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Brief History of Methods of Missions Part 2


Brief History of Methods of Missions Part 2 How did we get to where we are today, and what can we learn from the past? * – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Brief History of Methods of Missions Part 2

Brief History of Methods of Missions Part 2
  • How did we get to where we are today, and
  • what can we learn from the past?

American Involvement (1810-1832)
  • American home missions to frontier and Indian
  • Student movement at Andover Seminary and Williams
    College in New England -- Haystack Prayer
  • Led by Adoniram Judson and Luther Rice, first
    American missionaries
  • Formed ABCFM 1812 and went to India to work with
  • Studied Bible en route to be convinced about
    believers baptism
  • decided to leave ABCFM
  • Judson goes to Burma and Rice returns to US to
    raise support
  • Rice met Furman and formed the General Missionary
    Convention of the Baptist Denomination (origin
    of the SBC)

Significant Events and Missionaries (1832-1865)
2nd Awakening
  • Formation of the SBC in 1845 and Foreign Mission
    Board (later IMB)not to defend slavery, but to
    facilitate missionary effort by cooperative,
    volunteer support
  • Most mission agencies would not accept
    missionaries anyway related to slaves
  • Second Evangelical Awakening among laymen who
    emphasized prayer, discipleship and godly lives
  • Led to numerous mission boards and hundreds of
  • Became radical and sects emerged

Golden Age of Colonial Missions (1865-1910) 3rd
  • Mission efforts tied to colonial expansion of
    major powers
  • Advantages
  • Brought entry into new fields
  • Brought needed political development
  • Brought education
  • Disadvantages
  • Gunboat commercialism associated with missions
  • Exploitive
  • Generated resentment against Western Christianity
  • Premature indignation resulted in failures in
  • Resulted in pious paternalism or benevolent

Development of Colonialism
More on Golden Age of Colonial Missions
  • Missionary strategy aimed at individual
    conversion, church planting, social
    transformation through evangelism, education and
  • Initial radical discontinuity declined with
    inroads of liberalism and pluralism
  • 1860 saw first single womens appointment
  • Faith Missions started
  • Hudson founded China Inland Missions (CIM) in
  • Student Volunteer Movement sent 6,000 to China
  • Four types of Missions now functioning (1)
    Interdenominational, (2) Denominational, (3)
    Faith Missions, (4) Specialized Missions

Outstanding Missionaries of Era
  • Charlotte Lottie Moon (1873) pioneer single
    female missionary, became evangelist and church
    planter. Died in 1912 as a result of
  • Amy Carmichael (1893) service in India and
    author of many books. 55 years of service
    rescuing girls from Temple prostitution in Hindu

Evaluation of Colonial Missions
  • William Carey envisioned a global missionary
  • In 1910 it was realized World Missionary
    Conference, Edinburgh, Scotland. 1200
    representatives present.
  • Coined the phrase The Evangelization of the
    World in this Generation.
  • Association with colonial governments gave
    missions an imperialistic reputation or image
  • Governmental paternalism reflected in missionary
    strategies as well

Advances in 20th Century
  • Wars 1900-1941 24 international wars
    1945-1969 100 wars of independence!
  • Optimism crushed after holocaust of WWII
  • After WWII major base of missions shifted to US
  • Massive evacuation of China has remained
  • Nationalism on rise
  • 51 nations started UN in 1945
  • 192 Present membership of UN (2010)
  • Operation World lists 237 countries
  • Annulled the colonialism influence
  • Political imperialism ended, but economic
    imperialism continued
  • Independent nations condemned former colonial
  • Western education contributed to nationalism

Religious Turbulence 1. Doctrinal Issues
  • Ecumenical Movement and response
  • Comity Agreements mission fields divided up to
    eliminate competition
  • Theological and methodological differences
    (social emphasis) led to breakdown
  • 1932 a move to favor social action rather than
    conversion as chief aim
  • Liberalism controversy led to denominational
    splits and new mission organizations
  • Pentecostalism starts

New Organizations
  • WCCformed in 1948 in Amsterdam Evangelical
    doctrine marginalized liberal
  • IFMAformed in 1917 by NAE Faith
    interdenominational missions Now Cross Global
  • EFMAformed in 1945 by NAE denominations and
    Para-church (IMB joined the EFMA in 1995) Now
    Mission Exchange
  • FOMFundamentalists Missions
  • AIMSformed in 1985 (Assoc. of International
    Mission Services) formed for charismatic agencies

Independent Missions
  • Many independent missions remain unaffiliated
    with any national association
  • Wycliffe and New Tribes Mission are largest
  • 50 of all missions are not associated
  • Organizational thrusts of WCC has not been
    successful, rather are decreasing
  • Evangelical denominations and mission boards are
    growing substantially

Religious Turbulence 2. Liberation Theology
  • Concept of human rights driving theology
  • Began by Peruvian priest, Gustavo Gutierrez in
  • Inequalities resolved by Marxist-style rebellion
    against oppressive dictatorships
  • Allegorical interpretation of Exodus, liberating
    the captives
  • Rejected by evangelicals, esp. hermeneutics
  • With fall of dictatorships, reason for existing
    dissolved, but rejuvenated for poverty

