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SPECIFIC DRUGS

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Cocaine and Amphetamine ... effects Negative effects Overdose Withdrawal SXs Major Stimulants Medical Effects Fetal Exposure during Pregnancy Other Co-morbid ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: SPECIFIC DRUGS


1
SPECIFIC DRUGS
  • The Major (vs. minor) Stimulants
  • Cocaine and Amphetamine

2
Major Stimulants - Cocaine
  • COCAINE
  • What is coke and where does it come from?
  • coca leaf / coca bush
  • Incas and Spanish
  • Freud
  • American history (VIP usage)

3
Major Stimulants - Cocaine
  • street cocaine coca paste and hydrochloric acid
  • type of salt--powder sniffed or snorted
  • more addictive uses
  • can inject it if mix with water--IV quicker
  • smoking freebase - powder and ether
  • crack - dissolve cocaine salt in baking soda
    solution, boil off water, left with rock
  • Cocaine - ETOH combo (coca-ethylene) - may
    alter metabolics of cocaine, which may be more
    cardiotoxic via increased half-life of cocaine

4
U.S. Banned Ephedra in 2004
  • used primarily for weight loss and body building
    in the U.S.
  • linked to 155 deaths and dozens of heart attacks
    and strokes.
  • Derived from a plant (powdered and then put in
    pills)
  • Contains ephedrine pseudoephedrine

5
ephedra ban, cont
  • side effects can be life threatening even for a
    healthy individual (constricts blood vessels,
    raises blood pressure).
  • FDA was aware of a problem for 8 years, however
    the high profile death of Baltimore Orioles
    pitcher, Steve Bechler stimulated concern from
    the FDA as well as many others.
  • 1st government ban on a dietary supplement

6
Major Stimulants
  • Neurotransmitters and behavioral pharmacology
  • Effects of the Major Stimulants
  • Desired effects
  • Negative effects
  • Overdose
  • Withdrawal SXs

7
Major Stimulants
  • Medical Effects
  • Fetal Exposure during Pregnancy
  • Other Co-morbid Diagnoses
  • Factors in Initiation of use leading to
  • dependence

8
Major Stimulants - Speed
  • Amphetamines
  • ephedrine, principal chemical in these drugs,
    has been known for thousands of years used as
    Chinese medicinal herb
  • ephedrine first isolated in late 1800's, and
    synthesized in 1920s when it was named
    amphetamine
  • first medically used in 1920's for treating
    obesity, narcolepsy, colds, and much later ADHD
  • used to enhance performance, decrease fatigue
    sport military applications

9
Methamphetamine (speed, crystal, crank, ice)
10
How is it made ?
  • Anhydrous nitrate
  • Ephedrine
  • Red Phosphorous
  • Lithium
  • Antifreeze
  • Lantern fuel

11
Abscesses caused by cranking (injecting Meth
intravenously)
12
Meth needle marks
13
Stages of use
  • Rush ( 20 40 minutes)
  • Binge High ( 3 days )
  • Crash

14
Short term effects
  • anxiousness and nervousness
  • incessant talking
  • extreme moodiness and irritability
  • purposeless, repetitious behavior, such as
    picking at skin or pulling out hair
  • sleep disturbances
  • false sense of confidence and power aggressive
    or violent behavior

15
Dilated pupil - stimulant intoxication
16
Dental problems caused by Meth
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