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Title: Introduction to Environmental Philosophy SFES 1214


1
Introduction to Environmental Philosophy
SFES 1214
Week 10 Sustainable Development
2
SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
3
Sustainable Development Introduction
Sustainable development is becoming a watchword
of recent times. Try Google the word
sustainable development and you will get nearly
17 million results!!! Nowadays most policies by
various organisations are interested to achieve
the goal of sustainable development. So, what is
sustainable development?
How is it connected to what you
have learned so far?
4
ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES
ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERNS
(individual
philosophy)
ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERNS
(Colletive
philosophy/ worldview)
Religious environmental
worldview
Anthropocentrism
Ecocentrism
Individualism
Eco-feminism
5
First lets go to this website www.gapminder.org
6
ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES
Human development issues (social and economic)
ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERNS
(individual
philosophy)
ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERNS
(Colletive
philosophy/ worldview)
Religious environmental
worldview
Anthropocentrism
Ecocentrism
Sustainable Development
Individualism
Eco-feminism
7
Sustainable Development Definition Main
Principles
The root meaning Sustainable able to maintain
or stay in existence over a period of
time Development improving the economic and
social conditions of countries Official
definition "Sustainable development is a
development that meets the needs of the present
without compromising the ability of future
generations to meet their own needs (The
Brundtland Report, 1987)
8
Sustainable Development Definition Main
Principles
Other than the issue of inter-generational
consideration, most definitions of sustainable
development has the view that sustainability
depends three "interdependent and mutually
reinforcing pillars", which are (1) Economic
development (2) Social welfare (3) Environmental
protection
9
Sustainable Development Definition Main
Principles
Environmental Protection Protecting the
environment (what we have covered in
class!) Economic Development Increasing
economic growth (production and distribution of
goods) Social Welfare Ensuring the welfare or
wellbeing of society at every level
10
Sustainable Development Definition Main
Principles
However, sustainable development is an ambiguous
concept it can mean different things to
different people. The concept remains weakly
defined and contains a large amount of debate as
to its precise definition. Different conceptions
also reveal a strong tension between different
environmental worldviews, especially between
eco-centrism and anthropocentrism. Some see it
as a radical green call for a fundamental
organisation of social, economic, and political
life (particularly those that are more inclined
to the worldview of ecocentrism, individualism,
ecofeminism) While others see it as a means to
continue with the business as usual patterns of
economic growth but with due consideration of
social and environmental progress (those with the
worldview of anthropocentrism)
11
Sustainable Development Definition Main
Principles
But most differences in interpretation still
revolves around these two elements The
intergenerational dimension How do we balance
the needs of present and future generations?
The three pillars of sustainability How do we
balance the quality of economic development,
social development and environmental
protection?
? So, at least all versions of sustainable
development seek to balance economic, social and
environmental goals (the three pillars) in ways
that meets the needs of present without
compromising the ability of future generation to
meet their own needs (intergenerational dimension)
12
Sustainable Development Scope
Due to its broad definition, Sustainable
Development has been used as a guiding principle
for various policy areas. The United Nations
Division for Sustainable Development lists the
following areas within the scope of sustainable
development Agriculture, Atmosphere,
Biodiversity, Biotechnology, Capacity-building,
Climate Change, Consumption and Production
Patterns, Demographics, Desertification and
Drought, Disaster Reduction and Management,
Education and Awareness, Energy, Finance,
Forests, Fresh Water, Health, Human Settlements,
Indicators, Industry, Information for Decision
Making and Participation, Integrated Decision
Making, International Law, International
Cooperation for Enabling Environment,
Institutional Arrangements, Land management,
Major Groups, Mountains, National Sustainable
Development Strategies, Oceans and Seas, Poverty,
Sanitation, Science, Sustainable tourism,
Technology, Toxic Chemicals, Trade and
Environment, Transport, Waste (Hazardous), Waste
(Radioactive), Waste (Solid), Water
13
Is Sustainable Development related to you?
Physics World Conference on Physics and
Sustainable Development (http//www.wcpsd.org/)

Chemistry Sustainable Development Through Green
Chemistry (http//www.wun.ac.uk/greenchem/)
Math Institute of Applied Mathematics
(http//www3.iam.metu.edu.tr/iam/index.php/16_5_2
008_Genel_Seminer_Abstract_1)
14
Sustainable Development History
1972

United Nations
Conference on Human and Environment (UNCHE),
Stockholm Sweden. 1972


Club of Rome published the Limits of
Growth 1980

World
Conservation strategy by International Union for
Conservation of Nature (IUCN) 1983 United
Nations World Comission on Environment and
Development (WCED) 1987


United Nations Brundlant report Our Common
Future

The Sustainable Development concept was
formally defined 1992


Earth Summit and the United Nations Conference
on Environment and Development (UNCED) in Rio de
Janerio, Brazil

