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Before Reading_ english song

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Alan Parsons Project English Song Old and Wise Engineer and producer Alan Parsons and his colleague, songwriter and lyricist Eric Woolfson, formed the Alan ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Before Reading_ english song


1
Before Reading_ english song
Alan Parsons Project
English Song Old and Wise
Engineer and producer Alan Parsons and his
colleague, songwriter and lyricist Eric Woolfson,
formed the Alan Parsons Project in 1975.
Throughout their career, the Alan Parsons Project
recorded concept albums, with a revolving cast of
session musicians. Nineteen eighty-twos Eye in
the Sky was their greatest success the title
track charted in the Top Ten on the pop charts
and the album went platinum. Although they
werent able to repeat that success, the group
maintained a devoted cult audience.
Alan Parsons Project
Listen to the Song
Questions about the Song
About the Author Bertrand Russell
Background Information
Edward Gibbon
University of Cambridge
Girton College
Discussion
2
Before Reading_ english song2
English Song Old and Wise
Alan Parsons Project
Listen to the Song
Questions about the Song
About the Author Bertrand Russell
Background Information
Edward Gibbon
University of Cambridge
Girton College
Discussion
3
Before Reading_ alan parsons project
English Song Old and Wise
Alan Parsons Project
Listen to the Song
Questions about the Song
About the Author Bertrand Russell
Background Information
Edward Gibbon
University of Cambridge
Girton College
Discussion
4
Before Reading_ listen to the song



Listen to the Song
English Song Old and Wise
Alan Parsons Project
Listen to the Song
Questions about the Song
About the Author Bertrand Russell
Background Information
Edward Gibbon
University of Cambridge
Girton College
Discussion
5
Before Reading_ listen to the song



Old and Wise Alan Parsons Project As far as my
eyes can see There are shadows approaching me And
to those I left behind I wanted you to
know Youve always shared my deepest thoughts You
follow where I go And oh, when Im old and
wise Bitter words mean little to me Autumn winds
will blow right through me And someday in the
mist of time When they asked me if I knew you Id
smile and say you were a friend of mine And the
sadness would be lifted from my eyes Oh when Im
old and wise
English Song Old and Wise
Alan Parsons Project
Listen to the Song
Questions about the Song
About the Author Bertrand Russell
Background Information
Edward Gibbon
University of Cambridge
Girton College
Discussion
6
Before Reading_ listen to the song



As far as my eyes can see There are shadows
surrounding me And to those I leave behind I want
you all to know Youve always shared my darkest
hours Ill miss you when I go And oh, when Im
old and wise Heavy words that tossed and blew
me Like autumn winds that will blow right through
me And someday in the mist of time When they ask
you if you knew me Remember that you were a
friend of mine As the final curtain falls before
my eyes Oh when Im old and wise As far as my
eyes can see
English Song Old and Wise
Alan Parsons Project
Listen to the Song
Questions about the Song
About the Author Bertrand Russell
Background Information
Edward Gibbon
University of Cambridge
Girton College
Discussion
7
Before Reading_ Questions about the song1



Questions about the Song
English Song Old and Wise
1. As an old and wise man, how does one face
his relatives or friends pass away?
Alan Parsons Project
Listen to the Song
Keep them in mind but never live in sadness.
Questions about the Song
2. To an old and wise man, what is the right
attitude towards death?
About the Author Bertrand Russell
Dying is as natural as living. As an old and
wise man, one should not suffer from the fear of
death because he has known human joys and
sorrows, and has made all the achievements he is
able to make.
Background Information
Edward Gibbon
University of Cambridge
3. Have you ever thought someday you will be an
old person? How will you arrange your life then?
Girton College
Discussion
4. How to be an old and wise person?
8
Before Reading_ about the author



Brief Introduction to Bertrand Russell
English Song Old and Wise
Alan Parsons Project
Listen to the Song
Questions about the Song
About the Author Bertrand Russell
Background Information
Edward Gibbon
University of Cambridge
Girton College
Discussion
9
Before Reading_ about the author2



Famous Quotes from Bertrand Russell
English Song Old and Wise
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
All human activity is prompted by desire. Many
people would rather die than think in fact, most
do. To fear love is to fear life, and those who
fear life are already three parts dead. In all
affairs its a healthy thing now and then to hang
a question mark on the things you have long taken
for granted. The whole problem with the world is
that fools and fanatics are always so certain of
themselves, but wiser people so full of doubts.
Alan Parsons Project
Listen to the Song
Questions about the Song
About the Author Bertrand Russell
Background Information
Edward Gibbon
University of Cambridge
Girton College
Discussion
10
Before Reading_ about the author3



Chronology of Bertrand Russell
English Song Old and Wise
In 1872
Born in Wales, UK
Alan Parsons Project
In 1910
Wrote major early work Principles of Mathematics
Listen to the Song
Questions about the Song
In 1918
Put in prison for his vocal protests against war
About the Author Bertrand Russell
In 1938
Took an academic post in America
Background Information
In 1945
His book named A History of Western Philosophy
sold well and removed his financial troubles
Edward Gibbon
Girton College
University of Cambridge
In 1950
Won Nobel Prize for literature
Discussion
In 1970
Died
11
Before Reading_ about the author4



