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Social and Emotional Development in Early Childhood

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Social and Emotional Development in Early Childhood Chapter 8 Erik Erikson s Stage-Initiative vs. Guilt Psychological conflict of Early Childhood Resolved ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Social and Emotional Development in Early Childhood


1
Social and Emotional Development in Early
Childhood
  • Chapter 8

2
Erik Eriksons Stage-Initiative vs. Guilt
  • Psychological conflict of Early Childhood
  • Resolved positively through play experiences that
    foster healthy sense of initiative and
    development of conscience that is not overly
    strict
  • Play is important to preschoolers

3
Phallic Stage-Freud
  • Sexual impulses transfer to genital region of
    body
  • Oedipus Conflict-boy desires to posses mother and
    hostile towards father
  • Electra conflict-girl desires to posses father
    and feels hostile toward mother

4
Self Concept
  • Sum of total attributes, abilities, attitudes and
    values that an individual believes to help define
    who he/she is
  • Preschoolers-describe self using concrete terms
    (name, physical appearance, possession, and
    everyday behaviors)
  • Can describe emotions, and beliefs and attitudes
    by 3 ½.
  • Firmer sense of self allows for cooperation

5
Self-Esteem
  • Preschoolers usually rate on abilities as
    extremely high and underestimate difficulty of
    task.
  • Desire to master new skills
  • Even a little criticism can undermine a
    preschoolers self-esteem and enthusiasm for
    learning

6
Emotional Development
  • Rise in self-conscious emotions such as shame,
    embarrassment, guilt, envy and pride
  • Preschoolers can interpret, predict, and change
    others feeling
  • Fears are common
  • Vivid imaginations

7
Empathy
  • Begins to develop at this age
  • Modeled after parents response to emotional event

8
Partens types of play
  • Nonsocial activity- unoccupied, onlooker behavior
    and solitary play
  • Parallel play-child plays near other children
    with similar materials but does not interact with
    them
  • Associative play-children are engaged in separate
    activities but they interact by exchanging toys
    and commenting on one anothers behavior
  • Cooperative play-occurs when childrens actions
    are directed toward a common goal

9
Sociodramatic play
  • Role play and dramatic play
  • Common during preschool years

10
First Friendships
  • Important in these years to social emotional
    development
  • Friendship-pleasurable play and sharing of
    toys-no long term enduring qualities at this time

11
Discipline
  • Positive reinforcement-model appropriate
    behavior, consistency with rules, warm and
    responsive
  • Punishment-can promote momentary compliance
  • Harsh punishment-models aggression, avoidance of
    punishing adult, should be avoided

12
Alternatives to Punishment
  • Time-out
  • Withdrawal of privileges
  • Positive discipline

13
Gender Typing
  • Developing gender roles
  • Age 2 children can label on gender and of other
    persons
  • Family teachers and peers and television can
    influence gender typing with preschoolers

14
Parenting Styles
  • Authoritative-rational, democratic approach
  • Happy, self-confident, and self-control in child
  • Authoritarian- demanding and low in responsive to
    childrens needs.
  • anxious, withdrawn, and unhappy and hostile
  • Permissive-undemanding
  • immature, have difficulty controlling impulses,
    overly demanding and depended on adults
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