Rio Declaration on Environment and
Development called The Agenda 21 2002


World Summit on Sustainable
Development held in Johannesburg, South Africa


Earth Charter (Rio 10) Johannesburg
Declaration
15
Agenda 21
To provide a clearer picture of what sustainable
development means in practice, we it useful how
it has been translated into an action plan
Agenda 21, declared during the Earth Summit.
Agenda 21 is a programme run by the United
Nation. It is a comprehensive programme or
blueprint of action to be taken globally,
nationally and locally by organisations of the
UN, governments, and major groups in every area
in which humans impact on the environment. The
number 21 refers to the 21st century. The full
text of Agenda 21 was revealed at the 1992 United
Nations Conference on Environment and Development
(Earth Summit), held in Rio de Janeiro on June
14th where 179 governments voted to adopt the
programme. The final text was the result of
drafting, consultation and negotiation, beginning
in 1989 and culminating at the two-week
conference.
More information http//www.un.org/esa/sustdev/do
cuments/agenda21/index.htm
16
Agenda 21
There are 40 chapters in Agenda 21, divided into
four sections. The whole document was over 900
pages Section I Social and Economic
Dimensions including combating poverty, changing
consumption patterns, population and demographic
dynamics, promoting health, promoting sustainable
settlement patterns and integrating environment
and development into decision-making. Section II
Conservation and Management of Resources for
Development including atmospheric protection,
combating deforestation, protecting fragile
environments, conservation of biological
diversity (biodiversity), and control of
pollution. Section III Strengthening the Role of
Major Groups including the roles of children and
youth, women, NGOs, local authorities, business
and workers. Section IV Means of
Implementation including science, technology
transfer, education, international institutions
and mechanisms and financial mechanisms.
17
Agenda 21
Local
Agenda 21 (LA21)
The implementation of Agenda 21 is intended to
involve action at international, national,
regional and local levels. Some national and
state governments have legislated or advised that
local authorities take steps to implement the
plan locally, as recommended in Chapter 28 of the
document. Such programmes are often known as
'Local Agenda 21' or 'LA21'.
In Malaysia, we have several initiatives such as
(1) Selangor Agenda21 http//selangor.agenda21.go
v.my/ (2) Sustainable Penang Initiative
http//unpan1.un.org/intradoc/groups/public/docum
ents/APCITY/UNPAN017620.pdf (3) Local Agenda
21 Petaling Jaya http//www.mbpj.gov.my/la21/engli
sh/agenda21.html Initiatives in other countries
http//www.bestpractices.org/2006winners.html


18
Agenda 21
Local
Agenda 21 Sustainable Penang Initiative
Sustainable Penang Initiative (SPI) pioneered a
community- based indicators project aimed at
creating a process for more holistic and
sustainable development planning in the State of
Penang. It covered different areas of
sustainable development ecological
sustainability, social justice, economic
productivity, cultural vibrancy, and popular
participation. The initiative eventually
identified indicators through which they could
monitor development in Penang over time.
Monitoring results were presented at a People's
Forum! It noted that the SPI process increased
participation, accountability and transparency in
Penang. Also, it spearheaded the creation of new
organizations to address specific issues
including sustainable transport, disabled access
and water conservation. SPI offers a practical
example of how representatives from government,
business, and civil society can work
constructively together over time to enhance the
effectiveness of development planning. For more
information http//unpan1.un.org/intradoc/groups/
public/documents/APCITY/UNPAN017620.pdf
19
Agenda 21
Local
Agenda 21 Local Agenda 21 Petaling Jaya
  • A Local Agenda 21 Petaling Jaya Committee was set
    up with the mayor of MPPJ as the chairperson. The
    Local Agenda 21 Committee consists of 37 members
    from various stakeholders A specially formulated
    Local Agenda 21 Petaling Jaya logo and slogan
    Petaling Jaya Toward Sustainable Development
    was used to create public awareness shared
    identity and enhance ownership.
  • A second workshop was organized to disseminate
    the common vision
  • to a large number of residents and stakeholders
    to obtain their feedback and
  • reach a consensus. In the second workshop, the
    participants identified three
  • neighborhood areas as pilot project sites.
  • Some of the key activities include
  • Environment Working Committee
  • Social Integration Working Committee
  • Safety Working Committee
  • For more information http//www.mbpj.gov.my/la21/
    english/agenda21.html

20
Johannesburg Declaration
The Johannesburg Declaration was a principal
outcome of the Summit. The declaration is a
collection of general political statements,
reaffirming a commitment to agreements made at
the Earth summit and at the UNCHE, 10 and 30
years prior.
  • The document is meant to serve as a contract for
    the participants of the summit, binding them to
    the outlined agreements. A Plan of
    Implementation laid down more specific goals for
    the nations and organizations that participated
    in the summit. Some of these goals include
  • The establishment of a solidarity fund to wipe
    out poverty. This fund would be sustained by
    voluntary contributions however, developed
    nations are urged to dedicate 0.7 of their
    national income to this cause.
  • Cutting in half by 2015 the proportion of the
    worlds population living on less than a dollar a
    day. This is a reaffirmation of a UN Millennium
    Summit goal.
  • Cutting in half by 2015 the number of people who
    lack clean drinking water and basic sanitation
  • Substantially increase the global share of
    renewable energy
  • Cut significantly by 2010 the rate at which rare
    plants and animals are becoming extinct
  • Restore (where possible) depleted fish stocks by
    2015, and
  • Halving the number of people suffering from
    hunger.