The British mathematician, philosopher and social
reformer Bertrand Arthur William Russell was born
in Wales in 1872. In his long and complex life,
Russell took many roles. After a distinguished
mathematics and philosophy course at Cambridge
University, he was elected to a fellowship. His
major early work was The Principles of
Mathematics, first published in 1903. During the
First World War Russells pacifist activities
resulted in the loss of his fellowship and his
vocal protests against the War led to a brief
jail sentence in 1918. In 1938 he took an
academic post in America and stayed there for
most of the Second World War. His book named A
History of Western Philosophy sold well in 1940s
and removed his financial troubles. He was given
the Nobel Prize for literature in 1950. From 1954
onwards he became an outspoken advocate of
nuclear disarmament. He died in 1970.
English Song Old and Wise
Alan Parsons Project
Listen to the Song
Questions about the Song
About the Author Bertrand Russell
Background Information
Edward Gibbon
Girton College
University of Cambridge
Discussion
12
Before Reading_ Edward Gibbon

Edward Gibbon (17371794) British politician
and historian
English Song Old and Wise
Alan Parsons Project
Listen to the Song
Questions about the Song
About the Author Bertrand Russell
Background Information
Edward Gibbon
Girton College
University of Cambridge
Discussion
13
Before Reading_ Edward Gibbon

Edward Gibbon (17371794) is a British politician
and historian, author of The History of the
Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. Educated at
the University of Oxford and in Switzerland,
Gibbon wrote his early works in French. In London
he became a member of Samuel Johnsons brilliant
intellectual circle. On a trip to Rome he was
inspired to write the history of the city. His
Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, 6 vol., is
a continuous narrative from the 2nd century AD to
the fall of Constantinople in 1453. Though
Gibbons conclusions have been modified by later
scholars, his historical perspective and superb
literary style have given his work its lasting
reputation as one of the greatest historical
works.
English Song Old and Wise
Alan Parsons Project
Listen to the Song
Questions about the Song
About the Author Bertrand Russell
Background Information
Edward Gibbon
Girton College
University of Cambridge
Discussion
14
Before Reading_ University of Cambridge



Full name
Girton College, Cambridge
English Song Old and Wise
Alan Parsons Project
Named after
Girton Village
Listen to the Song
Questions about the Song
Established
In 1869
About the Author Bertrand Russell
Previous names
The College for Women
Background Information
Co-founders
Emily Davies and Barbara Bodichon
Edward Gibbon
Girton College
Motto
Better is wisdom than weapons of war.
University of Cambridge
Mixed
In 1977
Discussion
Famous for
1. One of the largest colleges in Cambridge 2. An
Egyptian mummy named Hermione 3. An indoor
heated swimming pool
15
Before Reading_ Girton College



University of Cambridge is one of the worlds
oldest and most prestigious universities. It was
established in 1209 and located in Cambridge,
England. Cambridge has more than 100 academic
departments and several world-class research
centers that have produced more than 80 Nobel
Prize winners. The university is home to more
than 16,000 students enrolled in some 30
colleges, each of which acts as an independent
institution. Teaching responsibilities are shared
between the colleges and university departments.
And degrees are awarded by the university.
Cambridge University is well known for its motto,
From this place, we gain enlightenment and
precious knowledge. Its alumni have included
such prominent notables as Sir Isaac Newton,
Charles Darwin, and Stephen Hawking.
English Song Old and Wise
Alan Parsons Project
Listen to the Song
Questions about the Song
About the Author Bertrand Russell
Background Information
Edward Gibbon
Girton College
University of Cambridge
Discussion
16
Before Reading_ Girton College



Directions When you listen to a paragraph about
Cambridge University, you are required to catch
the key words of this paragraph. And then say
something about this world-famous university
according to the key words youve got.
English Song Old and Wise
Alan Parsons Project
Listen to the Song
Questions about the Song
About the Author Bertrand Russell
Background Information
Edward Gibbon
Girton College
University of Cambridge
Establishment Location Students Departments
Colleges Nobel Prize Winners Motto Famous alumni
Discussion
17
Before Reading_ University of Cambridge2



