    Charity We shall be as a city upon a hill.
    The eyes of all people are upon us
  • - William Bradford, Of Plymouth Plantation
    (1630-50, pub. 1856)
  • - Anne Bradstreet (1612-1672), The Tenth Muse
    (1650), the first volume of poems published by a
    resident of the New World
  • - Edward Taylor (1642- 1729), Preparatory
    Meditations (1682-1725, pub. 1939, 1960)
  • - Mary Rowlandson (1636-1711), A Narrative of
    the Captivity and Restoration of Mrs. Mary
    Rowlandson (1682)

5
American Literature 1700-1820From Colonies to
Nation
  • Jonathan Edwards (1703-1758), whose passionate
    sermons helped revive religious fervor during the
    Great Awakening(?????, 1730s-1740s)
  • Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790)
  • Thomas Paine (1737-1809)
  • Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826)
  • Olaudah Equiano (1745?-1797)
  • Philip Freneau (1752-1832)
  • Phillis Wheatley (1753-1784)
  • Hannah Webster Foster (1758-1840)

6
Enlightenment and establishment of the nation
7
Benjamin Franklin
  • a second-generation immigrant of English
    descendent
  • Writer, printer, publisher, scientist, statesman,
    and diplomat, he was the most famous and
    respected private figure of his time.
  • Benjamin Franklin recorded his early life in his
    famous book The Autobiography.

Benjamin Franklin (1706----1790)
8
Benjamin Franklin
  • He was the first great self-made man in America,
    a poor democrat born in an aristocratic age
  • supported the cause of independence,, and aided
    Jefferson in writing the Declaration of
    Independence.
  • Practical yet idealistic, hard working and
    enormously successful.
  • the Scottish philosopher David Hume called him
    America's "first great man of letters.

9
Major Works
  • Franklins place in literature owes much to his
  • almanac and autobiography
  • Poor Richards Almanac (1732)
  • (???????)
  • Published from 1732 to 1758 under the name of
    Richard Saunders
  • Full of proverbs which teach people thrift,
    carefulness, and independence

10
Poor Richards Almanac
  • lost time is never found again
  • a penny saved is a penny earned
  • God helps those that help themselves
  • Early to bed, and early to rise, makes a man
    healthy, wealthy, and wise

11
The Autobiography
  • First published in Paris in March of 1791
    entitled Memoires De La Vie Privee
  • The first English translation, "The Private Life
    of the Late Benjamin Franklin. Originally Written
    By Himself, And Now Translated From The French,"
    was published in London in 1793.
  • Faithful Puritan account of the colorful career
    of Americas first self-made man.
  • The writing process lasted for 40 years, yet the
    book was still not completed when he died?

12
13 virtues followed by Franklin
  1. Temperance ??(??)
  2. Silence ??
  3. Order ??
  4. Resolution ??
  5. Frugality ??
  6. Industry ??
  • 7. Sincerity ??
  • 8. Justice ??
  • 9. Moderation ??
  • 10. Cleanliness ??
  • 11. Tranquility ??
  • 12. Chastity ??
  • 13. Humility ??

13
Thomas Paine (1737-1809)
  • Political Pamphlets during the revolutionary
    period
  • - Common Sense (1776) urges immediate
    independence from Britain
  • - Crisis (1776-1783) shore up the soldiers
    spirits

14
Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826)
  • Third president of US (1801-9)
  • Advocated religious freedom
  • Major drafter and writer of The Declaration of
    Independence (1776)
  • Author of Notes on the State of Virginia (1784)
    ??????? for religious freedom(????),white
    superiority(???????)

15
More literature during the revolution
16
Olaudah Equiano (1745?-1797)
  • Black writer of autobiography The Interesting
    Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano, or
    Gustavus Vassa, the African (1789)
  • - about the cruel slave trade
  • - promoting the abolition campaign in England

17
Philip Freneau (1752-1832)
  • Poet of American Revolution poems of
    patriotism and nationalism
  • Poems in praise of nature and the American
    Indians way of life (noble savage), a part of
    American romantic tradition

18
Phillis Wheatley (1753-1784)
  • First black woman poet who published poems in the
    literary history of the United States

