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English in a changing world

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Title: English in a changing world


1
English in a changing world
  • The Second Year Pack

2
English in a changing world
  • Wang zhen
  • wz1122_at_yahoo.cn

3
Contents
  • 1 Changing English in a Changing WorldAn
    Overview
  • 2 English in the Past
  • 3 The Spread of English Beyond Britain
  • 4 Socal varieties of English
  • 5 Trade Within and Across Language Barriers
  • 6 Changing English since the Sencond World War
  • 7 Emerging "New Englishes" A Focus for Debate
  • 8 English in a Shrinking World

4
Unit One
Unit One
  • Changing Eglish in a Changing World An Overview

5
At the end of this unit,you should be able to do
the following things,or do them better than you
can now
  • explain why languages change as people change
  • recognise and describe examples of change
  • understand some of the special English vocabulary
    used in talking about language
  • explain what is meant by varieties of English

6
Unit One Changing English in a Changing World
An Overview
  • Difficult Points
  • Differences among languages, dialects, and
    accents

7
Activity 1 Language Change and Language Use
8
Task 1
  • 1. Languages change with time
  • 2. The number of languages in the world is
    4000-5000
  • 3. No one can give a more exact number because
    (a) the number depends on what counts as a
    dialect and what counts as a language (b) some
    languages have disappeared, and we know nothing
    about them
  • 4. When we speak of languages as living or dead,
    we use a metaphor (??).

9
Task 2
  • Finding out How Language Changes in the Life of
    an Individual Person
  • Idiolect your own individual language

10
Task 3
  • Analysing the Meaning of Living and Dead
    Language
  • Tim doesnt like learning Latin because
  • 1 there is too much homework to do
  • 2 it is hard to remember all the new vocabulary
  • 3 there are no speakers of Latin to talk to
  • 4 there seem to be no interesting things to read
    in Latin

11
Summary
  • 1. All the languages we know about change with
    time.
  • 2. There are, at present, between 4000 and 5000
    languages in use in the world.
  • 3. Just how many languages, depends what counts
    as a language and what counts as a variety or
    dialect.
  • 4. Your individual language changes with age too.
  • 5. Older people usually dislike the changes they
    notice.
  • 6. We need to be careful about talking about
    language as if it were a living thing.
  • Historical variation the variation of a
    language over time

12
  • Activity 2 Variation in English Different Places

13
Task 1
  • Regional variation varieties of English in
    different places

14
Task 2
  • Standard English written English
  • Received Pronunciation RP, BBC English
  • Network English Educated American English
  • Not all varieties of English are equally
    important, or important in the same way.

15
Task 3
  • Learners want to learn to read and to write
    Standard English for international use. They want
    to speak and understand English that approximates
    to Educated British or to Educated American
    English. Very few of them want to sound like
    native speakers, but they do want to sound like
    competent users of an international language.

16
Summary
  • 1. There are different varieties of English that
    is spoken and understood in different parts of
    the world. These are regional varieties or
    regional dialects.
  • 2. Both native speakers and second language users
    of English find some of these hard to understand.
    The English of writing Standard English is
    similar throughout the English speaking world.
  • 3. Two varieties Educated British and Educated
    American English are widely taught and learned.
    They are used and understood wherever English is
    in use.
  • 4. There is no single Authority for the use of
    English.

17
  • Activity 3
  • Observing Vocabulary Change in English

18
Task 1
  • Developing Awareness of New Vocabulary
  • Change in language matches change in peoples
    lives.

19
Task 2
  • Where do new words come from?
  • 1. Pronouncing the initial (??) letters of
    several words, which form the word acronym
    (??????,??TOEFL).
  • 2. English borrows words from other languages.
  • 3. Old words are used with new meanings.

20
Task 3
  • Undersdanding borrowing between Languages

21
Summary
  • 1. By studying texts you can observe change in
    English as it happens.
  • 2. New words are invented, or borrowed to match
    new meanings. Or old words are used with new
    meanings.
  • 3. Words in use are dropped when they are no
    longer needed.
  • 4. The rate of change in language is uneven.
  • 5. As people grow older, they notice change and
    they often dont like it. In fact the rate of
    change is not so fast that people living at the
    same time fail to understand each other.

22
  • Activity 4
  • Languages and Dialects in the United Kingdom

23
Task 1
  • Comparing Scale and Distance in the British Isles
    and China

24
Task 2
  • Languages used in Britain
  • English all over the kingdom, about 55 million
    people use it all the time
  • Welsh still used in Wales
  • Gaelic used in Scotland and Ireland
  • Some other languages like Polish and Indian
    subcontinent
  • Bilingual, bi-dialectal

25
Task 3
  • A language is the major means of human
    communication There are usually reckoned to be
    about 5000 languages in use in the world. Only
    some of these have a writing system.
  • A dialect is a variety of a language but there
    is no sure way to tell a different language from
    a different dialect.
  • The term accent has to do only with the sounds of
    speech.

26
Summary
  • 1. Compared with China, England is a small
    country.
  • 2. Communications are good, and it is usually
    possible to reach every part of it quickly.
  • 3. You might expect to find that the same
    language is spoken in a very similar way in
    different parts but you would be wrong.

27
  • 4. There are many different languages spoken by
    minorities in the United Kingdom.
  • 5. English is spoken in different parts in very
    different ways that is, there are many regional
    dialects.
  • 6. Regional dialects generally are not so well
    respected as the Standard English you have
    studied.
  • 7. Most native speakers can understand several
    dialects and have difficulty with others.

