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Infancy: Social and Emotional Development Truth or Fiction?


Chapter 7 Infancy: Social and Emotional Development Infants who are securely attached to their mothers do not like to stray from them. You can estimate how strongly ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Infancy: Social and Emotional Development Truth or Fiction?

Chapter 7InfancySocial and Emotional
Infancy Social and Emotional Development
Truth or Fiction?
  • Infants who are securely attached to their
    mothers do not like to stray from them.
  • You can estimate how strongly infants are
    attached to their fathers if you know how many
    diapers per week the father changes.

Infancy Social and Emotional Development
Truth or Fiction?
  • Child abusers have frequently been the victims of
    child abuse themselves.
  • Autistic children may respond to people as if
    they were pieces of furniture.

Infancy Social and Emotional Development
Truth or Fiction?
  • Children placed in day care are more aggressive
    than children who are cared for in the home.
  • Fear of strangers is abnormal among infants.

Infancy Social and Emotional Development
Truth or Fiction?
  • All children are born with the same
    temperament. Treatment by caregivers determines
    whether they are difficult or easy-going.
  • Girls prefer dolls and toy animals, and boys
    prefer trucks and sports equipment only after
    they have become aware of the gender roles
    assigned to them by society.

  • Bonds That Endure

What is Meant by Attachment?
  • Enduring emotional tie between one animal/person
    and another specific individual
  • Separation anxiety
  • Experienced by infant when contact can not be
    maintained with caregiver
  • Attachment is assessed by Strange Situation

Patterns of Attachment?
  • Secure attachment
  • Mildly protest mothers departure, seek
    interaction upon her return and are easily
    comforted by her
  • Avoidant attachment
  • Least distressed by mothers departure, ignore
    mother upon her return
  • Ambivalent/resistant attachment
  • Show severe distress when mother leaves and
    ambivalence upon her return, clinging and pushing
    away their mother
  • Disorganized/disoriented attachment
  • Dazed, confused or disoriented

Developing in a World of Diversity
  • Cross-Cultural Patterns of Attachment

Is it Better for an Infant to be Securely
Attached to its Caregiver?
  • Securely attached infants and toddlers
  • Happier, more sociable, more cooperative
  • Use mother as secure base for exploration
  • Have longer attention spans, are less impulsive
    and better problem solvers
  • At 5 and 6, are better liked, more competent,
    less aggressive and have fewer behavioral problems

What are the Roles of the Parents in the
Formation of Bonds of Attachment?
  • High-quality care contributes to security
  • Siblings develop similar attachment relationships
    with their mother
  • Infants temperament and caregivers behavior
    both contribute to attachment
  • What determines an infants attachment to their
  • Quality of the time the father spends with the
  • Amount of affectionate interaction between father
    and infant

Stability of Attachment?
  • When caregiving remains constant attachment
  • When caregiving changes attachment can change
  • Early attachment patterns tend to endure even
    into adulthood

What did Ainsworth Learn about Stages of
  • Three phases of attachment
  • Initial-preattachment phase
  • Birth to 3 months indiscriminate affection
  • Attachment-in-the-making phase
  • 3 to 6 months preference for familiar figures
  • Clear-cut-attachment phase
  • Begins at 6 months intensified dependence on
    primary caregiver
  • Most children form more than one attachment

Figure 7.2 The Development of Attachment
How do Different Theorists Emphasize Nature or
Nurture in their Explanation of the Development
of Attachment?
  • Cognitive View of Attachment
  • Infant must develop object permanence prior to
    forming attachment
  • Behavioral View of Attachment
  • Infants become conditioned to caregivers
  • Psychoanalytic Views of Attachment
  • Caregiver becomes a love object
  • Harlows View of Attachment
  • Content comfort is key to attachment

How do Different Theorists Emphasize Nature or
Nurture in their Explanation of the Development
of Attachment?
  • Ethological View of Attachment
  • Attachment is an inborn fixed action pattern
    (FAP) which occurs during a critical period in
    response to releasing stimulus.
  • In humans, babys smile in response to human
    voice or face
  • 2-3-month emergence of social smile
  • In non-humans, FAP occurs during critical period

