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Instructional Design


Instructional Design Definition Instructional Design Maximise the effectiveness, efficiency and appeal of instruction and other learning experiences. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Instructional Design

Last Week Cognitivism and Constructivism
Why do welecture???
Why Lecture?
  • 1.
  • 2.
  • 3.
  • 4.
  • 5.

  • 1. To Enthuse Students

  • 1. To Enthuse Students
  • How? Put yourself in their shoes,
  • Consider, if youve taught the topic for years...
  • Consider, if new to you to do...

  • 2. To give students the info they need

  • 2. To give students the info they need
  • How? Handouts can give 10 times more material,
    but must mix info with other materials (Make sure
    handout has lots of free space)

  • 3. To cover the syllabus

  • 3. To cover the syllabus
  • How? In a meaningfully manner. Give the students
    time to reflect and revise. So stop teaching for
    the last 3 weeks and get students to reflect and

  • 4. Give the student group a sense of identity

  • 4. Give the student group a sense of identity
  • How? Group work is vital

  • 5. Because its cost-effective - large groups

  • 5. Because its cost-effective - large groups
  • How? Instead of throwing out questions to
    students (as some may be intimidated) ask student
    to spend next 3 minutes writing down 3 most
    important ideas weve been talking about, and
    spend a minute comparing youve with your
    neighbourlook for 5 volunteers.
  • Rather than getting student to asks questions at
    end of class collect on slips of paper and answer
    at start of next class or on-line on discussion

  • 6. To help map curriculum

  • 6. To help map curriculum
  • How? Signpost the course. Show the students the
    syllabus, included learning outcomes. Number the
    topics instead of bullet pointing them

  • 7. To see how the students are doing

  • 7. To see how the students are doing
  • How? Look at their faces
  • How? Handout your slides, with first slide having
    questions about previous lecture - spend 5
    minutes of lecture getting student to answer.

  • 8. To change student beliefs

  • 8. To change student beliefs
  • How? By sharing your experience Expert views
    Existing Theories Other students ideas.
  • Make the students learning active, when students
    apply their ideas, it becomes their knowledge.

  • 9. To help students learn

  • 9. To help students learn
  • How? For a few minutes ask the students to
    reflect on HOW they are learning. Share with
    others their approaches, their triumphs and
  • How? Stop class for a few minutes and discuss
    their note-making techniques.
  • How? Ask student to write down 3 things they
    dont yet know about a topic and want to
    learnamalgamate lists and hand to lecturer

  • 10. To help students figure out what the lecturer
    is going to ask in the exam

  • 10. To help students figure out what the lecturer
    is going to ask in the exam
  • How? Students need to be more strategic about
    assessment, it is an intelligent response to
    their situation. But you just need to help them
    figure out your culture of assessment, not every
    little facet of it.

What can lecturers do?
  • Get a notebook per course.
  • Include attendance sheets, handouts, slides, etc.
  • After each lecture
  • Note down errors in slides and handouts
  • Write down key points of lecture
  • Tricky issues
  • Good examples

What can lecturers do?
  • Include questions after each lecture
  • What did I do best?
  • What should I avoid?
  • What surprised me?
  • What were the good student questions?
  • What couldnt the students answer?

Instructional Design
  • Definition

Instructional Design
  • Maximise the effectiveness, efficiency and appeal
    of instruction and other learning experiences.
  • The process consists of determining the current
    state and needs of the learner, defining the end
    goal of instruction, and creating some
    "intervention" to assist in the transition.
  • The outcome of this instruction may be directly
    observable and scientifically measured or
    completely hidden and assumed.

Instructional Design
  • We can divide models of instructional design
    broadly into two categories
  • MARCO Models which concern themselves with the
    design and planning of an entire module or
  • MICRO Models which concern themselves with the
    design and planning of an individual lecture or
    teaching session

Instructional Design
  • Models weve seen previously

Gagnés Nine Events of Instruction
Gagnés Nine Events of Instruction
  1. Gain attention - Curiosity motivates students to
  2. Inform learners of objectives - These objectives
    should form the basis for assessment.
  3. Stimulate recall of prior learning - Associating
    new information with prior knowledge can
    facilitate the learning process.
  4. Present the content - This event of instruction
    is where the new content is actually presented to
    the learner.
  5. Provide learning guidance - use of examples,
    non-examples, case studies, graphical
    representations, mnemonics, and analogies.
  6. Elicit performance (practice) - Eliciting
    performance provides an opportunity for learners
    to confirm their correct understanding, and the
    repetition further increases the likelihood of
  7. Provide feedback - guidance and answers provided
    at this stage are called formative feedback.
  8. Assess performance - take a final assessment.
  9. Enhance retention and transfer to the job -
    Effective education will have a "performance"