19
First American novelists
  • Charles Brockden Brown (1771-1810), Wieland
    (1798)
  • William Hill Brown (1765-1793), The Power of
    Sympathy (1789)
  • Hannah Webster Foster (1758-1840), woman novelist
    who wrote The Coquette or, The History of Eliza
    Wharton A Novel Founded on Fact. By a Lady of
    Massachusetts (1797)

20
The Romantic period 18201865
21
Romanticism
  • As an approach in literary creation, romanticism
    is ever present in literature of all times.
  • As a literary movement, it occurred and developed
    in Europe and America at the turn of the 19th
    century
  • Under the historical background of the Industrial
    Revolution around 1760 and the French
    Revolution(17891799)

22
Romantic vs. Neoclassic (1)
  • Neoclassicism
  • - reason, order, elegant wit
  • - rationalism of enlightenment in 18th-cent.
  • Romanticism
  • - passion, emotion, natural beauty
  • - imagination, mysticism, liberalism (freedom
    to express personal feelings)

23
Romantic vs. Neoclassic (2)
  • Innovation
  • - subjects common life the supernatural
    the far away and the long ago
  • - style common language really used by men
    poetic symbolism
  • Strong traditionalism
  • -distrust of radical innovation
  • -respect for classical writers
  • -upper-class subjects
  • -elevated style poetic diction

24
Romantic vs. Neoclassic(3)
  • Good poetry is the spontaneous overflow of
    powerful feelings.
  • - unforced and free composition out of the
    inherent organic laws of the poets imagination
  • Poetry is an art that needs long studied and
    practiced skills to achieve correctness
  • - observe stylistic decorum
  • - respect established / artificial rules of
    poetry

25
Romantic vs. Neoclassic(4)
  • Subject matter nature central human experiences
    and problems
  • Feelingful meditation thinking
  • Subject matter human beings
  • Poetry is an imitation of human life, a mirror
    held up to nature
  • Art for humanitys sake for instruction and
    aesthetic pleasure

26
Romantic vs. Neoclassic(5)
  • Subject matter personal experiences of the poet,
    often the social nonconformists or outcasts
  • Subject matter and objects what human beings
    possess in common representative
    characteristics and widely shared experiences,
    thoughts, feelings and tastes.

27
Romantic vs. Neoclassic(6)
  • Human beings are endowed with limitless
    aspiration toward the infinite good
  • Highest art an endeavour beyond finite human
    possibility
  • Human beings are limited
  • - attack human pride
  • - Great Chain of Being
  • - submitted to rules or conventions in
    subjects, structure, diction, e.g. heroic couplet

28
The American Romanticism
  • stretched from the end of the 18th century to the
    outbreak of the Civil War
  • was extremely influential, and best represented
    by the New England poets and novelists
  • Both imitative and independent
  • One of the most important periods in the history
    of American literature, usually called the
    Renaissance of American literature

29
Early Romanticism
  • Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
  • James Russell Lowell
  • John Greenleaf Whittier
  • James Fenimore Cooper
  • Washington Irving
  • William Cullen Bryant

30
New England Transcendentalism
  • Ralph Waldo Emerson
  • Henry David Thoreau
  • Margaret Fuller

31
High Romanticism
  • Walt Whitman
  • Emily Dickinson
  • Nathaniel Hawthorne
  • Herman Melville
  • Edgar Allan Poe

32
Early romantic writers
33
Washington Irving (1783-1859)
  • The first American writer internationally
    acclaimed, most famous for his book The Sketch
    Book (1819-1820) including
  • - Rip Van Winkle
  • - The Legend of Sleepy Hollow

34
James Fenimore Cooper(1789-1851)
  • The Leather-stocking series???/??????? (Natty
    Bumppo wearing long deerskin leggings)
  • - The Pioneers (1823) ???
  • - The Last of the Mohicans (1826)???????
  • - The Prairie (1827)???
  • - The Pathfinder, (1840)???
  • - The Deerslayer (1841)???

35
William Cullen Bryant (1794-1878)
  • The first important American romantic poet of
    international reputation famous for poems like
  • - Thanatopsis (1817)?????
  • - The Yellow Violet (1814)??????
  • - To a Waterfoul (1815)???