A Closer Look
  • Hormones and AttachmentOf Mice and Men and
    Women and Infants

When Attachment Fails
What are the Findings of the Harlows Studies on
the Effects of Social Deprivation with Monkeys?
  • Monkeys reared in isolation
  • Later avoided contact with other monkeys
  • Did not attempt to fend off attacks by other
  • Females who later bore children ignored or abused
  • Attempts to overcome effects of deprivation
  • Deprived monkeys are placed with younger monkeys
  • Eventually expand contacts with other monkeys
  • Children socially withdrawn and placed with
    younger playmates make gains in social and
    emotional development

What do we Know about the Effects of Social
Deprivation on Humans?
  • Institutionalized children with little social
    stimulation encounter developmental problems
  • May become withdrawn and depressed
  • Infants may require sensory stimulation and
    social interference more than a specific
    relationship with a primary caregiver
  • Infants have much capacity to recover from

Figure 7.7 The Development of Adopted Children
Separated from Temporary Foster Parents
What is the Incidence of Child Abuse and Neglect?
  • Nearly 3 million American children are neglected
    or abused each year
  • 1 in 6 experiences serious injury
  • More than 150,000 are sexually abused
  • Researchers believe 50- 60 of abuse and neglect
    go unreported
  • Abused children show high incidence of personal,
    social problems, and psychological disorders
  • Less securely attached to parents
  • Less intimate with peers
  • More aggressive, angry and noncompliant with
    other children

A Closer Look
  • How Child Abuse May Set the Stage for
    Psychological Disorders in Adulthood

Causes of Child Abuse
  • Situational stress
  • History of child abuse
  • Lack of coping and problem solving skills
  • Deficiency in child-rearing skills
  • Substance abuse

Why Does Child Abuse Run in Families?
  • Parents are role models, even abusive ones
  • Exposure to violence may lead to violence as a
  • Rationalization of hurting children

Dealing with Child Abuse
  • Reporting child abuse
  • Many states require suspicions to be reported
  • Preventing child abuse
  • Strengthening parenting skills
  • Home visits to high risk groups
  • Providing information, ie. child abuse hotline

A Closer Look
  • What to Do if You Think a Child Has Been the
    Victim of Sexual Abuse

Autism Spectrum Disorders
What are Autism Spectrum Disorders?
  • Characterized by impairment in communication
    skills, social interactions, and repetitive
    stereotyped behavior
  • Becomes evident by age 3
  • Forms of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs)
  • Aspergers disorder social deficits and
    stereotyped behavior
  • Retts disorder physical, behavioral, motor and
    cognitive abnormalities, begins a few months
    after normal development
  • Childhood disintegrative disorder loss of
    previously acquired skills, begins 2 years after
    normal development

What is Autism?
  • Children with autism do not show interest in
    social interaction, may avoid eye contact and
    have weak or absent attachment
  • Features of autism
  • aloneness
  • communication problems
  • intolerance of change
  • stereotypical behaviors
  • mutism
  • echolalia
  • self-mutilation

What is Autism?
What are the Origins of Autism Spectrum Disorder?
  • Biological factors
  • Evidenced by genetic studies
  • Focus on neurological involvement
  • Abnormal brain wave patterns or seizures
  • Structural differences in brains
  • Fewer receptors for neurotransmitters

What Can be Done to Help Children with Autism
Spectrum Disorders?
  • Behavior modification
  • Drug therapies are under study
  • Use of SSRIs and major tranquilizers

Day Care
Does Day Care Affect Childrens Bonds of
Attachment? Does it Affect Social and Cognitive
  • No highly likelihood of insecure attachment for
    infants in day care
  • Social development of children in day care
  • More independent, self confident, outgoing,
    affectionate and more cooperative
  • Cognitive development of children in quality day
  • Outperform children who remain at home
  • Children in day care show more aggression
  • Aggression may indicate independence

A Closer Look
  • Finding Day Care You
  • (and Your Children) Can Live With

Emotional Development
What are Emotions?
  • A state of feeling that has physiological,
    situational, and cognitive components
  • Physiological body reaction
  • Situational environmental presence
  • Cognitive ideas and thoughts