Reigeluths Elaboration Theory
Reigeluths Elaboration Theory
  1. Organizing Course Structure Single organisation
    for complete course
  2. Simple to complex start with simplest ideas, in
    the first lesson, and then add elaborations in
    subsequent lessons.
  3. Within-lesson sequence general to detailed,
    simple to complex, abstract to concrete.
  4. Summarizers content reviews presented in
    rule-example-practice format
  5. Synthesizers Presentation devices that help the
    learner integrate content elements into a
    meaningful whole and assimilate them into prior
    knowledge, e.g. a concept hierarchy, a procedural
    flowchart or decision table, or a cause-effect
    model .
  6. Analogies relate the content to learners' prior
    knowledge, use multiple analogies, especially
    with a highly divergent group of learners.
  7. Cognitive strategies variety of cues - pictures,
    diagrams, mnemonics, etc. - can trigger cognitive
    strategies needed for processing of material.
  8. Learner control Learners are encouraged to
    exercise control over both content and
    instructional strategy. Clear labelling and
    separation of strategy components facilitates
    effective learner control of those components.

Instructional Design
  • The Classic Macro Model
  • Blooms Taxonomy

Benjamin S. Bloom
  • Born Feb 21, 1913
  • Died Sept 13, 1999
  • Born in Lansford, Pennsylvania.
  • Educational psychologist
  • Editor of Taxonomy of Educational Objectives,
    Handbook 1 Cognitive Domain

Blooms Taxonomy
  • In the 1950s Bloom helped developed a taxonomy of
    cognitive objectives in Taxonomy of Educational
    Objectives, Handbook 1 Cognitive Domain
  • Means of expressing qualitatively different kinds
    of thinking
  • Been adapted for classroom use as a planning tool
    and continues to be one of the most universally
    applied models
  • Provides a way to organise thinking skills into
    six levels, from the most basic to the more
    complex levels of thinking

Blooms Taxonomy
Blooms Taxonomy(Meaning)
  • Evaluation compare and discriminate between
    ideas, assess value of theories, presentations
    make choices based on reasoned argument, verify
    value of evidence, recognize subjectivity
  • Synthesis use old ideas to create new ones,
    generalize from given facts, relate knowledge
    from several areas, predict, draw conclusions
  • Analysis seeing patterns, organization of parts,
    recognition of hidden meanings, identification of
  • Application use information use methods,
    concepts, theories in new situations, solve
    problems using required skills or knowledge
  • Comprehension understanding information,grasp
    meaning, translate knowledge into new context
  • Knowledge observation and recall of
    information,knowledge of dates, events, places
    knowledge of major ideas

Higher-order thinking
Blooms Taxonomy(Verbs)
  • Evaluation appraise, argue, assess, attach,
    choose compare, defend estimate, judge, predict,
    rate, core, select, support, value
  • Synthesis arrange, assemble, collect, compose,
    construct, create, design, develop, formulate,
    manage, organize, plan, prepare
  • Analysis analyze, appraise, calculate,
    categorize, compare, contrast, criticize,
    differentiate, discriminate, distinguish, examine
  • Application apply, choose, demonstrate,
    dramatize, employ, illustrate, interpret,
    operate, practice, schedule, sketch, solve, use
  • Comprehension classify, describe, discuss,
    explain, express, identify, indicate, locate,
    recognize, report, restate, review
  • Knowledge arrange, define, duplicate, label,
    list, memorize, name, order, recognize, relate,
    recall, repeat, reproduce state

Higher-order thinking
(No Transcript)
Learning Outcomes
  • Example Exam Paper 1
  • Example Exam Paper 2

Blooms Taxonomy Revised
  • In the 1990s Lorin Anderson, a former student of
    Bloom, led a new assembly which met for the
    purpose of updating the taxonomy, hoping to add
    relevance for 21st century students and teachers
  • Published in 2001, the revision includes several
    minor and major changes.
  • The revised version of the taxonomy is intended
    for a much broader audience.