Girton College is one of the constituent colleges
of the University of Cambridge in Cambridge,
England. The College was established in 1869 by
Emily Davies and Barbara Bodichon, as the first
residential college for women in England. It was
called the College for Women. The first group of
students were known as The Pioneers. In 1872 the
present site next to the village of Girton was
purchased. The College was then renamed Girton
College. The college became mixed in 1977 with
the arrival of the first male Fellows male
undergraduates have been admitted since 1979.
Girtonians are known for their motto, Better is
wisdom than weapons of war. Numerically and
geographically, Girton is now one of the largest
colleges in Cambridge. Girton also proudly houses
an Egyptian mummy named Hermione, and is the
only Cambridge college to have its own indoor
heated swimming pool.
English Song Old and Wise
Alan Parsons Project
Listen to the Song
Questions about the Song
About the Author Bertrand Russell
Background Information
Edward Gibbon
Girton College
University of Cambridge
Discussion
18
Global Reading_ Discussion
1. What do you usually do to keep fit? 2. What do
you think are the criteria of being healthy? 3.
If you had to choose between wealth and health,
which would you prefer? Why?
English Song Old and Wise
Alan Parsons Project
Listen to the Song
Questions about the Song
About the Author Bertrand Russell
Background Information
Edward Gibbon
Girton College
University of Cambridge
Discussion
19
Global Reading_1
Parts
Para.
Main Ideas
The hereditary factor From ones ancestors one
can acquire the right genes as well as guidance
on how best to remain young.
1
1
Part Division of the Text
Table Completion
The health factor Russell has little to say on
this, other than admitting that his lifestyle is
mostly wholesome.
Questions and Answers
2
2
True and False
The psychological factor We should guard against
the danger of undue absorption in the past and
that of clinging to youth in the hope of sucking
vigour from its vitality.
3
34
The broader interests factor Strong impersonal
interests may ensure us an easy and successful
old age and the best way to overcome the fear of
death is to make our interests wider and more
impersonal until our life becomes merged in the
universal life.
4
56
20
Global Reading_2
Story of Russells Maternal Grandmother
Part Division of the Text
Her Experience
Lost one child in infancy, suffered from many
miscarriages and finally became a widow.
Table Completion
Questions and Answers
Her Career
1. Devoted herself to womens higher education
2. Co-founder of Girton College 3. Worked hard
at opening the medical profession to women.
True and False
Book (s) She Read
Popular science
Her Recipe for Remaining Young
Not to notice that she was growing old.
21
Global Reading_2.2
Part Division of the Text
Summary of Her story
She went through a lot in her lifetime and yet
she was optimistic about life, successful in her
career and managed to live to the age of
ninety-two.
Table Completion
Questions and Answers
True and False
1. One should have wide and keen interests. 2. It
is not sensible to think about the exact number
of years one has already lived. 3. It is even
less sensible to consider how soon one might
possibly die.
Conclusions
22
Global Reading_3
1. What advice does the author give in Part 3?
Part Division of the Text
First, dont live in memories but to look ahead
to what youll be doing in the days to come.
Second, dont depend emotionally on the younger
generation in the hope of getting vigour from
them.
Table Completion
Questions and Answers
True and False
2. What does the author ask his readers to
forget? And why?
He asks his readers to forget the past, because
only by this way will one be able to think of
what is coming in the future and do something
that is worth doing, thus keeping his mind and
emotions as keen and active as they used to be.
3. What attitude should old people adopt towards
their grown-up children?
The old should not get too much involved in their
grown-up childrens lives. They should let them
live their own lives.
23
Global Reading_3.2
4. Why does the author make a comparison between
human beings and animals?
Part Division of the Text
Table Completion
He intends to tell his readers that for the sake
of their own health, it is psychologically
necessary for elderly people to be less
interested in their grown-up children even though
it is difficult to do so.
Questions and Answers
True and False
24
Global Reading_4
1. For grown-up children, mistakes are inevitable
and they can become more mature and experienced
through making mistakes.
Part Division of the Text
( )
T
Table Completion
Questions and Answers
True and False
2. Young people have their own lives to lead and
they will not enjoy elderly peoples company and
even material services.
F
( )
Young people have their own lives to lead and
they will not enjoy elderly peoples company even
if elderly people still render them material
services.
25
Global Reading_4.2
3. It is ignoble for people to fear death
according to the author.
F
( )
Part Division of the Text
There is a justification for young people to fear
death because it would be a great pity if their
lives have been cut short unjustly before they
have had a chance to enjoy all the best things
that life has to offer. It is somewhat ignoble
for elderly people to do so because they have
known human joys and sorrows, and have achieved
whatever work it was in them to do.
Table Completion
Questions and Answers
True and False
4. The author wishes to die while still at work
because he feels relieved that he has tried his
best and others will surely carry on what he
cannot do.
( )
T
26
Detailed Reading_t0
With wit and humor, Bertrand Russell proposes a
recipe for living a healthy life at an advanced
age. He also provides insights into the issue of