28
  • Activity 5
  • Experiencing Some Regional Varieties of English

29
Task 1
  • Introduction to a Rather Different Sort of
    Activity

30
Task 2
  • Studying the same Text First in Standard English
    and Then in Four Regional Varieties

31
Task 3
  • Listening to regional varieties

32
Task 4
  • Investigating some Practical Applications of
    This Activity

33
Summary
  • 1. Only some speakers in each of these places
    speaks in this way all the time. Some can speak
    in this way when they want to and quite
    differently when they choose. They are
    bi-dialectal.
  • 2. The speakers who use only the accents you
    heard tend to be the older and the less well
    educated people in the community.
  • 3. This Activity should show you that the English
    you study is only one variety among many but it
    is a uniquely important one.

34
Unit 2 English in the past
  • Key Points
  • Identify the place of English among other related
    languages
  • Identify Standard English among other varieties
  • Understand and explain what is meant by
    structural differences among languages
  • Understand and explain how users of English as a
    second language can use knowledge abut English
  • Difficult Points
  • English differs at different times
  • Language families
  • Bi-dialectal

35
UNIT 2English in the Past
  • This uint tells something about the past history
    of English .Just as English is different in
    different places so it varies at different
    times.There are historical dialects just as there
    are regional dialects.Language is shaped by
    the experiences of the people who use it and
    changes with their changing needs.we shall start
    with a look at the English of some past timesand
    then move further back in time to see how English
    came to be spoken ni the United Kingdom,and how
    it is nearly related to some languages and only
    distantly related,or not related at all,to
    others.this sort of study may seem at first sight
    a long way removed from everyday concerns,But it
    is closely connected with a pressing problemfor
    all students and teathers of languagesWhy is it
    that languageare so much harder for some learners
    than they seem to be for others?

36
The English Language And Its History
  • How has history been responsible for
  • the distribution and the change of the English
    language throughout the U.K.?
  • What do you know?

37
Historic Origins Of English
38
The Angles Saxons And Jutes
39
(No Transcript)
40
Some confusing concepts
  • Scandinavian invasions
  • Germanic invasion
  • Germanic group (branch)
  • Viking

41
English Language Style And Variation 13th To
18th Centuries
  • How can we tell, by comparing these four
    language examples of the 13th to the 18th
    centuries, that the English language has altered
    over this period?
  • In pairs (using these examples) list ways in
    which the English language seems to have changed
    over this 500 year period. (15 minutes)

42
Language Families
  • Unit 2 Activity 2 Task 1 (pp 64-66)
  • The Indo-European family (the Aryan family)
  • The Sino-Tibetan family

43
The Indo-European family
  • English, Spanish, French, German, Russian,
    Portuguese, Hindi, German, Bengali
  • Latin, Greek, Persian, Sanskrit

44
The Indo-European family
  • The Celtic Branch
  • The Germanic Branch
  • The Latin Branch
  • The Slavic Branch
  • The Baltic Branch
  • The Hellenic Branch
  • The Illyric Branch

45
The English Language And the Romans
  • Unit 2 Activity 2 Tasks 1-2 (pp64-67)
  • What are some of the Latin root forms that Tim
    and Mrs Robinson discussed?
  • What English words do you know that have these
    roots?

46
What Do These Words Mean?
  • proficient progress subtitle subscriber
  • anticlockwise antisocial antenna antenatal
  • transit transparent intervene interracial

47
The Conquest of Britain and Change on English
when who where from
BC 1st C - AD 5th C Romans Mediterranean
AD 5th C.AD- 8th 9th C Scandinavians-Angles, Saxons, Jutes North West Europe
AD 11th C Norman French Normandy
48
Examples of English Change
  • door, gate, portal, entrance, exit,
  • cottage, hut, cabin, palace, mansion, villa
  • go up, rise, ascend, mount, climb

49
  • English has a rich store of vocabulary that
    originates in Ancient Greek and Latin and, more
    recently, in French. Greek gives English words
    like politics, telephone, ecology and drama,
    while Latin is rEnglish has a rich store of
    vocabulary that originates in Ancient Greek and
    Latin and, more recently, in French. Greek gives
    English words like politics, telephone, ecology
    and drama, while Latin is responsible for
    agriculture, family, order and ambulance. Words
    derived from French include disease, patrol, riot
    and basket. As a member of the Germanic family of
    languages, English clearly has numerous words of
    Germanic origin, examples being house, honey,
    half and hair. 
  • esponsible for agriculture, family, order and
    ambulance. Words derived from French include
    disease, patrol, riot and basket. As a member of
    the Germanic family of languages, English clearly
    has numerous words of Germanic origin, examples
    being house, honey, half and hair. 

50
Standard English Where did it start?
  • Unit 2 Activity 3 Tasks 1-3 (pp74-82)
  • How and where did SE originate?
  • Why was the 15th century responsible for the
    rapid spread of the English language?

51
An important concept
  • Standard English is written English.
  • It has a grammatical system
  • It has a formal lexicon (vocabulary)
  • It is used internationally
  • It changes slowly
  • It has prestige

52
Some Definitions
  • Unit 2 Activity 3 Task 4 (pp79-83)
  • First printing press
  • Bi-dialectal means
  • Bilingual means

53
Some Definitions
  • First printing press set up in 1475 by William
    Caxton
  • Bi-dialectal means having two dialects
  • Bilingual means having two languages

54
The English Lexicon
  • Unit 2 Activity 4 Tasks 1-4(pp84-92)
  • How large is English vocabulary?
  • What is the difference between a receptive and
    productive vocabulary?
  • What is the difference between a synonym and an
    antonym?
  • Class Discussion (10 minutes)

55
The English Lexicon
  • Some put the number as low as 50,000 and other as
    high as 250,000 words.
  • Receptive vocabulary is the words you use for
    listening and reading. Productive vocabulary is
    the words you use for speaking and writing.
  • A synonym is a word which means the same as
    another word. The antonym of a word is another
    word which means the opposite.