How do Emotions Develop?
  • Bridges and Stroufes Theory of Emotion
  • Born with one emotion diffused excitement
  • Other emotions differentiate over time
  • Cognitive development is necessary for
    differentiation of emotions
  • Izards Theory of Emotion
  • Born with several emotional states
  • Appearance of those emotions is linked to
    cognitive development and social experiences

Figure 7.8 Illustrations from Izards Maximally
Discriminative Facial Movement Scoring System
Is Fear of Strangers Normal?
  • Fear of strangers stranger anxiety is normal
  • Appears at about 6 to 9 months
  • Development of stranger anxiety
  • 4 5 months smile more at mother than
  • Older infants show distress
  • Fear peaks at 9 to 12 months and decline in 2nd
    year, or
  • Second peak at 18 to 24 months and decline in 3rd
  • Show less distress when mothers are present
  • Closer to stranger, more distressed

When Does Social Referencing Develop?
  • Social referencing seeking anothers perception
    of a situation to help form our own view
  • Development of social referencing
  • Appears as early as 6 months
  • Use caregivers facial expression and tone of

What is Emotional Regulation?
  • Refers to ways young children control their own
  • Caregivers help infants learn to regulate
  • Interplay between caregiver and infant
  • Secure mothers children more able to positively
    regulate emotions

Personality Development
What is Self-Concept?
  • The sense of self
  • Emerges gradually during infancy
  • Development of self-concept
  • Mirror technique 18 months - infants
    demonstrate self concept
  • 30 months can point to their own picture
  • Presence of self-awareness allows
  • Sharing and cooperation
  • Self-conscious emotions

Psychoanalytic Views of Self-Concept
  • Separation-individuation
  • Necessary for self-concept (5 months through 3
  • Erikson task is to develop autonomy
  • Freud - task is to develop independence and
    control but focuses on childs bodily functions
  • Demonstration of autonomy and independence
  • Noncompliance with parental requests

What is Meant by the Temperament of a Child?
  • Characteristic way of relating and adapting to
    the world present very early in life
  • Basic core of personality
  • Has a genetic component
  • Research establishes characteristics of

What Types of Temperament do we Find among
  • Thomas and Chess (1989) three types of
  • Easy (40 of sample)
  • regular schedule, adapts easily, generally
  • Difficult (10 of sample)
  • irregular schedule, slow at accept and adapt to
    change, responds negatively
  • Slow to warm up (15 of sample)
  • somewhat irregular schedule, respond negatively
    to new experiences, but adapt slowly after
    repeated exposure

Goodness of Fit
  • Good fit
  • Parents modify expectations, attitudes and
    behaviors to assist child In developing a more
    positive temperament
  • Poor fit
  • Discrepancy between childs behavior style and
    parents expectations

How do Girls and Boys Differ in their Social,
Emotional and Other Behaviors?
  • Infant behaviors
  • Girls sit, crawl and walk earlier than boys
  • By 12 to 18 months difference in toy preference
  • girls prefer dolls, doll furniture, dishes and
    toy animals
  • boys prefer transportation toys, tools, and
    sports equipment
  • Adult behaviors
  • Adults respond differently to boys and girls
  • Parent behaviors
  • More rough and tumble play with sons
  • Talk to and smile at daughters more
  • Favorable reactions when child plays with
    appropriate gender toys

Lessons in Observation Gender
  • Are sex differences present at birth or learned?
    Support your answer with research.What evidence
    can you find in the video to support the idea
    that sex differences are present at birth or
  • How do the adults in the video describe their
    children in terms of gender?How do parental
    expectations contribute to childrens ideas of
    gender-appropriate roles and activities?

Lessons in Observation Gender
Lessons in Observation Gender
  • In what ways does the physical environment
    reinforce gender role stereotypes and
    gender-typed behavior?Give examples from the
  • At what age do children begin to engage in
    gender-specific play.Describe the play
    interactions illustrated on the video. Are the
    children engaged in gender specific play
    activities?Do they learn to choose these play
    activities, or are they biologically based? Why?
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