36
New England Poets
  • Conservative and imitative
  • Henry Wadsworth Longfellow (1807-1882)
  • - The Song of Hiawatha?????(1855)
  • - I Shot an Arrow ??????
  • - A Psalm of Life ??? / ????
  • Oliver Wendell Holmes (1809-1894)
  • James Russell Lowell (1819-1891)
  • John Greenleaf Whittier (1807-1892)
  • - Snow-Bound (1866) (New England idyllic
    scene)

37
New England Transcendentalism
38
Transcendentalism
  • The term transcendentalism is derived from the
    Latin verb transcendere meaning, to rise above,
    or to pass beyond the limits.
  • Transcendentalism has been defined as the
    recognition in man of the capacity of acquiring
    knowledge transcending the reach of the five
    senses, or of knowing truth intuitively, or of
    reaching the divine without the need of an
    intercessor.

39
Transcendentalism
  • As the leader of this movement, Ralph Waldo
    Emerson interpreted transcendentalism as
    whatever belongs to the class of intuitive
    thought, and as idealism as it appears in
    1842. He believed that the transcendental law
    was the moral law through which man discovered
    the nature of God as a living spirit.

40
Three Sources
  • It was a system of thought that originated from
    three sources.
  • First, American Unitarianism. It represented a
    thoughtful revolt against orthodox Puritanism.
    Unitarianism believed God as one being, rejecting
    the doctrine of trinity, stressing the divinity
    in human nature. It laid the foundation for the
    central doctrines of transcendentalism.

41
Three Sources
  • Secondly, the idealistic philosophy from France
    and Germany exerted enormous impact on American
    intellectuals.
  • Thirdly, oriental mysticism as revealed in Hindu
    and Chinese classics reached America in English
    translations.
  • As a result, New England Transcendentalism
    blended native American tradition with foreign
    influences.

42
Development
  • Ralph Waldo Emerson published Nature in 1836
    which represented a new way of intellectual
    thinking in America.
  • The Universe is composed of Nature and the Soul.
    Spirit is present everywhere. This new voice led
    American Romanticism to a new and mature period,
    the period of New England Transcendentalism.
  • This was the most significant development of
    American literature in the mid-19th century.

43
Development
  • The Concord club was the first and most famous of
    a series of forums that served during the next
    few decades as social gathering points. It became
    the movement's magnetic center.
  • They advocated their views and principles in
    various magazines. Besides, they even published
    their journal, The Dial (1840-1844).

44
Major Transcendentalist Figures
  • Ralph Waldo Emerson (1803-1882)
  • Nature (1836)
  • The American Scholar (1837)
  • Divinity School Address (1838)
  • Essays First Series (1841)
  • Essays Second Series (1844)
  • H. D. Thoreau (1817-1862)
  • Walden (1854)
  • Civil Disobedience (1849)
  • Margaret Fuller (1810-1850)
  • Woman in the Nineteenth Century (1845)
  • Editor of The Dial (1840-42)

45
High Romanticism
46
Whitman and Dickinson Romantic Modern Poets
  • 1. Both passionate in expressing emotions
  • 2. Unconventional in poetic forms and images
  • Walt Whitman (1819-1892)
  • - Leaves of Grass (1855, 1856, 1860, 1867,
    1871, 1876, 1881, 1889, 1891-2)
  • Emily Dickinson (1830-1886)
  • - Slant rhymes, capitalizations, dashes
  • - uncertainty

47
Nathaniel Hawthorne (1804-1864)
  • The Scarlet Letter (1850)??
  • The House of Seven Gables (1851)??????????
  • The Blithedale Romance (1852)????
  • The Marble Faun (1860)????

48
Herman Melville (1819-1891)
  • Typee (1846)
  • Moby-Dick (1851)
  • The Piazza Tales (Beneto Cereno Bartleby the
    Scrivener) (1856)
  • The Confidence Man (1857)
  • Billy Budd (1924, posthumously published)

49
Moby-Dick
50
Moby-Dick
51
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52
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53
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54
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55
Billy Budd
56
Edgar Allan Poe (1809-1849)
  • art for arts sake
  • Horror story
  • Science fiction
  • Detective story
  • Psychologically thrilling tale
  • Poems
  • Literary criticism

57
The Realism and Naturalism
  • 18651914

58
REALISM
  • Mid-19th-century French movement in literature.
  • Emphasized the use of Scientific Method a method
    of observation and hypothesis to suggest
    solutions to problems.
  • Today, it generally means the surface details of
    things that appear life-like, or theatre that
    seeks to give the appearance of everyday reality.