56
Received Pronunciation What Is It?
  • Unit 2 Activity 5 Tasks 1-3 (pp92-98)
  • What is RP and how did it originate?
  • Explain the difference between RP and SE.
  • Comparing RP and SE, how might these change
    over time?
  • Small group discussions (10 minutes

57
Received Pronunciation A Definition
  • Received Pronunciation is a widely accepted
    English speaking accent which has prestige and is
    used as a model of good spoken English throughout
    the world.
  • BBC English
  • Educated English (post 19th century)

58
Teaching And Learning Unit 2 Activity 5
Tasks 4 (pp98-99)
59
Review
  • Today we have
  • In Unit 1
  • Seen how language changes over time
  • Understood how and why language varies by region
  • Understood what is Standard English
  • Differentiated between dialects and accents

60
  • In Unit 2
  • Reviewed and under-stood the historic origins of
    the English language
  • Examined some words and their Latin origins
  • Compared understood the difference between SE
    and RP
  • Established what our motivations are as learners
    of English

61
Unit 3 The Spread of English Beyond Britain
  • At the end of This Unit you should be able to
    do---or do better---the following
  • give examples of national and international
    languages
  • explain how it happened that English came to be
    widely used as a second language and some of the
    different ways in which it is used
  • understand the advantages of invented
    languagesfor international use and some of the
    reasons for their failure
  • explain the uses of this information to teathers
    and students of English

62
Unit Three The Spread of English Beyond Britain
  • Difficult Points
  • ? The international role of standard English
  • ? English and education in India
  • ?The beginnings of Australia as a penal
  • ? English as a global language for an
    information age

63
  • Activity 1
  • National Boundaries and National Attitudes

64
  • . Some distinctions between languages of
    different kinds.
  • 1. Regional languages languages used only in a
    restricted area.
  • 2. National languages languages used within
    national boundaries.
  • 3. International languages languages used
    outside national boundaries.
  • 4. Global languages languages used for
    communication world wide.

65
Task 1
  • Language attitude how people feel about a
    language
  • English is one of several international
    languages. Because there are only superficial
    differences in its written system worldwide, it
    is thus possible for it to have become the global
    language. There are very many languages in the
    world but English is predominant. How does this
    happen? It is necessary to look back into the
    history

66
Task 2
  • . Standard English works on writing.

67
Task 3
  • A language is not just an intellectual and
    rational matter, it is also an emotional issue.
  • The Spanish Government tried to stamp out Basque
    between the years 1937 and the 1950s. They
    stopped its use in Education. Inscriptions were
    removed. Books in Basque were burnt.
  • The two languages named in the bill before
    Parliament were Hindi and English. The crowd were
    demonstrating against the use of English.

68
Summary
  • 1. English is one of several international
    languages, but it is the only language used
    worldwide, in places where there were never
    colonial settlements.
  • 2. The fact that Standard English varies only in
    superficial ways in different places makes its
    global use possible.
  • 3. Governments sometimes try to bring about
    language change deliberately. There is often
    angry resistance.
  • 4. The reason for this is that people often feel
    a strong emotional bond with the language they
    learned as their mother tongue.

69
  • Activity 2English in the New World

70
Task 1
  • Try to know the history of American.Pay attention
    to the spcial words ,such as New England,
    Mayflower, Puritan, Pilgrim Fathers.

71
  • 1584 Sir Walter Raleigh sailed for the New World
  • 1585 Sir Raleighs 2nd expedition to the New
    World
  • 1590 The "Lost Colony" found abandoned
  • 1620 English Puritan settlers left Plymouth in
    the Mayflower for
    the New World
  • 1775 The American War of Independence started
  • 1783 End of the War. USA set up
  • 1790 1st census held in the USA. About 90 of
    the population are British descendants

72
Task 2
  • Try to know why American became melting pot.
  • English is the official language of USA.
  • 1. It is difficult for the first generation
    newcomers to America to learning a new language
    because they had to do other things at the same
    time, such as finding a job and finding a home.
  • 2. Their children have advantage in learning
    English quickly and well because their children
    went to schools where lessons were in English.

73
Task 3
  • There are some differences of spelling in words
    between British and American English. Both are
    regarded as correct and acceptable.

74
Task 4
  • Pay attention to the words and phrases often
    used.such as automobile and car,sidewalk and
    pavement?

75
Summary
  • 1. Between the early 17th century and the 18th
    century, the USA became the second English
    speaking nation, and is in the 20th century much
    more powerful and influential than the United
    Kingdom.
  • 2. The English language had a special role in
    making a large population, from different parts
    of the world, into a single nation.
  • 3. Although British English and American English
    are in some ways different, speakers of British
    English and American English understand without
    difficulty. This is also true of second language
    users who have learned from British and American
    teachers.
  • 4. A more formal way of saying this is to say
    that British and American English are mutually
    intelligible.

76
  • Activity 3 English Extends Across the World

77
Task 1
  • The Commonwealth of Nations the colonies and
    the possessions that belonged to the British
    Empire.
  • Try to understand the colonial history of the UK

78
Europe Asia Africa North South America Australia
United Kingdom Ireland India, Malaysia, Borneo, New Guinea, Hong Kong Kenya, Rhodesia, South Africa Canada USA Australia, New Zealand
79
Task 2
  • The imperial past does explain why English has
    spread worldwide.

80
Task 3 Task 4
  • ????????????,??????????
  • ????East India Company, Persian, Sanskrit, the
    Committee of Public Instruction, aborigine, penal
    colony

81
Summary
  • 1. The establishment of colonies and empire
    spread the use of English worldwide between the
    sixteenth century, and the first half of the
    twentieth century.
  • 2. Every one of them began with exploration, but
    the circumstances in which colonies were settled
    were very different.
  • 3. English remains very important in India after
    independence but as a second language learned
    for a variety of purpose, including international
    purposes.