life and death, and the relationship between the
individual and the universal life.
Detailed Reading
27
Detailed Reading_t1
How to Grow Old? Bertrand Russell
Detailed Reading
In spite of the title, this article will really
be on how not to grow old, which, at my time of
life, is a much more important subject. My first
advice would be to choose your ancestors
carefully. Although both
my parents died young, I have done well in this
respect as regards my other ancestors. My
maternal grandfather, it is true, was cut off in
the flower of his youth at the age of
sixty-seven, but my other three grandparents all
lived to be over eighty. Of remoter ancestors I
can only discover one who did not live to a great
age, and he died of a disease which is now rare,
namely, having his head cut off. A great
grandmother of mine, who was a friend of Gibbon,
lived to the age of ninety-two, and to her last
day remained a terror to all her descendants. My
maternal
28
Detailed Reading_t2
grandmother, after having nine children who
survived, one who died in infancy, and many
miscarriages, as soon as she became a widow,
devoted herself to womens higher education. She
was one of the founders of Girton College, and
worked hard at opening the medical profession to
women. She used to relate how she met in Italy an
elderly gentleman who was looking very sad. She
inquired the cause of his melancholy and he said
that he had just parted from his two
grandchildren. Good gracious, she exclaimed, I
have seventy-two grandchildren, and if I were sad
each time I parted from one of them, I should
have a dismal existence! Madre snaturale, he
replied. But speaking as one of the seventy-two,
I prefer her recipe. After the age of eighty she
found she had some difficulty in getting to
sleep, so she habitually spent the hours from
midnight to 3 a.m. in reading popular science. I
do not believe that she ever had time to notice
that she was growing old. This, I think, is the
proper
Detailed Reading
29
Detailed Reading_t3
recipe for remaining young. If you have
wide and keen interests and activities in which
you can still be effective, you will have no
reason to think about the merely statistical fact
of the number of years you have already lived,
still less of the probable brevity of your
future.
Detailed Reading
As regards health I have nothing useful to say
since I have little experience of illness. I eat
and drink whatever I like, and sleep when I
cannot keep awake. I never do anything
whatever on the ground that it is good for
health, though in actual fact the things I like
doing are mostly wholesome.
Psychologically there are two dangers to be
guarded against in old age. One of these is undue
absorption in the past. It does not do to
live in memories, in regrets for the good old
days, or in sadness about friends who are dead.
Ones thoughts must be directed to the future and
to things about which there is something to be
done. This is
30
Detailed Reading_t4
not always easy ones own past is a
gradually increasing weight. It is easy to
think to oneself that ones emotions used to be
more vivid than they are, and ones mind more
keen. If this is true it should be forgotten,
and if it is forgotten it will probably not be
true.
Detailed Reading
The other thing to be avoided is clinging to
youth in the hope of sucking vigour from its
vitality. When your children are grown up they
want to live their own lives, and if you continue
to be as interested in them as you were when they
were young, you are likely to become a burden to
them. Animals become indifferent to their young
as soon as their young can look after themselves,
but human beings, owing to the length of infancy,
find this difficult.
It is no use telling grown-up children not to
make mistakes, both because they will not believe
you, and because mistakes are an essential part
of education. But if you are one of those who
are incapable of impersonal interests, you may
find that
31
Detailed Reading_t5
your life will be empty unless you
concern yourself with your children and
grandchildren. In that case you must realize that
while you can still render them material
services, such as making them an allowance or
knitting them jumpers, you must not expect that
they will enjoy your company.
Detailed Reading
Some old people are oppressed by the fear of
death. In the young there is a justification for
this feeling. Young men who have reason to fear
that they will be killed in battle may
justifiably feel bitter in the thought that they
have been cheated of the best things that life
has to offer. But in an old man who has known
human joys and sorrows, and has achieved whatever
work it was in him to do, the fear of death is
somewhat ignoble. The best way to overcome it
so at least it seems to me is to make your
interests gradually wider and more impersonal,
until bit by bit the walls of the ego recede, and
your life becomes increasingly merged in the
universal life. An individual human existence
should be like a river small at first, narrowly
contained within its banks,
32
Detailed Reading_t6
and rushing passionately past rocks and over
waterfalls. Gradually the river grows wider, the
banks recede, the waters flow more quietly, and
in the end, without any visible break, they
become merged in the sea, and painlessly lose
their individual being. The man who, in old age,
can see his life in this way, will not suffer
from the fear of death, since the things he cares
for will continue. And if, with the decay of
vitality, weariness increases, the thought of
rest will not be unwelcome. I should wish to die
while still at work, knowing that others will
carry on what I can no longer do and content in
the thought that what was possible has been done.
Detailed Reading
33
Detailed Reading_t1_Although
Although both my parents died young, I have done
