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DRUGS

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DRUGS By Tanya Ricketts A drug can be defined as a natural or synthetic substance that is used to produce physiological or psychological effects in humans or other ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: DRUGS


1
DRUGS
  • By Tanya Ricketts

2
  • A drug can be defined as a natural or synthetic
    substance that is used to produce physiological
    or psychological effects in humans or other
    higher order animals

3
  • Why are drugs used?
  • To sustain / prolong life
  • Some misuse to escape from the pressures of life
  • Others may use drugs to end life

4
  • How many Americans drink alcohol regularly?
  • 90 million
  • 10 million are hopelessly addicted
  • DOES IT CROSS SOCIAL/ETHNIC CLASSES OF SOCIETY?
  • Yes

5
  • TODAY 23 million people in the US are users of
    illicit drugs.
  • Half million heroin addicts and nearly 6
    million users of cocaine
  • FORENSICS LABS
  • More than 75 of evidence being evaluated in labs
    are drug related

6
  • Whats the difference between
  • PSYCHOLOGICAL DEPENDENCE
    and
  • PHYSICAL DEPENDENCE

7
  • Does drug use affect peoples needs
  • Example
  • HOW
  • Social responsibilities
  • Personal health
  • Economic relationships
  • Family obligations

8
NARCOTIC DRUGS
  • Narcotic from Greek work narkotikos
  • Which implies lethargy or sluggishness
  • Are analgesics
  • They relieve pain by exerting a depressing action
    on the CNS
  • What is the source of most analgesic narcotics?
  • OPIUM

9
  • Although Morphine is extracted from opium - most
    addicts prefer to use one of its derivatives
    HEROIN
  • Highly soluble in water
  • What doest his matter?
  • Its easier to use by IV
  • Provides high that lasts 3 4 hours deep sense
    of well being, drowsiness

10
  • Codeine is also present in opium
  • Present in cough suppressants
  • 1/6 as strong as morphine
  • Not attractive street drug for addicts

11
  • OxyContin an analgesic narcotic that has
    effects similar to those of heroin prescribed
    to a million patients for tx of chronic pain

12
HALLUCINOGENS
  • Are drugs that can cause marked alterations in
    normal thought processes, perceptions, and moods
  • WHAT IS THE FIRST ONE THAT COMES TO MIND?
  • Marijuana
  • Most widely used illicit drug in the US
  • More than 43 million Americans have tried

13
  • First introduce into the US around 1920
  • Causes increased desire for sweets
  • Long term use amotivational syndrome
    characterized by apathy, impairment of judgment,
    memory, and concentration
  • Loss of interest in personal appearance
  • And the pursuit of conventional goals

14
  • WHAT TWO AREAS OF RESEARCH
  • Involving marijuana
  • Reduction of excessive eye pressure in glaucoma
  • And lessening of nausea caused by powerful
    anticancer drugs

15
OTHER HALLUCINOGENS
  • LSD lysergic acid diethylamide
  • Vivid hallucinations up to 12 hours
  • Changes in mood laughing or crying
  • Feeling of anxiety and tension
  • Flashbacks and psychotic reactions even after DC
    use

16
PCP
  • Phencyclidine
  • Cookbook methods
  • May be mixed with other drugs
  • Feelings of strength and invulnerability
  • Dreamy sense of detachment
  • Unresponsive, confused, and agitated
  • Depression, irritability , feelings of isolation

17
  • Audio/visual hallucinations
  • Tendencies toward violence
  • Suicide accompany long term daily use of the drug
  • LSD lysergic acid dethylamide
  • Visual hallucinations up to 12 hours
  • Laughing to crying, mood changes

18
DEPRESSANTS
  • First one that comes to mind?
  • ALCOHOL ETHYL ALCOHOL
  • Depressant action on the CNS
  • Alcohol to bloodstream to brain suppresses
    brains control of thought processes and muscle
    coordination
  • WHAT DOES A DRUNK SOUND AND ACT LIKE?

19
  • EXTREMELY HIGH DOSES may cause and individual
    to lapse into unconsciousness or even into a
    comatose state that may be a prelude to a fatal
    depression of circulatory and respiratory
    functions

20
BARBITURATES
  • Downers
  • They relax
  • Feeling of well being, and produce sleep
  • Slang terms barbs, yellow jackets, blue
    devils, reds
  • Taken orally

21
TRANQUILIZERS
  • Relaxing tranquility without impairment of high
    thinking faculties or the inducement of sleep
  • Major reserpine and chlorpromazine mental
    patients
  • Mild miltown, librium, valium, produce
    psychological and physical dependency

22
GLUE SNIFFING
  • Volatile solvents
  • CNS depressants
  • Toluene, naphtha, methyl ethyl ketone, gasoline,
    and trichloroethylene
  • Feeling of exhilaration and euphoria combined
    with slurred speech, impaired judgment, and
    double vision, drowsiness, stupor

23
  • May cause liver, heart, and brain damage
  • High risk of death

24
STIMULANTS
  • Amphetamines
  • Stimulate the CNS
  • Uppers or speed
  • Feeling of well being
  • Increased alertness
  • Followed by a decrease in fatigue and loss of
    appetite
  • depression