82
  • Activity 4
  • After EmpireEnglish in Todays world

83
Task 1
  • 1. Numbers of populations are the basis for the
    numbers of users of English.
  • 2. In the late 16th and early 17th century, when
    English was a national, but not an international
    language, the numbers are estimated at 5-7
    million.
  • 3. By the middle of the twentieth century, they
    were estimated at 250-350 million.
  • 4. By the 1980s the estimates are between 700
    and 1400 million.
  • 5. The numbers seem to be increasing.
  • 6. The total number of users of varieties of
    English is still much smaller than the total
    number of users of varieties of Chinese.

84
Task 2
  • Inner Circle English is used as the mother
    tongue, like Britain, North America, Australia,
    New Zealand, South Africa, etc.
  • Outer Circle English is widely taught in
    schools, like India, Hong Kong, Singapore, etc.
  • Expanding Circle English for international use,
    like China.

85
Task 3
  • There are some other usages of English, like
    listening to and enjoying pop music watching
    English language films international use of
    e-mail reading writing for an international
    readership, etc.

86
Task 4
  • Information Age means an explosion of
    information.

87
Summary
  • 1. The number of users of a language is
    important, but who the users are, and what they
    do with English, is just as important.
  • 2. The label Information Age is often given to
    the end of this century.
  • 3. It means (1) that much more information is
    available than ever before (2) that information
    can be stored and transferred in ways never
    possible before.
  • 4. The most important language for communicative
    use at the time of these developments is English.
    Computer developments have reinforced the global
    importance of English.

88
  • Activity 5
  • Alternatives to English

89
Task 1
  • Estimating the Disadvantages of English as a
    Global Language from the Learners Standpoint.

90
Task 2
  • ?????157?????????????

91
Task 3
  • Esperanto one of the most famous and successful
    invented languages.

92
Task 4
  • Considering What an Ideal Language for Global Use
    Would Be Like

93
Task 5
  • 1. A revised version of Esperanto, published ten
    years after Esperanto, was called Ido.
  • 2. A still simpler version of Ido called Novial
    was published in 1928.
  • 3. A revised and simplified version of Latin,
    published in 1903 was called Interlingua.
  • 4. All these artificial languages were based on
    Western European languages.
  • Basic English a simplified version of English,
    which was designed and published in 1930 by C. K.
    Ogden.
  • Nuclear English a different sort of
    simplification of English, which was created by
    Professor Randolph Quirk.

94
Summary
  • 1. The world of the late 20th century needs an
    international language.
  • 2. English is not ideally suited to international
    use.
  • 3. No natural language can be politically and
    culturally neutral. An artificial language can
    be.
  • 4. Artificial languages can be designed to be
    easily and quickly learned. They too have serious
    drawbacks and so do simplified versions of
    natural languages.
  • 5. Although interest in Basic English is not high
    at present, a simplified version of English,
    perhaps Nuclear English offers promise for the
    future.

95
Unit 4 Social Varieties of English
  • At the end of this unit,you should be able to do
    the following things,or do them better than you
    can now
  • recognize what are statements about
    language,personal tastes or judgements about
    society and social differences
  • know what is meant by social or educational
    variation in English accents
  • recognize what different varieties you and other
    users controlhow you increase their number and
    range,and howthe fact that the users can do this
    drives change

96
Unit Four Social varieties of English
  • Difficult Points
  • Understanding the differences in use between
    initial and later stages of learning
  • Contrasting spoken and written accounts of the
    some event
  • English variations in formality

97
  • Activity 1
  • Differences of Prestige and Preference among
    Languages

98
Task 1
  • The idea of equality or parity among languages is
    important, and it needs to be carefully
    understood. No languages that we know about are
    underdeveloped or primitive. Languages change
    with time, as the needs of their users change,
    but change does not mean evolutionary progress.
    Languages and dialects are valued differently and
    used differently for historical, political,
    economic and cultural reasons.

99
Task 2
  • We use language as our main means of
    communication. Languages are like tools they
    are made by human beings and used for human
    purposes. Languages change is like the process of
    biological evolution, and English is like a
    developed, complex animal, belonging to our own
    world.

100
Task 3
  • The view that English is better suited than other
    languages for global use is mistaken. Historical
    and economical developments have made English an
    international language The idea that is better
    than other languages is a mistake arising from
    the use of metaphor.

101
Task 4
  • Languages are equal.
  • Can we say that English is widely used because it
    is better fits in the international circumstances
    than other languages? It seems irrational to
    conclude so. The spread of it, as we covered
    before, was absolutely caused by political,
    economic and cultural factors instead of
    linguistic reasons.

102
Summary
  • 1. The idea of equality or parity among languages
    is important, and it needs to be carefully
    understood.
  • 2. No languages that we know about, are
    undeveloped or primitive.
  • 3. Languages change with time, as the needs of
    their users change, but change does not mean
    evolutionary progress.
  • 4. Languages and dialects are valued differently
    and used differently for historical, political,
    economic and cultural reasons.

103
  • Activity 2
  • Social and Educational Varieties

104
Task 1
  • Pay attention to the varieties of English in time
    and regions.

105
Task 2
  • There is also social or educational variation of
    English. It could provide social information
    about the user.

106
Task 3
  • Applying This Knowledge to Practical Learning
    Problems

107
Task 4
  • Reading Two Stories about Changed Language and
    Changed Life

108
Summary
  • 1. It is possible to learn to read the English of
    a past time. The further back in the past the
    more difficult it is and the longer it takes.
  • 2. Most people dont find learning to use another
    variety very easy, but some are very good at it.
  • 3. A social variety is the sort of English use
    which is associated with a part of society, that
    is with rich or poor, well or poorly educated.
  • 4. Social and regional varieties are connected.
    You can tell what region someone who uses the
    English of the poorer and the less well-educated
    comes from. The way the better-off use English
    tells you little or nothing about where that
    person was born.