well in this respect as regards my other
ancestors.
Detailed Reading
1. What does in this respect refer to?
It refers to choosing ones ancestors carefully.
It is naturally humorous of Russell to say he has
done well in choosing his ancestors because in
reality no one can choose his or her own
ancestors.
2. Translate the sentence.
??????????,???????????,???????
34
Detailed Reading_t1_A great
A great grandmother of mine, who was a friend of
Gibbon, lived to the age of ninety-two, and to
her last day remained a terror to all her
descendants.
Detailed Reading
Why did the authors great grandmother remain a
terror to all her descendants?
She was in such good health that she was held in
awe by her children and grandchildren right up
until the day of her death.
35
Detailed Reading_t2_If you
If you have wide and keen interests and
activities in which you can still be effective,
you will have no reason to think about the merely
statistical fact of the number of years you have
already lived, still less of the probable brevity
of your future.
Detailed Reading
What does the author suggest in this sentence?
He suggests that you should cultivate wide and
keen interests and do activities in which you can
be effective.
36
Detailed Reading_t3_I never
I never do anything whatever on the ground that
it is good for health, though in actual fact the
things I like doing are mostly wholesome.
Detailed Reading
1. Do you think the author would do things
harmful to his health?What is the implied meaning
of this sentence?
The author would be unlikely to do anything that
is harmful to his health.
2. What can we infer from this sentence?
When he does something, he never bothers about
whether it does any good to his health, but in
reality, the things he likes to do are mostly
good for his health.
37
Detailed Reading_t3_It does
It does not do to live in memories, in regrets
for the good old days, or in sadness about
friends who are dead.
Detailed Reading
What do we learn from this sentence?
Undue absorption in the past does not benefit one
at all.
38
Detailed Reading_t4_It is
It is easy to think to oneself that ones
emotions used to be more vivid than they are, and
ones mind more keen.
Detailed Reading
1. Paraphrase this sentence
People tend to believe their emotions used to be
more active and their minds used to be quicker
than it is now.
2. Translate the sentence.
?????????????????,????????????
39
Detailed Reading_t4_If
If this is true it should be forgotten, and if it
is forgotten it will probably not be true.
Detailed Reading
What is the implied meaning of this sentence?
In this paradox the author intends to say that
people of old age should not live in memories.
They should try to think of what is coming in the
future and do something meaningful. Only in this
way will their mind and emotions remain as keen
and active as they used to be.
40
Detailed Reading_t5_But
But if you are one of those who are incapable of
impersonal interests, you may find that your life
will be empty unless you concern yourself with
your children and grandchildren.
Detailed Reading
Translate the sentence.
??,?????????????????,??????,???????,?????????
41
Detailed Reading_t5_Young
Young men who have reason to fear that they will
be killed in battle may justifiably feel bitter
in the thought that they have been cheated of the
best things that life has to offer.
Detailed Reading
Why does the author say young men have reason to
fear death?
Because it would be a great pity if their lives
have been cut short unjustly before they have had
a chance to enjoy all the best things that life
has to offer.
42
Detailed Reading_t6_The
The best way to overcome it so at least it
seems to me is to make your interests gradually
wider and more impersonal, until bit by bit the
walls of the ego recede, and your life becomes
increasingly merged in the universal life.
Detailed Reading
Paraphrase this sentence
As your interests gradually get wider and more
impersonal, the sense of your value and
importance as an individual gradually disappears
and you will identify yourself more and more with
human life in general.
43
Detailed Reading_ respect
respect n. a particular point or detail
Detailed Reading
Grace was a fine woman perfect in almost every
respect.
APEC has made a very commendable attempt in this
respect.
Is China going to continue its measures in this
respect for further improvement?
???????????????
China can compete with any other country in this
respect.
Collocations
????? ????? ????? ????? ??
in this respect in every respect in some
respects in any respect in no respect
44
Detailed Reading_ as regrads
as regards on the subject of concerning
Detailed Reading
All citizens are equal as regards their capacity
for civil rights.
Could you elaborate on your government policy as
regards environmental protection?
As regards vegetables for the large cities, there
is a big contradiction between supply and demand
at present.
?????????, ????????
There are no special rules as regards what
clothes you should wear.
45
Detailed Reading_ cut off
cut off 1) to cause sb. to die sooner than is
normal 2) to remove sth. (from sth. larger) by
cutting 3) to stop, interrupt or isolate 4) to
separate sth. by cutting it away from the main
part
Detailed Reading
Directions Match the above definitions with the
sentences below.
1. We were cut off half way through the
conversation. 2. He cut off a metre of cloth
from the roll. 3. Disease cut Smith off in the
best part of his life. 4. Several villages have
been cut off by the snow. 5. Dont cut your
fingers off!
( )
3
( )
2
( )
1
( )
3
( )
4
46
Detailed Reading_ inquire
inquire v. to ask for information
Detailed Reading
She inquired of me most politely whether I wished
to continue.
I will inquire (of him) about the schedule.
Learn widely, inquire earnestly, and reflect on
what is at hand.
??,??,???
Collocations