58
59
The Local Color Movement (1865-1880)
  • The second half of the 19th century saw America
    becoming increasingly self-conscious. Americans
    wanted to know what their country looked like,
    and how the varied races which made up their
    growing population lived and talked.

59
60
Local Color
  • A kind of fiction that came to prominence in the
    USA in the late 19th century, and was devoted to
    capturing the unique customs, manners, speech,
    folklore, and other qualities of a particular
    regional community, usually in humorous short
    stories. The most famous of the local colorists
    was Mark Twain others included Bret Hart, Kate
    Chopin, and Sarah Orne Jewett.
  • (Oxford Concise Dictionary of Literary Terms)

61
Mark Twain (1835-1910)
  • Innocents Abroad (1869)
  • The Gilded Age (1873)
  • The Adventures of Tom Sawyer (1876)
  • The Prince and the Pauper (1882)
  • Life on the Mississippi (1883)
  • Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (1884)
  • A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthurs Court
    (1889)
  • The Man That Corrupted Hadleydburg (1900)

62
Bret Harte (1836-1902)
  • Editor, beginning in 1868, of The Overland
    Monthly, San Francisco, in which he published the
    stories The Luck of Roaring Camp and The
    Outcasts of Poker Flat, and the poem Plain
    Language from Truthful James, also known as The
    Heathen Chine.

62
63
Local Color Women Novelists
  • Kate Chopin (1851-1904)
  • - The Awakening (1899)
  • Sarah Orne Jewett (1849-1909)
  • - Deephaven (1877)
  • - A Country Doctor (1884)
  • - The Country of the Pointed Firs (1896)

64
Characteristics of Realistic Writing
  • The purpose of writing is to instruct and to
    entertain.
  • The subject matter of Realism is drawn from "our
    experience, it treated the common, the average,
    the non-extreme, the representative, the
    probable.
  • The style of Realism
  • Emphasis is placed upon scenic presentation,
  • de-emphasizing authorial comment and evaluation.
  • rejects the omniscient point of view.

64
65
Realistic Techniques
  1. Plots emphasizing the norm of daily experience
  2. Ordinary characters, studied in depth
  3. Complete authorial objectivity
  4. Responsible morality a world truly reported
  5. Settings thoroughly familiar to the writer

65
66
Theorist of American Realism
  • William Dean Howells (1837-1920)
  • Editor of Atlantic Monthly, writer of
    Criticism and Fiction (1891) in which he
    championed realism, of the novel The Rise of
    Silas Lapham (1885)

67
Henry James (1843-1916), master of psychological
realism
  • Writer of Daisy Miller (1879), The Portrait of a
    Lady (1881), The Wings of the Dove (1902), The
    Ambassadors (1903), The Golden Bowl (1904)
  • International themes Contrasting American and
    European cultures
  • The first to use Third-person limited point of
    view????????, center of consciousness

68
  • What is the difference between Realism and
    Naturalism?

68
69
American Naturalism
  • An extension or continuation of Realism with the
    addition of pessimistic determinism.

69
70
American Naturalism
  • Includes all the characteristics of Realism, as
    well as the following
  • The characters (who are representative of
    humankind) must be seen as biological phenomena
    whose behaviors are strictly determined by
    HEREDITY and ENVIRONMENT (influence of Darwin).
  • Highly deterministic (fatalistic), life is
    portrayed as brutal and ugly, where characters
    have no sense of free will.

70
71
Subject Matter of Naturalism
  • Raw and unpleasant experiences which reduce
    characters to "degrading" behavior in their
    struggle to survive.
  • Characters are mostly from the lower middle or
    the lower classespoor, uneducated, and
    unsophisticated.
  • Milieu is the commonplace and the unheroic.
  • Life is usually the dull round of daily
    existence.

71
72
Subject Matter of Naturalism
  • There is discussion of fate and hubris that
    affect a character.
  • Generally the controlling force is society and
    the surrounding environment.