109
  • Activity 3
  • An Expanding Range of Language Uses

110
Task 1
  • Recalling the Varieties of English within Your
    Own Experience

111
Task 2
  • There are 2 distinct stages in the study of a
    language. However, the stages are not clearly
    marked sometimes. The 1st stage is the study of
    sound system and grammar system of a language
    while the 2nd is enlarging ones vocabulary
    steadily. The formal learning will make the
    learners able to read and write. They get
    familiar with a variety, or the standard version
    of the language. The process is similar be it
    their mother tongue or a 2nd or additional
    language.

112
Task 3
  • Listing the Uses English Has for Advanced Users

113
Task 4
  • However, when learning English, we may notice
    that there do exist differences between speech
    and writing. Usually, spoken English takes longer
    time than written English to say the same thing.
    There would be pauses, repetitions, hesitations,
    etc. in a speech. But, as a rule, the writers try
    to say things in a brief, clear and coherent way.
    Also, there are different ways of expressing
    meanings on different occasions, such as formal
    and informal. (e.g. p.196)

114
Task 5
  • Core vocabulary the first vocabulary to learn

115
Summary
  • 1.English differs with the user, and also with
    the different uses that speakers have for
    English.
  • 2.Learning about these differences belong to a
    2nd stage of learning --- for native speakers and
    for users of English as an additional language.
  • 3.Spoken English differs from written English.
    The topic, or subject, makes a difference to the
    way that English is used. English is used in
    different circumstances with different degrees of
    formality.
  • 4.We have named 3 different ways in which English
    differs with use. They are similar to the
    regional and historical and social varieties we
    looked at earlier. They are however different in
    that they vary with use. They are available to
    all practised and experienced users. Or, user
    variation use variation.

116
  • Activity 4
  • Use Variation and the International User of
    English

117
Task 1
  • English for the international users standard
    English

118
Task 2
  • International users of English do not need to
    worry if they hesitate quite often in producing
    spoken English.
  • Good writers write for groups of readers, which
    helps you write clearly and tells you when
    something you read is well written.

119
Task 3
  • Spoken English is thought about and exchanged by
    people who can hear each other and (usually) see
    each other, so users show know
  • 1. it is the work of two or more speakers who are
    also listeners.
  • 2. they can remind each other, interrupt each
    other, ask and answer questions.
  • 3. they need not keep to a single point. They can
    ramble away and come back to it.
  • 4. they can hesitate as they think what to say
    and how to say it.
  • 5. they can leave things out if everyone knows
    about them.
  • 6. they can use words including slang that are
    known to those talking but may not be known to
    everyone.

120
  • Writers and readers of English need to remember
  • 1. Written English is (usually) the work of just
    one person for many readers.
  • 2. Writers know something, but not much, about
    their readers.
  • 3. Written English may be read a long time after
    it is written, so readers cant interrupt the
    writer.
  • 4. Writers have to think about what readers need
    to know and say all of it.
  • 5. Writers have to arrange what they say in the
    best order that is the easiest for the reader
    to understand.
  • 6. Writers have to be careful not to delay or
    puzzle or annoy readers. That is why they avoid
    slang and any other ways of using English
    vocabulary that readers have learned not to
    expect in writing.
  • 7. Language changes in this as in other respects.
    Present day writing is generally nearer speech
    than it was in the past.

121
Task 4
  • 1. English varies with the topic or subject that
    is spoken about or written about. This is true of
    academic subjects and of others, not usually
    studied in schools and universities.
  • 2. This is partly a matter of the special
    vocabulary that students learn as part of
    learning about the subject.
  • 3. It is partly a matter of style and that
    means avoiding words and phrases which are
    acceptable only within the family, or among close
    friends, or in light-hearted contexts.
  • 4. Style has to be consistent not uneven.
    Competent writers and speakers avoid mixing some
    words that are suitable for serious contexts and
    those that are not.

122
The differences between spoken and written English
  • Spoken Written
  • 1. The work between 2 or more people who are both
    speakers listeners.
  • 2. There is reminding, interrupting, hesitation,
    asking and answering questions in the process.
  • 3. Not keep to a single point and things known to
    the speakers may be left out.
  • 4. Slang or words known to people involved in the
    talk may be used

123
  • 1. The work of one person for many readers.
  • 2. May be read a long time after it is written.
  • 3. No interruption between the writer the
    readers.
  • 4. About what the writer thinks the readers need
    to know and say all about it.
  • 5. Arranged in best order for readers to
    comprehend.
  • 6. Is put clearly to avoid confusion or
    puzzlement on the readers side.
  • 7. Is changing as in other respects, and
    generally nearer speech than it was before

124
Unit 5 Trade Within and Across Language Barriers
  • When you have completed the Activities of this
    Unit you should be able to
  • Define what is meant by pidgin,creloe,and lingua
    franca and give examples
  • Understand what is meant by creativity or
    inventiveness in language
  • Recognize the importance of faxed English to
    international trade proceedings
  • Use this information in discussions of the
    present position of English as the major language
    of international business

125
Unit Five Trade within and Across Language
Barriers
  • Difficult Points
  • Differences among varieties, pidgins, creoles
  • How English is used in some areas of
    international trade
  • Differences between the practice and the teaching
    of business English

126
  • Activity 1Markets Trade,and Language

127
Task 1
  • Barter exchange of goods for goods
  • The most effective and convenient means of
    communication is a language understood and used
    by both buyer and seller.

128
Task 2
  • The components of a trade deal (transaction) 1.
    commodity 2. a currency 3. seller 4. buyer 5.
    market 6. a means of communication.

129
Task 3
  • Pay attention to the difference in negotiation or
    bargaining between China and Britain. The most
    commonly used language of international trade
    between Asia and other parts of the world is
    English.