inquire about inquire after inquire for inquire
into
???? ???? ??(??)?? ????
47
Detailed Reading_ inquire2
CF ask, demand, inquire question
????????,????? ????,??demand,
inquire?question??,?ask?????,???????????? ?????
???????????????????????,??????????????? ????,??
??????????????????? ????????????,???????,??????
??????
Detailed Reading
ask
I think Id better ask him who he is.
demand
The police demanded his name and address.
inquire
They inquired whether he would attend the meeting.
question
She questioned him about his past.
48
Detailed Reading_ part
part v. to separate or divide
Detailed Reading
The policemen parted the crowd.
She has parted from her husband.
????????,?????????????
If we must part, I hope we can be friends.
The clouds parted and the sun shone through.
?????
49
Detailed Reading_ exclaim
exclaim v. to cry out suddenly and loudly for
pain, anger, surprise, etc.
Detailed Reading
He exclaimed that it was untrue.
She exclaimed with delight when she saw the
present.
He could not help exclaiming at how much his son
has grown.
CF cry, shout, exclaim scream
????????,???? ????????????????? ?????????,????
????????????????? ????????????????????????? ??????
???????????
cry
shout
exclaim
scream
50
Detailed Reading_ exclaim2
Directions Fill in the blanks with the words
above. Change the form where necessary.
Detailed Reading
screaming
_________
1. She was hysterically. 2.
The police out a warning. 3. A
baby can as soon as it is born. 4. The
newspaper against the
governments action. 5. The crowd
slogans and threw stones at the police.
shouted
_______
cry
___
________
exclaimed
shouted
_______
51
Detailed Reading_ keen
keen adj. 1) sharp, active, sensitive
Detailed Reading
Dogs have a keen sense of smell.
He bought a knife with a keen blade.
2) intense, strong, deep
He has a keen interest in his work.
???,???????????
After retirement, he had a keen sense of loss.
3) eager, enthusiastic
She was not very keen on football.
After he had dreamed about his birthplace many
times, he was very keen to go back.
52
Detailed Reading_ inquire2
CF sharp, acute keen
??????????,???,?????? ?????????????????????
??????????????????,????sharp????? ?sharp,
acute??,??????????????????
Detailed Reading
sharp
Its very sharp of you to have answered such a
question.
??????,????????
acute
Rabbits have an acute sense of hearing.
?????????
keen
The old man has a keen sight.
?????????
53
Detailed Reading_ on the grounds that
on the grounds that for the reason that
Detailed Reading
I had to retire on the grounds that I was ill.
Her claims were disallowed on the grounds that
she had not paid her premium.
?????????????,??????????
He was not severely punished for his crime on the
grounds that he was young.
54
Detailed Reading_ guard against
guard against to prevent sth. from happening
Detailed Reading
In these circumstances he must guard against
pessimism.
We should take measures to guard against
accidents.
?????
Hidden arrows are difficult to guard against.
Her way to guard against being attacked is never
to go out alone at night.
Collocations
guard against disease guard against bad habits
guard against suspicion
???? ???? ????
55
Detailed Reading_ undue
undue adj. more than is reasonable, suitable or
necessary
Detailed Reading
Many schools place undue emphasis on the
proportion of students entering schools of a
higher level.
He tried to exercise an undue influence upon his
colleagues.
Mr. Smith pays undue attention to book learning
and formal rules.
????????????
Dont treat the matter with undue haste.
56
Detailed Reading_ cling
cling vi. to hold tightly refuse to give up
Detailed Reading
Small children cling to their mothers.
As a people the Chinese cling strongly to
tradition.
????????????
She clung to the hope of being rescued.
Cling to life and be scared of death.
?????
Pattern
cling to
57
Detailed Reading_ suck
suck v. 1) take (liquid or air, etc.) into the
mouth by using the lip muscles
Detailed Reading
Bees suck honey from flowers.
The old man was sucking at his pipe.
?????????????,????????????
The mosquito will suck our blood. Whats even
worse, it will inject poison into our bodies.
Do not teach your grandmother to suck eggs.
???????????????/???????
2) to absorb
Plants suck up moisture from the soil
The cleverest students can suck up as much
knowledge as teachers can give them.
58
Detailed Reading_ suck2
3) to pull sb. or sth. with great power and force
it into or out of a particular place
Detailed Reading
He was sucked into a life of crime.
I dont want to get sucked into the conflict.
59
Detailed Reading_ indifferent
indifferent adj. 1) not caring about or
noticing not interested in
Detailed Reading
How can you be indifferent to the sufferings of
starving people?
It is quite indifferent to me whether you go or
stay.
????????????????
The explorers were indifferent to dangers of the
expedition.
2) not particularly good mediocre fairly bad
an indifferent book
????????
an indifferent cook
???????
Pattern
be indifferent to / towards
60
Detailed Reading_ render
render vt. 1) to give, present or offer
Detailed Reading
We call on you to render assistance.
Many companies come to the customers house to
render service.
Render good for evil.
?????
2) cause sb. or sth. To be in a particular
condition
He was rendered helpless by the accident.
Trips to Chinas five great mountains render
trips to other mountains unnecessary, and a trip
to Huangshan renders the trip to the five great
mountains unnecessary.
???????????????
His fatness renders him unable to touch his toe.
61
Detailed Reading_ opress
oppress vt. 1) to rule unjustly or cruelly
Detailed Reading
Women were often oppressed by men in the past.
The rich oppress the masses by their control of
the political systems.
2) to cause sb. to feel worried, uncomfortable
The heat oppressed him and made him ill.
?????????????
The threat of war oppressed us all.