You can download the declaration in full at
http//www.bnpparibas.com/en/sustainable-developme
nt/text/Johannesburg-Declaration.pdf
21
Group assignment
22
Group Assignment
In groups, suggest ideas on how best we could
create a recycling awareness programme for the
colleges in University Malaya. Present your
suggestions in class This can be
divided into three parts (1) Your ideas and how
you propose it can be conducted in the colleges
(2) Why do you think it is a good idea? (e.g. it
is easy to implement it is educational how does
it touch upon the environmental ethics of the
community) (3) What are the possible limitation
of your ideas?
23
What you need to do!
  • Choose your group in moodle. You will be divided
    in 10 groups
  • A talk will be given by a representative from
    Alam Flora next week (16th Sept 2008) during
    lecture time.
  • Before that I want you to make sufficient
    preparation before the lecture (groups that are
    active in asking questions will be given a bonus
    mark)
  • After next week you will have Week 11 and Week 12
    to prepare the assignment (no class, no tutorial)
  • The presentation will be held in Week 13 (14th
    October 2008) during lecture time. You can make
    your presentation in any way you like (power
    point, demonstration, acting ect). You will be
    given exactly 10 minutes to make your
    presentation and every team member has to
    participate. (no tutorial)
  • Feedback for the assignment, exam review and
    course conclusion will be held in Week 14.

24
Group Assignment
  • Why recycling?
  • Waste issues has a clear sustainability issue
    with clear environmental, social and economic
    implications.
  • Our response to recycling is very much rooted
    to our ethical position on how the waste issue
    has an impact to our lives (be it
    environmentally, socially and economically) and
    how we need to act upon it. This would then
    influence our attitude on recycling.
  • Furthermore, under the UM greening of campus
    initiative, the university is currently
    interested to conduct a recycling programme for
    our colleges and therefore we need valuable
    inputs on how best we could create awareness for
    the programme. The lessons we will learn from you
    shall then be incorporated in our future plans.

25
Tutorial
  • A talk will be given by a representative from
    Alam Flora next week during lecture time.
  • Preparation before the lecture
  • During the tutorial, I would like each group to
    discuss the following
  • Why recycling can be an important initiative to
    achieve the three pillars of sustainable
    development environmental protection, social
    welfare and economic development?
  • In the tutorial, give a list of general
    suggestions on what activities you can do to
    create awareness for recycling. You might also
    want to discuss how this is connected to the
    answers you have given in (1)
  • Then, use this tutorial discussion as a
    preparation for the lecture next week (so you can
    ask useful questions for your assignment!
    Remember the group that are active in asking
    questions will get bonus mark for the assignment!)

26
Consultation
Face to face consultation in the next 3 weeks can
be conducted anytime during lecture hours. But
make an appointment at least one day in advance!
You can also consult me via e-mail!
Assessment (full mark 20 marks)
Individual assessment Participation and quality
of participation in moodle discussion and
presentation 4 Group level Accuracy (how
accurate you have fulfilled the task assigned)
6 Quality (logic and coherency in your suggestion
) 3 Creativity (added value from other groups)
3 Extra marks for asking question during the
lecture with Alam Flora 2
27
Sustainable Development in Action A story of
Majora Carter at South Bronx, USA
28
(No Transcript)
29
Majora Carter
Carter is founder and executive director of
Sustainable South Bronx. See http//www.ssbx.org
/
30
I am not anti-development, ours (the south
bronx) is a city not a wilderness preserve, and I
have embraced my inner capitalist. I do not have
a problem with developers making money. There is
enough precedent out there that has shown us that
a sustainable community friendly development can
still make a fortune. But I do have a problem
with development that hyper exploit vulnerable
communities for profit and if it continues it is
a shame upon us all. We are all responsible for
the future that we create!
31
South Bronx is one of the poorest areas in the
United States.
Founded in 2001 by life-long South Bronx
resident, Dr. Majora Carter, SSBx addresses
land-use, energy, transportation, water waste
policy, and education to advance the
environmental, social and economic rebirth of the
South Bronx, and inspire solutions in areas like
it across the nation and around the world
32
Problems in South Bronx and activities of
Sustainable South Bronx http//speakingoffaith.pub
licradio.org/programs/discoveringwherewelive/sound
seen.shtml A talk by Majora Carter in TED
Greening the Ghetto
http//www.ted.com/index.php/talks/view/id/53
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