72
73
Selected Authors of Naturalism
  • Booker Taliaferro Washington (1856-1915)
  • Frank Norris (1870-1902)
  • Stephen Crane (1871-1900)
  • Theodore Dreiser (1871-1945)
  • Jack London (1876-1916)
  • Upton Sinclair (1878-1968)

73
74
Booker T. Washington (1856-1915)
  • Black educator and writer famous for his Tuskegee
    Institute in Alabama
  • Up from Slavery (1901), an autobiography

75
Frank Norris (1870-1902)
  • The Octopus (1901), dealing with the raising of
    wheat in California and the struggles of the
    ranchers against the railroad

76
Stephen Crane (1871-1900)
  • Maggie A Girl of the Streets (1893)
  • The Red Badge of Courage (1895)

77
Theodore Dreiser (1871-1945)
  • Sister Carrie (1900)
  • Jennie Gerhardt (1911)
  • The Financier (1912)
  • The Titan (1914)
  • The Stoic (1947)
  • The Genius (1915)
  • An American Tragedy ( 1925)

78
Jack London (1876-1916)
  • The Call of the Wild (1903)
  • The Sea-Wolf (1904)
  • White Fang (1906)
  • Martin Eden (1909), a semi-autobiographical novel

79
Upton Sinclair (1878-1968)
  • Muckraker writer
  • The Jungle (1906)

80
The Modern period
  • 19141945

81
Modernism
  • Background
  • - commercialization, industrialization (mass
    production) threatens individualism, sense of
    despair
  • - wars loss of belief and certainty
  • - society is becoming worse
  • - the world is incomprehensible
  • - there are no solutions to problems more
    questions than answers
  • - breakdown of traditional values

82
Characteristics of modern literature
  • subject matter strong sense of loss, alienation,
    loneliness, rootlessness, fragmentation, anxiety,
    obscurity, absurdity internal consciousness /
    unconsciousness, antihero
  • Stylistic innovationsdisruption of traditional
    syntax and form
  • Techniques stream-of-consciousness,
    juxtaposition of fragmentation, ambiguity,
    uncertainty

83
83
84
Modern Poetry
  • Chicago poets Carl Sandburg (1878-1967), Hart
    Crane (1899-1932)
  • Imagist poets
  • T.S. Eliot (1888-1965)
  • Robert Frost (1874-1963)
  • Wallace Stevens (1879-1955)
  • The Fugitives / Agrarians

85
Imagism (1909-1917)
  • U.S. Ezra Pound, H.D. (Hilda Doolittle), John
    Gould Fletcher, Amy Lowell, William Carlos
    Williams
  • England F.S. Flint, Richard Aldington, D.H.
    Lawrence

86
T.S. Eliot (1888-1965)
  • The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock (1915)
  • The Waste Land (1922) ??
  • The Four Quartets (1935-1942)?????
  • Murder in the Cathedral (1935)??????

87
The Fugitives / Agrarians
  • Poets, novelists, critics (the New Criticism)
  • - John Crowe Ransom
  • - Robert Penn Warren
  • - Allen Tate
  • - Cleanth Brooks

88
Modern Drama
  • Social criticism
  • - Elmer Rice, The Adding Machine (1923)
  • - Clifford Odets (leftist playwright), Waiting
    for Lefty (1935)
  • Symbolism Expressionism
  • - Eugene ONeill (1888-1953)

89
Eugene ONeill (1888-1953)
  • Emperor Jones (1920)
  • The Hairy Ape (1921)
  • Desire Under the Elms (1924)
  • The Iceman Cometh (1939)
  • Long Days Journey Into Night (1940)

90
Modern Fiction
  • Women writers
  • Fiction about small-town people
  • The Lost Generation writers
  • Southern writers
  • Leftist writers
  • Black writers

91
Modern Women Novelists
  • Gertrude Stein (1874-1946), writers writer
  • - Three Lives (1909)
  • Edith Wharton (1862-1937)
  • Willa Cather (1873-1947)

92
Edith Wharton (1862-1937)
  • Novel of manners ????
  • The House of Mirth (1905)
  • The Custom of the Country (1913)
  • The Age of Innocence (1920)

93
Willa Cather (1873-1947)
  • Frontier life on the western prairies
  • O, Pioneers! (1913)
  • My Antonia (1918)

94
Sinclair Lewis (1885-1951)
  • Main Street (1920)
  • Babbitt (1922)

95
Sherwood Anderson (1876-1941)
  • Winesburg, Ohio (1919), stories of small-town
    people
  • The Triumph of the Egg (1921), stories and poems
  • Death in the Woods and Other Stories (1933)