62
Detailed Reading_ cheat
cheat v. 1) to deceive or trick
Detailed Reading
They were caught cheating in the exam.
The company cheated taxman in order to get more
profits.
??????????
Its immoral to cheat in a test.
2) to take sth. from (sb.) deceitfully
He was cheated (out) of his rightful heritage.
They were cheated of victory.
??????????????
Pattern
cheat sb. (out) of sth.
cheat sb. (out) of sth.
N.B.
?????????,?????cheat ?
63
Detailed Reading_ cheat2
CF cheat, deceive, trick fool
???????????? ????,???????????????,??????????????
? ????????????,???????,???????????????? ??
??????????????????? ???????,?????????
Detailed Reading
cheat
He cheated the old woman out of her money.
?????????
deceive
We were deceived into believing he could help us.
?????, ??????????
trick
She tricked me into admitting responsibility.
?????????
fool
Dont fool me again.
????????
64
Detailed Reading_ achieve
achieve vt. 1) to complete or accomplish to
get (sth.) done
Detailed Reading
Ive achieved only half of what I hoped to do.
We were all exhausted, but felt we had achieved a
lot.
You will never achieve anything if you dont work
harder.
2) to gain or reach by effort
By the age of 25 he had achieved his ambition of
becoming the world champion in figure skating.
As a result of advertising, weve achieved a big
increase in sales this year.
??????????????
One who wants to achieve everything will achieve
nothing.
65
Detailed Reading_ achieve2
CF accomplish, achieve, fulfill complete
???????????? ???????????????????,???????????????
? ??????????????,??????????,?????????? ????????,??
???????????????????????? ?????????????,???????????
??
Detailed Reading
accomplish
achieve
fulfill
complete
66
Detailed Reading_ exclaim2
Directions Fill in the blanks with the words
above. Change the form where necessary.
Detailed Reading
fulfill
____
1. Brown was a brilliant musician but he had
never his early promise. 2. They
the difficult task assigned to
them. 3. The construction work of the new steel
plant has already been . 4.
It is more difficult for a woman to
success in modern society. 5. Ill my
obligation to the best of my ability. 6. They
conducted a series of experiments that
their purpose.
accomplished
___________
completed
_________
achieve
______
____
fulfill
achieved
_______
67
Detailed Reading_ overcome
overcome vt. 1) to successfully control a
feeling or a problem that prevents you from
achieving sth. to defeat
Detailed Reading
I managed to overcome my fear of darkness.
????????????????
He overcame a strong temptation to take drugs
again.
2) (of smoke or gas) makes sb. sick or unconscious
He was sent to hospital after he was overcome by
gas fumes.
Collocations
be overcome by fatigue be overcome by grief be
overcome by emotion be overcome by liquor be
overcome by fumes
???? ???? ???? ?? ????
68
Detailed Reading_ recede
recede vi. to move back or away
Detailed Reading
She could see the lights of the ship receding on
the horizon.
The sense of duty dominates all else, and
personal claims recede.
?????
The tides advance the tides recede.
We reached the open sea and the coast receded
into the distance.
69
Detailed Reading_ merge
merge v. 1) to combine to join things
together to form one thing
Detailed Reading
We have decided to merge these small firms into
one large company.
Where does this stream merge into the Rhine?
??????????????
The bank merged with its major rival.
A hundred rivers may merge in one.
?????
2) to fade or change gradually
Twilight merged into darkness.
One end is blue, one end red and the colors merge
in the middle.
The water and the sky merge in one color.
?????
His fear gradually merged into curiosity to know
what was happening.
70
Detailed Reading_ carry on
carry on 1) to continue (doing sth.) 2) to
conduct or take part in 3) to manage 4) to flirt
with or have a love affair with
Detailed Reading
Directions Match the above definitions with the
sentences below.
( )
1. Its difficult to carry on a conversation at a
noisy party. 2. We carried on with our
discussion. 3. Rising costs made it hard to
carry on the business. 4. They decided to carry
on in spite of the bad weather. 5. She was
carrying on with his boss.
2
1
( )
( )
3
( )
1
( )
4
71
After Reading_1.1
1. ????
as regards
Useful Expressions
2. ?????
cut off
Table Completion
3. ????
in the flower of ones youth
Optional Classroom Activities
4. ??????? ??????
in infancy
Group Discussion
5. ????
popular science
Writing Practice
6. ???????
recipe for remaining young
Talk about the Pictures
7. ????
on the grounds that
Proverbs and Quotations
8. ??,????
guard against
9. ??
cling to
10. ?????
in the hope of
72
After Reading_1.2
11. ??????
become / be indifferent to
Useful Expressions
12. ????
owing to
Table Completion
13. ????
concern oneself with / about
Optional Classroom Activities
14. ??????
render material services
Group Discussion
15. ????
be oppressed by
Writing Practice
16. ??
become / be merged into
Talk about the Pictures
17. ????
universal life
Proverbs and Quotations
18. ????
individual being
19. ?????
decay of vitality
20. ??(???)
carry on (doing sth.)
73
After Reading_2
Directions Find out the counterparts (e.g.
husband wife) or opposite counterparts (e.g.
beautiful ugly) of the following words in Text
A.
Useful Expressions
Table Completion
paternal
Maternal
Optional Classroom Activities
ancestor
descendant
gentleman
lady
Group Discussion
unusually
habitually
insufficient
undue
Writing Practice
personal
impersonal
Talk about the Pictures
slow
keen
Proverbs and Quotations
capable
incapable
joy
sorrow / melancholy
individual
universal
advance
recede
die in infancy
live to a great age
welcome
unwelcome
74
After Reading_3
1. Tell your classmates whether you agree or
disagree with the following proverbs about health
and translate them into Chinese.
Useful Expressions
Table Completion
1) Rest breeds rust.