Original Terms New Terms
  • Evaluation
  • Synthesis
  • Analysis
  • Application
  • Comprehension
  • Knowledge
  • Creating
  • Evaluating
  • Analysing
  • Applying
  • Understanding
  • Remembering

Blooms Taxonomy Revised
  • Creating Generating new ideas, products, or ways
    of viewing things. Designing, constructing,
    planning, producing, inventing. 
  • Evaluating Justifying a decision or course of
    action. Checking, hypothesising, critiquing,
    experimenting, judging 
  • Analysing Breaking information into parts to
    explore understandings and relationships.
    Comparing, organising, deconstructing,
    interrogating, finding 
  • Applying Using information in another familiar
    situation. Implementing, carrying out, using,
  • Understanding Explaining ideas or concepts.
    Interpreting, summarising, paraphrasing,
    classifying, explaining 
  • Remembering Recalling information. Recognising,
    listing, describing, retrieving, naming,

Higher-order thinking
Blooms Taxonomy Revised
Creating Green Hat, Construction Key, SCAMPER, Ridiculous Key, Combination Key, Invention Key
Evaluating Brick Wall Key, Decision Making Matrix, PMI, Prioritising.
Analysing Yellow Hat, Black Hat, Venn Diagram, Commonality Key, Picture Key, Y Chart, Combination Key.
Applying Blue Hat, Brainstorming, Different uses Key, Reverse Listing Key, Flow Chart.
Understanding Graphic Organisers, Variations Key, Reverse Listing, PMI, Webs (Inspiration).
Remembering White Hat, Alphabet Key, Graphic Organisers, Acrostic, Listing, Brainstorming, Question Key.

Instructional Design
  • Other Macro Models

  • The ADDIE model is used by instructional
    designers and training developers. It is composed
    of five phases
  • Analysis,
  • Design,
  • Development,
  • Implementation, and
  • Evaluation
  • Which represent a dynamic, flexible guideline for
    building effective training and performance
    support tools. This model attempts to save time
    and money by catching problems while they are
    still easy to fix.

ADDIE Model A Analysis
  • In analysis stage of ID process, want to find
  • Who are the learners or audience
  • Audience analysis
  • What is the goal or intended outcome
  • Goal analysis

ADDIE Model D Design
  • Content of the course
  • Subject matter analysis
  • Steps of instruction
  • Lesson planning-writing objectives
  • Type of media or presentation mode
  • Media selection

ADDIE Model D Development
  • Development of instruction
  • Generate lesson plans (different from lesson
    planning) and lesson materials.
  • Complete all media materials for instruction,
    and supporting documents.
  • End result is a course or workshop ready for

ADDIE Model I Implementation
  • The delivery of the instruction.
  • Purpose is effective efficient delivery of
  • Promote students understanding of material
    objectives, and ensure transfer of knowledge.

ADDIE Model E Evaluation
  • Two related evaluations going on simultaneously
    in most ID situations.
  • Formative Evaluation
  • Summative Evaluation

The elusive origins of the ADDIE Model
  • Remarkably it appears that the ADDIE model wasnt
    specifically developed by any single author but
    rather to have evolved
  • informally through oral tradition.
  • The ADDIE Model is merely a colloquial term used
    to describe a systematic approach to
    instructional development.

ASSURE model
  • Analyze learners characteristics, competencies,
    and learning styles
  • State objectives for what your lesson should
    accomplish (ABCD formataudience/behavior/conditio
  • Select, modify, and design methods, media, and
  • Utilize methods, media and materialsimplement
    the lesson
  • Require learner participation in lesson
  • Evaluate learner outcomes with objectives and
    revise as necessary
  • From Instructional Media and Technologies for
    Learning by Robert Heinich, Michael Molenda,
    James D. Russell, Sharon E. Smaldino

The ABCD Format
  • Audience The audience is the group of
    individuals who are targeted for instruction.
    While at first this seems straight forward, many
    times employees will ask will I get anything out
    of this training? or should I attend this
    training? or who is supposed to go to this
    training? Without a clear-cut audience in mind,
    it is difficult to pinpoint exactly who gains
    from the training and who would be better served
    in a different class.
  • Behaviour The behaviour element of the objective
    indicates the desired outcome of the particular
    learning event. The behaviour will be stated in
    the following form will be able to detail
    properly or will be able to discuss the
    mechanism of action (MOA) with the doctor. The
    behaviour is what you want the person to be able
    to do as a result of the training. It is
    important to clarify the behaviour because
    training programs can get off track when the
    desired outcome of the training activity is not
    clearly defined.
  • Condition The term condition describes
    circumstances under which the behaviour should
    occur. An example would be when calling on a
    doctor, The condition describes a trigger for
    the desired behaviour.
  • Degree The term degree represents how well the
    employee must perform to be considered
    acceptable. The degree of the objective is the
    measurable component. Measures can be expressed
    as level of productivity, quantity, quality,
    time, internal or external customer requirements,
    or other criteria gained from actual or
    anticipated work practices.
  • From Instructional Technology - A Systematic
    Approach to Education by Frederick G. Knirk,
    Kent L. Gustafson