96
The Lost Generation
  • F. Scott Fitzgerald
  • Ernest Hemingway
  • John Dos Passos

97
F. Scott Fitzgerald (1896-1940)
  • This Side of Paradise (1920)
  • Flappers and Philosophers (1920)
  • Tales of Jazz Age (1922)
  • The Beautiful and Damned (1922)
  • The Great Gatsby (1925)
  • Tender Is the Night (1934)
  • The Last Tycoon (1941)

98
Ernest Hemingway (1899-1961)
  • The Sun Also Rises (1926)
  • A Farewell to Arms (1929)
  • For Whom the Bell Tolls (1940)
  • The Old Man and the Sea (1952)

99
John Dos Passos (1896-1970)
  • Three Soldiers (1921)
  • Manhattan Transfer (1925)
  • U.S.A. trilogy
  • - The 42nd Parallel (1930)
  • - 1919 (1932)
  • - The Big Money (1936)

100
Southern Novelist William Faulkner (1897-1962)
  • His mythical Yoknapatawpha County
  • The Sound and the Fury (1929), the
    stream-of-consciousness device
  • As I Lay Dying (1930)
  • Absalom, Absalom! (1936)
  • Light in August (1932)
  • Go Down, Moses (1942)

101
Leftist Writer
  • John Steinbeck (1902-1968)
  • - The Grapes of Wrath (1939)

102
Black Writers
  • Harlem Renaissance ???????
  • Jean Toomer (1894-1967)
  • - Cane (1923)
  • Richard Wright (1908-1960)
  • - Native Son (1940), a protest novel
  • Zora Neale Hurston (1891-1960)
  • - Their Eyes Were Watching God (1937)??????
  • Langston Hughes (1902-1967), Harlem laureate
    poet

103
Contemporary literature
  • since 1945

104
Contemporary Fiction
  • The Beat Generation
  • The Black Humor
  • The Non-fiction / New Journalism novels
  • War Novels
  • Southern Writers
  • Black Writers
  • Jewish American writers
  • Native American writers
  • Chinese American writers

105
The Beat Generation
  • - Jack Kerouac (1922-1969)s novel On the Road
    (1957)

106
The Black Humor
  • Joseph Heller (1923-1999), Catch-22 (1961)
  • John Barth (1930- )
  • Thomas Pynchon (1937- )
  • Kurt Vonnegut (1922- ), Slaughter-House Five
    (1969)

107
Non-fiction / New Journalism novels
  • Truman Capote (1924-1984), In Cold Blood (1966)
  • Tom Wolfe (1930- )
  • Norman Mailer (1923-2007), The Armies of the
    Night (1968)
  • Joan Didion (1934- )

108
War Novels
  • Norman Mailer (1923-2007), The Naked and the Dead
    (1948)
  • Irwin Shaw (1913-1984), The Young Lions (1948)
  • James Jones (1921-1977), From Here to Eternity
    (1951)
  • Herman Wouk (1915- ), The Winds of War (1971)

109
Southern Writers
  • Katherine Ann Porter (1890-1980)
  • Flannery OConnor (1925-1964)s novel Wise Blood
    (1952), short story A Good Man Is Hard to Find
  • Eudora Welty (1909-2001)
  • Robert Penn Warren (1905-1989)s novel All the
    Kings Men (1946) won the Pulitzer Prize for
    fiction. He received Pulitzer Prizes for poetry
    twice. He is only person to have won Pulitzer
    Prizes for both fiction and poetry.

110
Black Writers
  • Ralph Ellison (1914-1994), Invisible Man (1952)
  • James Baldwin (1924-1987), Go Tell It on the
    Mountain (1953)
  • Martin Luther King, Jr. (1929-1968), I Have a
    Dream
  • Malcolm X (1925-1965), The Autobiography of
    Malcolm X (1964) which was told to Alex Haley,
    writer of Roots (1976)
  • Leroy Jones (1934- ), a poet

111
Black Women Writers
  • Lorraine Hansberry (1930-1965)s play A Raisin in
    the Sun (1959)
  • Alice Walker (1944- ), The Color Purple (1982)
  • Toni Morrison (1931- ) who won the Nobel Prize in
    1993, The Bluest Eye (1970), Song of Solomon
    (1977), Beloved (1987)