Optional Classroom Activities
???????
2) A smoke after a meal is very relaxing.
Group Discussion
?????,??????
Writing Practice
3) After dinner sit awhile, after supper walk a
mile.
Talk about the Pictures
????,????????,?????
Proverbs and Quotations
4) Go to bed with the lamb and rise with the lark.
?????,??????
5) Less labour, much health.
????????
75
After Reading_3.2
6) An apple a day keeps the doctor away.
Useful Expressions
Table Completion
??????,????????
Optional Classroom Activities
7) The only way to keep your health is to eat
what you dont want, drink what you dont like,
and do what youd rather not.
Group Discussion
?????????????,??????,???????
Writing Practice
Talk about the Pictures
8) A light heart lives long.
Proverbs and Quotations
????,?????
76
After Reading_3.3
2. Give your opinion on how to keep fit?
Useful Expressions
Table Completion
Optional Classroom Activities
Group Discussion
Writing Practice
Talk about the Pictures
Proverbs and Quotations
77
After Reading_4
The following is an excerpt from an article in
Beijing Times. Discuss the following questions
with your classmates.
Useful Expressions
Table Completion
Optional Classroom Activities
Group Discussion
Writing Practice
Talk about the Pictures
Proverbs and Quotations
78
After Reading_4.2
1. What are the contributing factors to suicide
among young people?
Useful Expressions
Table Completion
increasing stress, loneliness, depression,
pressure, competition, psychosis, abuse of drugs
or alcohol, etc.
Optional Classroom Activities
2. What could you do if a relative or friend
threatens to commit suicide?
Group Discussion
Writing Practice
Discuss your concerns with him/her openly. Also
discuss your concerns with relevant
professionals, for example, doctors or a school
counselor. If someone you know is very likely to
commit suicide, keep the phone number of a crisis
service (for example, Lifeline) handy in case you
need urgent help.
Talk about the Pictures
Proverbs and Quotations
79
After Reading_5
Directions For this part, you are allowed 30
minutes to write a composition on the topic How
to Keep Psychologically Healthy? You should write
at least 120 words according to the outline given
below in Chinese
Useful Expressions
Table Completion
Optional Classroom Activities
How to Keep Psychologically Healthy?
Group Discussion
Outline 1. ???????????????? 2.
???????????????(????????????????????????????) 3.
??????????????
Writing Practice
Talk about the Pictures
Proverbs and Quotations
Sample
80
After Reading_5.2
One in four people will experience some kind of
mental health problem in the course of a year.
When you fail to control these problems, they are
likely to cause various mental illnesses and, as
a result of physiological imbalance, physical
illnesses. You may not be able to live a normal
life, let alone a fulfilling one. The causes of
mental health problems often vary a lot from one
case to another. In todays society, a good
number of people are suffering from heavy
pressure. Others are lacking in communication
skills and feel they are living in an isolated
world. In addition, a lot of people are ignorant
of psychological knowledge about how to keep
mentally fit.
Useful Expressions
Table Completion
Optional Classroom Activities
Group Discussion
Writing Practice
Talk about the Pictures
Proverbs and Quotations
81
After Reading_5.3
There are a lot of ways to curb mental health
problems and keep psychologically healthy.
Firstly, find the real cause of your mental
health problem and see whether you can do
something to make a change. Secondly, learn to
relax yourself and take exercise to release the
pressure. After all, your health is what counts
most. Lastly, you may find it helpful to talk to
your partner, a relative or a friend about your
problems, or seek support and advice from a
psychological consultant.
Useful Expressions
Table Completion
Optional Classroom Activities
Group Discussion
Writing Practice
Talk about the Pictures
Proverbs and Quotations
82
After Reading_6
Useful Expressions
Table Completion
Optional Classroom Activities
Group Discussion
Writing Practice
Talk about the Pictures
Proverbs and Quotations
83
After Reading_6
Useful Expressions
Table Completion
Optional Classroom Activities
Group Discussion
Writing Practice
Talk about the Pictures
Proverbs and Quotations
84
After Reading_6
Useful Expressions
Table Completion
Optional Classroom Activities
Group Discussion
Writing Practice
Talk about the Pictures
Proverbs and Quotations
85
After Reading_6
Useful Expressions
Table Completion
Optional Classroom Activities
Group Discussion
Writing Practice
Talk about the Pictures
Proverbs and Quotations
86
After Reading_6
Useful Expressions
Table Completion
Optional Classroom Activities
Group Discussion
Writing Practice
Talk about the Pictures
Proverbs and Quotations
87
After Reading_7
1. A good healthy body is worth more a crown in
gold.
Useful Expressions
???????????????
Table Completion
2. Care brings grey hair.
Optional Classroom Activities
??????
Group Discussion
3. Dying is as natural as living.
Writing Practice
??????????
Talk about the Pictures
4. A little labor, much health.
Proverbs and Quotations
???????????
5. The pain of the mind is worse than the pain of
the body. Publius Syrus, Syrian Latin writer
???????????? ???????? ????????
88
After Reading_7.2
6. To mourn a mischief that is past and gone is
the next way to draw new mischief on.
William Shakespeare, British dramatist
Useful Expressions
?????????????????????? ????? ??????
Optional Classroom Activities
7. Whats the use of worrying It never was
worthwhile So, pack up your troubles in your
old kit-bag And smile, smile, smile George
Asaf, British poet
Group Discussion
Writing Practice
Talk about the Pictures
Proverbs and Quotations
??????? ????????? ???????? ??????????? ????
?????
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