Dick and Carey Model
  • The model was originally published in 1978 by
    Walter Dick and Lou Carey in their book entitled
    The Systematic Design of Instruction.
  • It champions a systems view of instruction as
    opposed to viewing instruction as a sum of
    isolated parts. The model addresses instruction
    as an entire system, focusing on the
    interrelationship between context, content,
    learning and instruction.

Dick and Carey Model
Revise Instruction
Conduct Instructional Analysis
Assess Need to Identify Goal(s)
Write Performance Objectives
Develop Assessment Instruments
Develop Instructional Strategy
Develop And Select Instructional Materials
Design and Conduct Formative Evaluation
Analyze Learners and Contexts
Design and Conduct Summative Evaluation
ICARE model
  • Based on the Dick and Carey Model and pioneered
    by San Diego State University in 1997, the model
    has found a place in the higher education sector.

ICARE model
  • Introduce learners to what is to be learned
  • Content of lesson is presented to learner
    involving active participation
  • Apply new knowledge and skills with practical
  • Reflect on what has been learned
  • Extend learning of lesson by providing
    alternative resources

ICARE model
Tripp and Bichelmeyer
  • Design that occurs in a rapid prototyping
    environment, when prototyping is specifically
    used as a method for instructional design.
  • The analysis of needs and content depends in part
    upon the knowledge that is gained by actually
    building and using a prototype instructional

Tripp and Bichelmeyer
  • Tripp,Steven, Bichelmeyer,Barbara, Rapid
    prototyping An alternative instructional design
    strategy, Educational Technology Research and
    Development, 38, 1, 3/18/1990, Pages 31-44

Tripp and Bichelmeyer
  • Diagram needs additions

Other Macro Models
  • There are many other macro models of
    instructional design, we wont go into them, but
    Ive included a few pictures for your viewing

Hannafin Peck Model
Knirk Gustafson Model
Jerrold Kemp Model
Gerlach-Ely Model
Ausubels Assimilation Theory
Instructional Design
  • More in the Micro

Component Display Theory
  • Component Display Theory (CDT) classifies
    learning along two dimensions
  • content
  • facts, concepts, procedures, and principles
  • performance
  • remembering, using, generalities
  • The theory specifies that instruction is more
    effective to the extent that it contains all
    necessary primary and secondary forms. Thus, a
    complete lesson would consist of objective
    followed by some combination of rules, examples,
    recall, practice, feedback, helps and mnemonics
    appropriate to the subject matter and learning
    task. Indeed, the theory suggests that for a
    given objective and learner, there is a unique
    combination of presentation forms that results in
    the most effective learning experience.

Component Display Theory
Component Display Theory
Active Learning
  • an umbrella term that refers to several models of
    instruction that focus the responsibility of
    learning on learners.
  • Think-Pair-Share
  • The Pause Procedure
  • Fact Rounding
  • Network Phasing
  • Learning Cell
  • Active Writing
  • Team Quizzes

Active Learning
  • Think-Pair-Share
  • learners take a short amount of time (e.g. one
    minute) to ponder the previous lesson,
  • Then they discuss it with one or more of their
  • finally to share it with the class as part of a
    formal discussion.
  • It is during this formal discussion that the
    instructor should clarify misconceptions. However
    students need a background in the subject matter
    to converse in a meaningful way. Therefore a
    "think pair share" exercise is useful in
    situations where learners can identify and relate
    what they already know to others.

Active Learning
  • The Pause Procedure
  • We know that even the most motivated student's
    concentration declines after 10-15 minutes.
    Teaching often requires students to play passive
    roles and assume all students need the same
    information at the same pace. By using three
    two-minute pauses during the lecture (about every
    13 to 18 minutes), the students are given the
    chance to clarify, assimilate, and retain the
    information presented during the prior
    mini-class. The pause procedure can be used as a
    vehicle to carry into the traditional class a
    variety of active and collaborative learning