112
Jewish American Writers
  • Norman Mailer
  • I.B. Singer (1902-1991), Nobel Prize winner in
    1978
  • Saul Bellow (1915-2005), Nobel Prize Winner in
    1976
  • Bernard Malamud (1914-1986)
  • Philip Roth (1933- )
  • J.D. Salinger (1919-2010)
  • Henry Roth (1906-1995), Call It Sleep (1934)

113
Saul Bellow (1915-2005),
  • Dangling Man (1944)
  • The Adventures of Augie March (1953)??????
  • Seize the Day (1956)
  • Henderson the Rain King (1959)
  • Herzog (1964)??????
  • Mr. Sammlers Planet (1970)??????
  • Humboldts Gift (1975) ?????

114
Bernard Malamud (1914-1986)
  • Novels
  • The Assistant (1957)
  • The Fixer (1966) ??????
  • The Tenants (1971)
  • Short Stories
  • The Magic Barrel (1958), short story
    collection,??????

115
Philip Roth (1933- )
  • Goodbye, Columbus (1959)??????
  • Portnoys Complaint (1969)
  • The Ghost Writer (1979)
  • The Counterlife (1986)?????????
  • Sabbaths Theater (1995)??????
  • American Pastoral (1997) ?????

116
J.D. Salinger (1919-2010)
  • The Catcher in the Rye (1951) ???????

117
Native American Writers
  • N. Scott Momady (1934- ), The House Made of
    Dawn???? (1968)?????
  • Leslie Marmon Silko (1948- ), Ceremony?? (1977)
  • Louise Erdrich (1954- ), Love Medicine
    (1984)???????????????????5????

118
Chinese American Writers
  • Maxine Hong Kingston ???(1940- ), Woman Warrior
    (1976)???????????????, China Man (1980)?????
  • Amy Tan???(1952- ), Joy Luck Club (1989)???
  • Gish Jen???(1955- ), Typical American (1991)
    ??????

119
Other Novelists
  • John Updike (1932-2009)
  • prolific writer famous for his rabbit series
    novels and a novella
  • ????,????????
  • Vladimir Nabokov, Lolita (1955)

120
John Updike (1932-2009)
  • Rabbit, Run (1960)
  • Rabbit, Redux (1971)
  • Rabbit Is Rich (1981)????????????????????
  • Rabbit at Rest (1990)?????
  • Rabbit Remembered (2001), novella

121
Contemporary Poetry
  • Beat Generation poetry
  • Confessional poetry
  • Other poets

122
Beat Generation poetry
  • Allen Ginsberg (1926-1997), Howl (1956)
  • Lawrence Ferlinghetti (1919- ), A Coney Island
    of the Mind (1958)???????

123
Confessional Poetry?????
  • ???????????,????????????????,?????????????????????
    ??????
  • Robert Lowell (1917-1977), Life Studies (1959)
    ??????
  • Allen Ginsberg
  • Ann Sexton (1928-1974), Live or Die (1966)?????
  • Sylvia Plath (1932-1963), Collected Poems
    (1981)?????
  • John Berryman (1914-1972), 77 Dream Songs (1964)
    ?????

124
Other Poets
  • Marianne Moore (1887-1972)
  • Elizabeth Bishop (1911-1979)
  • Gwendolyn Brooks (1917- )
  • Adrienne Rich (1929- )
  • Charles Olson (1910-1970)
  • John Ashberry (1927- )
  • Frank OHara (1926-1966)

125
Contemporary Drama
  • Tennessee Williams (1914-1983)
  • A Streetcar Named Desire (1948)
  • The Glass Menagerie (1944)
  • Arthur Miller (1915-2005)
  • Death of a Salesman (1949)
  • Edward Albee (1928- )
  • The Zoo Story (1958)
  • Whos Afraid of Virginia Woolf? (1962)

126
Nobel Prize Winners
  • Sinclair Lewis 1930
  • Eugene ONeill 1936
  • Pearl Buck 1938 ??? The Good Earth??
  • T.S. Eliot 1948
  • William Faulkner 1950
  • Ernest Hemingway 1954
  • John Steinbeck 1962
  • Saul Bellow 1976
  • Isaac Bashevis Singer 1978
  • Toni Morrison 1993
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