130
Summary
  • 1. Trading is a fundamental human activity,
    necessary to all except the most undeveloped
    societies.
  • 2. Trade deals, large or small, have similar
    components.
  • 3. Communication is essential to all trade deals.
    The most satisfactory means of communication is a
    language equally well known to the buyer and the
    seller.
  • 4. It is possible to arrange to do some deals
    with minimal language, but hardly possible to do
    without it altogether.
  • 5. English is currently the most commonly used
    language of international deals between Asian and
    other countries. This situation may change in the
    future.

131
  • Activity 2Communicating Somehow across Language
    Barriers

132
Task 1
  • Examining Situations Where Survival Depends on
    Trade

133
Task 2
  • Lingua Franca makeshift languages
  • ??????,??????????????????,???????????????????(???)
    ,?????????????,????????????,????????????????,?????
    ?????????

134
Task 3
  • Pidgin a makeshift language used only for
    purposes of trade.

135
Summary
  • 1. Pidgins are languages for a very narrow range
    of purposes those that have to do with coastal
    trade.
  • 2. Pidgins develop wherever traders want to do
    business (a) with people with whom they do not
    share a common language and (b) where there is no
    lingua franca for them to use.
  • 3. Most pidgins are mixtures of Asian or African
    languages and those of major European trading
    nations Spain and Portugal, Holland, France and
    Germany, and Britain.
  • 4. In general the sound and grammatical systems
    of a pidgin are those of the language used
    locally The vocabulary is supplied by the
    voyagers.

136
  • 5. Pidgins were not as a rule written down they
    changed rapidly, they were quickly learned by
    those who needed them, and when trading stopped
    they were discarded and soon forgotten. There
    must have been many pidgins of which we have no
    record.
  • 6. They are makeshift languages, and evidence of
    human inventiveness.
  • 7. They have very low prestige. Users of the
    language that provides the vocabulary hear them
    as fumbling attempts to speak as they do! People
    of every race tend to think of foreigners as
    childish, and the use of pidgins tends to
    strengthen or reinforce, that idea.

137
  • Activity 3New Languages in the Making

138
Task 1
  • Creole a pidgin is unstable, and when people
    make use of it they extend the number of
    functions it can have, so the pidgin rapidly
    become a language, and the resulting language is
    called Creole, a French-based or Portuguese-based
    or English-based Creole. The process is called
    creolisation.
  • Macanese a Creole established in Macau.

139
Task 2
  • Pay attention to P.232
  • The young black women learned something very like
    a pidgin, but they taught their babies a Creole,
    and now Black English is no longer a Creole. It
    is a variety of English with some creolised
    features. It has low prestige.

140
Task 3
  • A pidgin could not be a national language, but a
    Creole could, because it is a language. Tok Pisin
    is the official language of Papua New Guinea.

141
Task 4
  • Summarizing the Defferent among
    Varieties,Pidgins,Creoles

142
Summary
  • 1. Differences between a pidgin and a Creole. A
    pidgin, but not a Creole, has only some of the
    functions of language.
  • 2. Ways in which pidgins and Creoles are similar.
    Pidgins and Creoles are both mixed languages
    usually mixtures of languages belonging to
    different families.
  • 3. What is meant by saying that English has some
    creolised features? Some varieties of English
    include some but not all the features of a Creole.

143
  • 4. Why do speakers of varieties of English that
    have creolised features sometimes have
    difficulties in an English-using educational
    system? Their difficulties arise from the
    differences between their mother tongues and the
    Standard English used in schools. (You can add
    that some teachers see the creolised features as
    simply careless mistakes.)
  • 5. Give an example of a Creole currently used as
    a national language. Tok Pisin is a Creole, with
    English and German vocabulary, currently in use
    as a national language.

144
  • Activity 4English in Contemporary International
    Trade

145
Task 1
  • Examining Stable and Changed Aspects of Trade
    Practice

146
Task 2
  • Modern international trade involves international
    banking, national and international regulation
    and bilingual merchandisers with access to fax
    machines in addition.

147
Task 3
  • The practice and the teaching of Business English
    are different.

148
  • Activity 5Faxed English for International
    Business

149
Task 1
  • Advantages of faxed messages
  • 1. They are fast
  • 2. They can be sent at any time
  • 3. There is a written record
  • 4. They are easy to write and easy to read
  • 5. Drawings and diagrams can be faxed.

150
Task 2
  • Pay attention to the differences between Faxed
    English and Standard English

151
Task 3
  • Faxed Business English depends on much shared
    knowledge between the sender and receiver of the
    message. It can be shorter than the same meanings
    in Standard English. It makes much use of
    abbreviations. Headings signal changes of topic.
    Not a word is wasted. Nobody thinks this
    shortness and directness is rude or abrupt.
    Errors which a teacher would correct are just
    ignored.

152
Summary
  • 1. Faxed English is a major means of
    communication in international business.
  • 2. At present it is learned on the job, rather
    than deliberately taught.
  • 3. It works well for several reasons
  • 1). Users are highly motivated to make it work.
    Their livelihoods depend on it.
  • 2). Users have what is needed detailed
    knowledge of the context, which increases as they
    gain experience.
  • 3). Users for whom English is an additional
    language find it easy to use because mistakes are
    expected and ignored, not criticized. It is
    informal. Nobody expects or wants polite
    indirectness. Headings show changes of subject,
    and abbreviations make it brief.