Active Learning
  • The Pause Procedure
  • Examples of things do to during the 'pause'
  • Ask students to turn to their neighbour and
    summarize the main ideas the instructor has just
    presented (e.g., List three major points in the
    last lecture and one point you're confused on).
  • Ask students to read over their notes of the
    materials covered today and put a question mark
    beside anything they want either clarification on
    or more details on.
  • Ask students to take out a blank sheet of paper,
    pose a question (either specific or open-ended),
    and give them one (or perhaps two - but not many
    more) minute(s) to respond. Some sample questions
    include "What are the countries in Europe?",
    "What are 'Human Rights'?", "What is the
    different between adverbs and adjectives?" and so
    on (one minute paper).
  • Ask students "What was the 'muddiest point' in
    today's class?" or, perhaps, you might be more
    specific, asking, for example "What (if
    anything) do you find unclear about the lesson?"
    listing topics.
  • Ask students to report their reactions to some
    facet of the course material - i.e., to provide
    an emotional or evaluative response to the

Active Learning
  • Fact Rounding
  • The Fact rounding technique works as follows,
    towards the end of a lesson the students are
    asked to recall one fact from the material
    covered. Another student should not repeat a fact
    already mentioned and the activity should
    continue until all the lesson material has been

Active Learning
  • Network Phasing
  • The activity of Phasing starts off with three
    groups in its first Phase. These groups will each
    be assigned a particular section of a larger
    problem. All groups are then given a specific
    amount of time to work on either fact finding or
    a solution or both. The time frame most suitable
    for Phasing is two hours but the approach taken
    can vary depending on the needs of the particular
    problem. After a given period of time the group
    elect a leader to present their findings. From
    this short presentation the students will learn
    about the different sections of the larger
  • Phase 2 begins with the original groups being
    split in two halves and those halves coming to
    form two new groups. This formation ensures that
    all students get exposure to all areas of the
    larger problem. The two new groups will have a
    new solution or facts to find. Phase 2 develops
    in the same way as Phase 1 and the elected leader
    of each group present the findings.
  • Phase 3 takes the form of a group discussion
    bringing the findings of Phase 2 together to form
    the solution to the larger problem. This
    discussion should be lead by the teacher to
    ensure the students findings are correct and to
    give suggested improvements.

Active Learning
  • Learning Cell
  • A learning cell is a process of learning where
    two students alternate asking and answering
    questions on commonly read materials. To prepare
    for the assignment, the students will read the
    assignment and write down questions that they
    have about the reading. At the next class
    meeting, the teacher will randomly put the
    students in pairs. The process begins by
    designating one student from each group to begin
    by asking one of their questions to the other.
    Once the two students discuss the question. The
    other student will ask a question and they will
    alternate accordingly. During this time, the
    teacher is going around the class from group to
    group giving feedback and answering questions.
    This system is also referred to as a student
    dyad (or pair).

Active Learning
  • Active Writing
  • The Active Writing technique is used as follows
  • at the end of the lesson students are asked to
    submit questions based on the material covered.
  • These questions are used as an introduction to
    the next lesson.
  • The purpose of this activity is to ensure that
    the students will have their questions answered
    and to reflect on the material. This activity is
    different to the other because it is spreads
    across two separate lessons. This technique can
    also be used to gauge students understanding of
    a subject based on the questions they submit.

Active Learning
  • Team Quizzes
  • The team quizzes activity divides the class into
    two groups (Group A and Group B). The groups are
    given an amount of time to generate questions on
    the material covered. The teacher aims Group As
    questions to Group B and visa versa. If the group
    give the correct answer a point is awarded,
    otherwise the other group must give the answer.
    The purpose of this approach is to promote the
    generation of well thought out questions and

Six Thinking Hats
Six Hats Instructional Model
BLUE Introduction and overview of topic
WHITE Facts and Figures about the Topic
YELLOW Positive outcomes of Topic
BLACK Negative outcomes of Topic
GREEN Interesting outcomes of Topic
RED Personal, emotional and people-oriented aspects of topic
WHITE Review of new facts uncovered
BLUE Summary and finish up
Other Micro Techniques
  • Learning by teaching
  • Problem-based learning
  • Project-based learning
  • Inquiry-based learning
  • Action learning
  • Progressive inquiry
  • Service-learning

  • Put these in order of importance on student

Direct Instruction
Students Disposition to learn
Students Prior Cognitive Ability
Instructional Quality
  • Put these in order of importance on student

1. Feedback
2. Students Prior Cognitive Ability
3. Instructional Quality
4. Direct Instruction
5. Students Disposition to learn
Lecturer influence
Student influence
  • Put these in order of importance on student

1. Feedback
2. Students Prior Cognitive Ability
3. Instructional Quality
4. Direct Instruction
5. Students Disposition to learn
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