25
  • IV injection of amphetamine - methamphetamine
  • Flash or rush - followed by an intense feeling
    of pleasure constitutes the principal appeal of
    the in route speed freak
  • Speed binge may inject 500 - 1000 milligrams
    of amphetamines every 2 3 hours

26
  • Users have euphoria that produces hyperactivity
    with a feeling of clarity of vision as well as
    hallucinations
  • Then as it wears of - period of exhaustion and
    may sleep continuously for 1 2 days
  • Then depression from days to weeks

27
  • New smokable of meth ice
  • Effects for longer period of time
  • Chronic users exhibit violent destructive
    behavior and acute psychoses similar to paranoid
    schizophrenia

28
COCAINE
  • Powerful stimulant to the CNS
  • Increased alertness and vigor
  • Accompanied by the suppression of hunger,
    fatigue, and boredom
  • Sniffed or snorted absorbed through the mucous
    membranes of the nose

29
  • Crack snorted stimulates a pleasure center in
    the base of the brain, in an area connected to
    nerves that are responsible for emotions
  • Cocaine related deaths are a result of cardiac
    arrest or seizures followed by respiratory arrest

30
  • Peruvian farmers may be paid 200 for enough coca
    leaves to make one pound of cocaine. The refined
    cocaine will be worth 1,000 when it leaves
    Colombia and will sell at retail in the US for up
    to 20,000

31
CLUB DRUGS
  • Synthetic drugs that are used at night clubs,
    bars, and raves ( all night dance parties)
  • MDMA Ecstasy
  • GHB
  • Rohypnol Roofies
  • Ketamine,
  • methamphetamine

32
  • CNS depressants
  • Acts that are Associated with drug sexual
    assault, rape, and robbery
  • Effects accompanying the use of GHB include
    dizziness, sedation, HA, nausea
  • Rohypnol cant remember what happened during the
    hours after ingesting the drug

33
  • Colorless, and tasteless
  • Ecstasy most popular drug at rave club scenes
  • Mind altering
  • Hallucinogenic and amphetamine has effects
    like an appetite suppressant
  • was later discovered to bring about feelings of
    happiness and relaxation

34
  • Seizures, muscle breakdown, stroke, kidney
    failure, CV system failure often accompany
    chronic abuse of ecstasy

35
ANABOLIC STEROIDS
  • Synthetic compounds that are chemically related
    to the male sex hormone testosterone
  • Promotes the dev. Of secondary male
    characteristics and accelerates muscle growth
  • Male athletes given anabolic steroids has
    generally found little/marginal
    strength/performance

36
  • Liver ca and other liver malfunctions have been
    linked to steroid use
  • Masulinizing effects on females, infertility, and
    diminished sex drive in males
  • Premature halting of bone growth
  • Anger and destructive behavior
  • depression

37
DRUG CONTROL LAWS
  • Legal community requires a thorough knowledge of
    drug classification and definitions as they are
    delineated by drug laws
  • Chemists report must contain all info that is
    needed to properly charge a suspect under the
    provisions of the existing law

38
CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES ACT
  • 5 schedules of classification
  • Most severe penalties are associated with drugs
    that are listed in schedules I and II
  • Example I and II an first offense - up to 20
    years in prison and fine of up to 1 million for
    individual or up to 5 million for other than
    individuals
  • LOOK AT DIFFERENCE BT 252 - 253

39
  • READ 252 -254
  • The act reflects an effort to decrease the
    prevalence of clandestine drug laboratories
    designed to manufacture controlled substances
  • Regulates the manufacture and distribution of
    precursors, the chemical compounds used by
    clandestine drug labs to synthesize drugs or abuse

40
DRUG ID
  • No room for error b/c its results will have a
    direct bearing on the process of determining the
    guilt or innocence of a defendant

41
  • First screening tests to reduce these
    possibilities to a small and manageable number -
    may by color tests will produce ch. Colors for
    the more commonly encountered illicit drugs
  • Second phase the analysis must be devoted to
    pinpointing and confirming the drugs identity

42
COLOR TESTS
  • Colors produced when brought into contact with
    specific chemical reagents
  • Screening test only

43
Microcystalline Tests
  • More specific test
  • Chemical reagent is added to a small quantity of
    the drug on a slide

44
Chromatography
  • Thin-layer and gas chromatography
  • They separate drugs from their diluents while
    providing for their tentative id

45
SPECTROPHOTOMETRY
  • Selective absorption of light by drugs in the UV
    and IR regions of the electromagnetic spectrum
    provides a valuable technique
  • UV spectrum not conclusive for the positive ID of
    a drug/ b/c other materials may very well produce
    an indistinguishable spectrum

46
  • Establishes the probable identity of a drug
  • Infrared spectrophotometry specifically
    identify a substance
  • Fingerprint of a compound

47
(No Transcript)
48
MASS SPECTROMETRY
  • Chromatography separates a drug from other
    substances - but not a specific id of material
    under investigation
  • GC/MS gas chromatography/mass spectrometry
  • READ PAGE 259

49
ID OF MARIJUANA
  • Botanical features observed under the microscope
    by a trained expert
  • Chemical test
  • Short hairs having the shape of bear claws of the
    upper side of the leaf

50
PACKGING FOR EIVDENCE
  • Glue sniffing air tight
  • Depends on the state the drug found as to how
    packaged

51
  • Criminalistics chapter 9
  • Do forensics CD Activity 8 drug bust
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