153
Unit 6 Changing English in the Second World War
  • At the end of this unit,you should be able to do
    the following things,or do them better than you
    can now
  • explain what is meant by saying that English is
    currently the language of science---even though
    much science is done using other languages
  • recognize and describe a range of styles of
    English that are used for the purposes outlined
    above

154
Unit Six Changing English since the Second
World War
  • Difficult Points
  • How English serves the purposes of science
  • How TV promotes the global use of English
  • Discovering the dominant role of English in
    information storage, retrieval, and exchange

155
  • Activity 1English as the Language of
    International Science

156
Task 1
  • Science and technology cannot do without symbolic
    systems. Languages are symbolic systems.

157
Task 2
  • Major scientific and technological achievement is
    the achievement of an English speaking nation
    the U.S.

158
Task 3
  • English is suitable to a great variety of
    scientific and technological purposes
  • 1. It has a vast vocabulary and all sorts of ways
    of extending that vocabulary to meet changing
    needs.
  • 2. It lets you write in a very impersonal way,
    because it can be detached and unemotional.
  • 3. It is accessible, that is, you can learn
    English through education.

159
Summary
  • Why science needs an international language
  • 1. Science has developed very fast in the last
    half century.
  • 2. By the mid-century English was already
    established as an international language.
  • 3. Its position no longer depended on Britains
    imperial power and was able to survive its
    decline.

160
  • What Scientific English is like
  • 1. It is difficult for the ordinary user of
    English.
  • 2. Writers assume large areas of shared knowledge
  • 3. The style is remote and impersonal.
  • 4. The topics of the sentences are very often
    abstract.
  • 5. The passive voice is used very frequently.
  • 6. The style makes readers feel they are looked
    down on by the writer.
  • 7. The writer feels he is treating his readers as
    colleagues and equals.

161
  • Activity 2Uses of English in International
    Transport

162
Task 1
  • The most important contribution that English
    makes to international air safety is in reducing
    ambiguity.

163
Task 2
  • Shared mother tongue and shared culture and
    knowledge reduce misunderstandings, but do not
    prevent them.

164
Task 3
  • English is used as an international language in
    international air travel.

165
Task 4
  • The language of Air Traffic Control is a variety
    out of the working practices of the people
    engaged in it. All statements, and all directions
    are short, direct, and clear. The vocabulary in
    use is narrow. The English is a very much reduced
    and stereotyped English.

166
  • The English of International Air Traffic Control
  • 1. The language of International Air Control is
    English.
  • 2. It is used by all ground control staff and
    flight crew.
  • 3. It is used in all parts of the world.
  • 4. It is twentieth century English It is
    Standard English.
  • 5. It is spoken English and speakers know what
    they say will be recorded.
  • 6. It is the English of a special area of
    knowledge.
  • 7. It is formal, but not polite or indirect.
  • 8. It is brief, clear and direct.

167
  • Other varieties designed to avoid ambiguity
  • Sea-speak a special restricted variety of
    English used internationally in ship-to-shore
    communication.
  • Jargon the selection of language that people
    who have a common interest in machines and
    techniques use.
  • Argot the special language of thieves.
  • Slang the language used by young people to keep
    out the old.

168
Summary
  • 1.In everyday English, mistakes and
    misunderstandings happen all the time. They dont
    usually matter.
  • 2. Misunderstandings are very dangerous in the
    air.
  • 3. The language of Air Traffic Control is
    designed to avoid any misunderstanding and
    ambiguity.
  • 4. It is brief, direct, and can be learned
    quickly.
  • 5. Sea-speak and Police-speak are similar.
    Jargon, argot and slang are also designed by and
    for very special groups of users.

169
  • Activity 3Applications of Technology to
    Entertainment

170
Task 1
  • Understanding the Contribution of Technology to
    More Enjoyable Leisure for More People

171
Task 2
  • Television promotes English as a global language
    in two ways informal exposure to English and
    formal education on TV.

172
Task 3
  • Edutainment education and entertainment
    together.

173
Summary
  • 1. Television became generally available after
    the Second World War.
  • 2. Many people thought television would make the
    quality of peoples lives poorer, but it soon
    became hugely popular activity.
  • 3. It is available now in the developed and
    developing world, and in some very remote places.
  • 4. It tends to break down the barriers between
    races and cultures.
  • 5. Everything that makes television varied,
    absorbing and fun, makes it a good means for
    people to learn.

174
  • Activity 4Developments in Information Technology
    Reinforce the International Role of English

175
Task 1
  • 1. The end of the 20th century is often called
    the age of rapid communications or the age of
    information technology.
  • 2. IT has already many applications to everyday
    life, and their number increases all the time.
  • 3. Very few people foresaw present developments
    twenty years ago.
  • 4. One effect of the development of IT has been
    to reinforce and extend the position of English
    as an international language.
  • Know the history of computer

176
Task 2
  • There are some everyday, non-specialist uses of
    the computer.

177
Task 3
  • 85 of the worlds e-mail is exchanged in
    English.
  • 1. IT lets you store, retrieve, and transfer
    information.
  • 2. Such collections are called database.
  • 3. It makes possible very much larger collections
    and much quicker retrieval of items of
    information when these are needed.
  • 4. At present English dominates the making of the
    databases and the processes of retrieval and
    transfer.

178
Summary
  • 1. The end of the 20th century is often called
    the Age of Rapid Communications or the Age of
    Information Technology.
  • 2. IT has already many applications to everyday
    life, and their number increases all the time.
    Very few people foresaw present developments
    twenty years ago.
  • 3. The development of IT has reinforced and
    extended the position of English as an
    international language.
  • 4. IT lets you store, retrieve, and transfer
    information. Such collections are called
    databases.
  • 5. IT makes possible very much larger collections
    and much quicker retrieval of items of
    information when these are needed. At present
    English dominates databases. The position of
    English could change as the technology develops.

179
  • Activity 5Meeting the Worldwide Demand for ELT

180
Task 1
  • ELT English language teaching
  • Developments in (1) science and technology, (2)
    travel and transport, (3) entertainment and (4)
    the storage, retrieval and transfer of
    information, since they were heavily dependent on
    the global use of English, hugely increased
    demand for opportunities to learn the language,
    both for children and adults.