Religious Turbulence 3. Pentecostal Explosion
  • Beginning in 1900 in small Kansas BI Charles
    Parham and William Seymour
  • Oral Roberts and Full Gospel Businessmens
    Fellowship in 1951
  • 1960 11 million (14 of Evangelicals)
  • 199093 million (31 of Evangelicals)
  • 2006 524 million (70 of Evangelicals) est.
  • Evangelicals have grown at 4.5 (but driving
    forces is Pentecostal growth at 7.4)
  • 70 of all Protestants in Latin America are
    Pentecostal (typical in most of world)

Kane Reasons for Pentecostal Growth
  1. Generally indigenous from inception
  2. Strong emphasis on every believer being a
    personal witness
  3. Focus has been the lower classes looking for
    acceptance and hope
  4. Emotional and celebration style appeals to
    emotional make-up
  5. Emphasis on fullness of Spirit that can be felt
  6. Occurrences of healings and miracles draw many
    (Kane 1982 pp. 148-149)

More on Pentecostals
  • Charismatics have penetrated Catholics, orthodox
    and Protestant denominations around the world
  • Growing acceptance of forms of worship (praise
    chorus, clapping, lifting hands, dancing and
    praise banners)
  • Acceptance of worship form has not led to
    acceptance of Pentecostal doctrine
  • Female liberation found favor in Pentecostal
    movement with many women pastors
  • Success of Charismatics has led many to overcome
    criticism and join the movement

Post WWII Mission Innovations
  • Faith Missionsfollowing Hudson Taylor and George
    Muellers example
  • Most missionaries came from BIs (esp. Moody)
  • Utilization of radio, aviation, Bible
    correspondence, gospel recordings, cassettes,
    films, TEE
  • Largest are Wycliffe, Campus Crusades, NTM
  • Bible Translation
  • Cameron TownsendGuatemala in 1917 tried to reach
    indians in Spanish. Not their heart language. An
    indian asked him, Why, if your God is so smart,
    hasnt He learned our language?
  • 6,528 languages in world, 4,564 no portion of
    Bible yet
  • Represent only 6 of worlds population
  • Wycliffe has 6,267 missionaries

More Post WWII Innovations
  • Media
  • Literature production Bibles, tracts, books,
    literacy methods, correspondence courses, SS
    materials, newspapers, magazines, music
  • Radio HCJB, Trans World Radio now online
  • Films esp. Jesus Film in 270 languages, 2
    billion viewers, 500 million conversions
  • Student mission emphasis
  • Major driving force of missionary movement
  • 3 student movements have motivated 70 of
    missionary force

More on WWII Innovations
  • Training of Nationals
  • Major aspect of missionsmany leaders, but some
  • Move to take seminary to students home TEE
  • Introductory correspondence courses even go to
    non-Christians (Muslims)
  • Role of missionary
  • Rise of national churches assume much of
    missionary work
  • Need to learn to be mentor, coach, trainer of
  • Nevius Plan to stop dependency
  • Converts remain in their occupations and witness
    where they live
  • No church programs started that cannot be
    supported by nationals
  • Gifted nationals developed for evangelism work
  • Nationals provide own bldgs w/o dependence of
    outside sources
  • Never do any ministry that a national cannot do

More on WWII Innovations Research
  • Church Growth Movement methodology
  • Insight from anthropology, sociology, social
  • Research periodicals International Review of
    Missions, Missiology, Evangelical Mission
    Quarterly, International Bulletin of Missionary
  • Research Organizations MARC (Missions Advanced
    Research and Communications) Center, US Center
    for World Missions, Overseas Ministry Study
    Center (OMSC), Billy Graham Center at Wheaton and
    Research Division of IMB
  • Demographic change the world world pop. in
    19001.6 billion 19955.75 billion 20006.13
  • Urbanization in 1900less than 15 200053

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21st Century Innovations
  • 10/40 Window focus 2 billion Chinese, Hindus,
    Muslims virtually unreachedMost neglected people
    in world World A
  • View of world as people groups rather than
    geographical divisions
  • 1998approximately 11,874 ethno-linguistic people
    groups 3,915 virtually untouched
  • IMB Concept
  • Research and survey of unreached people
  • Develop strategy of evangelism and ministry
  • Missionary is catalyst to involve many people in
    different locations and nationalities to reach a
    specific group
  • Originally called non-resident missionarydont
    live in access areacalled strategic

People Groups of Ghana
Personnel for Missions
  • Multiple options for ministry with 4,400 mission
    agencies (still growing)
  • Tent-Makers esp. for Limited Access Countries
  • TESOL, technical, journalist, business
    professionals, unlimited
  • Major increase of missionaries from 2/3 world
    (66 of world population and territory).
  • Missionary pop. 13,000 in 1980 to 36,000 in 1988
    working in 2,425 people groups in 11 countries

Controversial Areas
  • Defining mission
  • Eschatological debates
  • Doctrinal debates on Calvinism, Charismatics
  • Foreign Financing - Dependency
  • Holism
  • Homogenous realities
  • Identificational repentance
  • Moratoriums
  • People Group Orientation
  • Power Ministries
  • Proselytism
  • Lift

Major Trends
  • Interagency Cooperation/Partnering
  • Missiometrics and technology
  • Ethnomusicology
  • Money matters
  • Shifting responsibilities
  • Shifts in short-term vs. long-term or career
  • Rise in 3rd World missions