181
Advantages Limitations
Native-speaker EL teacher
Has native fluency May have limited understanding of difficulties
Has extensive vocabulary Usually gives explanations in English
At once perceives mistakes May not understand students or parents expectations
Bilingual teacher
Has a close understanding of learners May not offer a good model of pronunciation
Can offer explanations in learners language Has a limited vocabulary
Understands learners expectations May not perceive errors made by learners
Understand the school system
182
Task 2
  • Technology cannot only assist the bilingual
    teacher by providing native speakers as models of
    pronunciation for example, and it can almost
    replace the teacher.

183
Task 3
  • Three things have contributed to the development
    of ELT from an occupation to an academic
    profession since the Second World War
  • 1. The great strides in linguistics provided a
    theoretical framework for the profession of ELT.
  • 2. New institutions were set up, notably the
    British Council.
  • 3. University departments were set up, which
    served to focus research, and to offer training
    of a good standard and at a variety of levels.

184
  • Pattern practice learning by constantly
    repeating correct English sentences.
  • Language laboratory a classroom equipped with
    tape recorders and a control desk for the
    teacher.
  • Communicative approach a view of ELT that puts
    first understanding and being understood by
    another person.
  • Error analysis teaching in the belief that
    mistakes are necessary to learning and useful to
    teachers.
  • English for Specific Purposes courses designed
    to match the future work of and needs of groups
    of learners, very often groups with different
    occupations.

185
Summary
  • 1. In the last fifty years the increased
    importance of English as a global language has
    led to an increased demand for English Language
    Teaching.
  • 2. Very large numbers of teachers are needed.
    Most students must be taught by teachers who are
    not native speakers.
  • 3. Native speakers and bilingual teachers have
    different strengths and limitations.
  • 4. Technology provides useful assistance for
    teachers and replaces teachers in some
    circumstances.
  • 5. In the last fifty years ELT has developed as
    an academic profession. There are a number of
    different approaches and methodologies to match
    increasingly varied needs.

186
Unit 7 Emerging "New Englishes"A Focus for Debate
  • When you have completed the activities of this
    unit you will
  • Understand the current,and at present
    unresolved,debate about whether local standards
    are varieties,requiring recognition,or are
    essentially,inter-languages
  • Know how this debate bears on a number questions
    about
  • (1) the purpose which learners have for an
    additionalor auxiliary language

187
  • (2)the practicalities of teaching an auxiliary
    language to every large numbers of learners
  • (3) the role of Standard English a norm, and as a
    target
  • Understand why the position of Standard English
    is controversial, complicated, important
    and,almost certainly,important to you

188
Unit Seven Emerging New Englishes A Focus for
Debate
  • Difficult Points
  • Exam the significance of New Standards
  • Find out about international literature in
    English
  • Contrast roles of English feedback in
    mono-lingual and in multi-lingual societies

189
  • Activity 1What Is Meant by Emerging and New
    Englishes?

190
Task 1
  • English is studied, learned and taught in all
    three circles, but not in the same way.

191
Term Abb. Official Language? Chances of informal learning?
English as a mother tongue E1L Yes, for virtually all purposes taught in schools medium of learning Yes, everywhere in the environment
English as a Second Language ESL Yes, one of several taught in schools medium of some learning Yes, some
English as a Foreign Language EFL Not taught in schools not usually a learning medium No, only in the classroom
192
  • Varieties of English are varieties in use and
    user.

193
Task 2
  • Emerging Englishes or New Englishes are not just
    regional varieties.

194
Task 3
  • 1. Where local written standards are emerging in
    use, the question of local or international
    standards may arise.
  • 2. The advantages of teaching a local standard
    are
  • a. They are easier and quicker to learn.
  • b. There are useful where there are many
    languages in use in a country and no common
    language.
  • c. Only a minority of people need a language
    for international use.
  • 3. The disadvantages of teaching a local standard
    are
  • a. Local standards change quickly and are not
    well regarded internationally.
  • b. If they are used internationally, they
    dont do justice to the user or his ideas.
  • c. Local Standards are emerging and changing,
    so there may not be enough suitable teachers, or
    teaching materials.

195
  • 4. The advantages of teaching Standard English
    are
  • a. Standard English is stable and has prestige
    worldwide.
  • b. It opens up an immense quantity of
    literature on all topics and, increasingly, it
    makes electronically stored material available.
  • 5. The disadvantages of teaching Standard English
    are
  • a. It may take longer to learn than a local
    standard.
  • b. Fewer people will succeed.
  • 6. Standard English offers much in return to
    those who do, and is the best choice except where
    the need for a common language has to come before
    everything else. That is not the case in Hong
    Kong.

196
  • Activity 2International Voices in English

197
Task 1
  • Considering Another Function of Languagethe
    Making of Imaginative Fiction

198
Task 2
  • Finding out about International Literature in
    English

199
Task 3
  • Discovering Your Own English Voice

200
Summary
  • 1. The international use of English means that
    there can be an international literature written
    in one part of the English-using world, and
    available everywhere that English is used.
  • 2. New Englishes developed and produced in one
    region but widely understood, have a role in this
    literature. They can make possible an imaginative
    understanding of what it is like to live in that
    place and to share its culture.
  • 3. Anyone who has English as an additional
    language can have an English voice in addition to
    the voice that belongs to the mother tongue and
    its culture.
  • 4. That user can now reach very scattered, varied
    and distant readers. It is much easier to do this
    than most people think provided you are not too
    ambitious at the start.

201
  • Activity 3Emerging Englishes

202
Task 1
  • An authoritative statement is one that is
    complete, considerate, and based on extensive and
    detailed knowledge.

203
Task 2
  • There is a major debate in the study of English
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