Child and Adolescent Development: Personal,social,and emotional development - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Child and Adolescent Development: Personal,social,and emotional development PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 4374f9-YTJjN



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Child and Adolescent Development: Personal,social,and emotional development

Description:

Child and Adolescent Development: Personal,social,and emotional development Week 2-2 Contents Erikson work Moral development 1.Erikson s Psychosocial Theory ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:1472
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 41
Provided by: pwg8
Learn more at: http://jpkc.ecnu.edu.cn
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Child and Adolescent Development: Personal,social,and emotional development


1
Child and Adolescent DevelopmentPersonal,social,
and emotional development
  • Week 2-2

2
Contents
  • Erikson work
  • Moral development

3
Erik Erikson (1902-1994)
  • Born in Frankfurt, Germany, on June 15, 1902
  • When he was 25, he was psychoanalysed by Anna
    Freud
  • With the Nazis coming into power, he left Vienna,
    first for Copenhagen, then to US
  • He was affected by Henry Murray, Kurt Lewin, Ruth
    Benedict, Margaret Mead, and Gregory Bateson.

4
1.Eriksons Psychosocial Theory
  • Departed from Freuds framework
  • Influenced by his own experience
  • Ego psychology - stressed the autonomy of the
    ego.
  • Eriksons entire theory can be viewed as a
    description of how the ego gains or loses
    strength as a function of developmental
    experiences.

5
The Life-Span Approach Erikson
  • Basic assumptions
  • Neopsychoanalytic previous life experience
    extremely important in determining/shaping
    personality
  • Epigenetic principle genetically determined
    unfolding of maturation HOW we turn out is a
    function of social/environmental forces and
    experience in interaction with genotype.

6
The Life-Span Approach Erikson
  • Basic assumptions (continued)
  • Development is a lifelong process
  • Personality emerges through relative resolution
    of developmental crises
  • Ego psychology Ego is neither dependent on or
    subservient to the id, it is independent

7
Eriksons Psychosocial Theory
  • Erikson viewed life as consisting of 8 stages
    (birth to death).
  • First five stages of this theory parallel Freuds
    stages
  • Erikson added 3 adult stages
  • At each stage the ego acquires attitudes and
    skills that make the individual an active,
    contributing member of society.

8
Eriksons Psychosocial Theory
  • Also emphasized that normal development must be
    understood in the context of cultural setting.

9
Epigenetic principle
  • Sequence of these stages were determined by
    genetics.
  • Each stage builds on preceding stages.
  • Each stage involves the resolution of a basic
    psychosocial conflict.
  • Success of resolution of each conflict determines
    healthy or maladaptive outcomes in adulthood.

10
Eriksons Psychosocial Theory
  • Biology dictates when the stage occurs
  • Social influences determine whether or not the
    crisis associated with the stage is resolved
    positively.

11
Eriksons Psychosocial Theory
  • Positive resolution - strengthens ego.
  • Negative resolution - weaker ego results.
  • Viewed positive/negative as a ratio.
  • When the crisis characterizing a stage is
    resolved, a virtue results.

12
Eriksons Eight Stages (stage 1)
Child develops a belief that the environment can
be counted on to meet his or her basic
physiological and social needs.
Trust vs. Mistrust
Infancy
13
Characteristics
  • Most helpless, rely most on adults
  • If adults satisfy needs in loving and consistent
    manner, they will develop feeling of basic trust.
  • Rejecting inconsistent parenting leads to basic
    mistrust.

14
Eriksons Eight Stages(stage 2)
Child learns what he/she can control and develops
a sense of free will and corresponding sense of
regret and sorrow for inappropriate use of
self-control.
Autonomy vs. Shame Doubt
Toddlerhood
15
Characteristics
  • Approx. age 1 - 3 years.
  • Rapidly develop a variety of skills.
  • Children become more willful and are prone to
    engage in a battle of wills.

16
Characteristics
  • Parents perform delicate task of controlling
    childs behavior while maintaining childs sense
    of self-control.
  • Positive resolution Autonomy
  • Negative resolution Shame and guilt
  • Virtue Will, the exercise of free choice as well
    as self-restraint.
  • Ego becomes strong enough to deal with shame and
    doubt.

17
Eriksons Eight Stages(stage 3)
Child learns to begin action, to explore, to
imagine as well as feeling remorse(??) for
actions.
Initiative vs. Guilt
Early Childhood
18
Characteristics
  • Approximate ages 4 to 5 years.
  • Notable changes in motor skills, use of language,
    and vivid use of imagination.
  • Limits are tested for what is permissible.

19
Characteristics
  • Parents can encourage self-initiated behaviors,
    leading to the healthy development of initiative.
  • If parents ridicule/overly restrict
    self-initiated behaviors, children will live
    within narrow limits others set due to guilt.
  • Virtue Purpose - courage to envisage and pursue
    valued goals, uninhibited by guilt or fear of
    failure.

20
Eriksons Eight Stages(stage 4)
Child learns to do things well or correctly in
comparison to a standard or to others
Industry vs. Inferiority
Middle Childhood
21
Characteristics
  • Approximately ages 6 to 11 years.
  • Attend school, learn skills, prepare for economic
    survival
  • Learn social skills and how to work cooperatively

22
Implications
  • Successful resolution when child learns the
    pleasure of work, productivity and persevering
    diligence industry.
  • Unsuccessful resolution when they lose confidence
    in ability to become contributing members of
    society inferiority.
  • Virtue competence, the free exercise of
    dexterity and intelligence in the completion of
    tasks.

23
Eriksons Eight Stages(stage 5)
  • Develops a sense of self in relationship to
    others and to own internal thoughts and desires
  • social identity
  • personal identity

Identity vs. Role Confusion
Adolescence
24
Characteristics
  • Approximately ages 12 to 20 years.
  • Erikson is best known for this stage.
  • Identity crisis
  • Children ponder the accumulated information about
    themselves and their society and ultimately
    commit themselves to some strategy for life.

25
Characteristics
  • Role confusion can lead to much of the unrest and
    hostility expressed by many adolescents.
  • Virtue Fidelity, ability to sustain loyalties in
    spite of the inevitable contradictions of value
    systems.

26
Implications
  • Successful resolution have gained an identity
    and have become adults.
  • Unsuccessful resolution Role confusion,
    inability to choose a role in life, prolonging
    this stage.

27
Eriksons Eight Stages(stage 6)
Develops ability to give and receive love begins
to make long-term commitment to relationships
Intimacy vs. Isolation
Young Adulthood
28
Eriksons Eight Stages(stage 7)
Develops interest in guiding the development of
the next generation
Generativity vs. Stagnation
Middle Adulthood
29
Eriksons Eight Stages(stage 8)
Develops a sense of acceptance of life as it was
lived and the importance of the people and
relationships that individual developed over the
lifespan
Ego-integrity vs. Despair
Later Adulthood
30
Critique
  1. Lack of empirical validity
  2. Ethnocentric bias
  3. Gender bias
  4. Problems with stages in adulthood

31
2.Kohlbergs Stages of Moral Development
  • Lawrence Kohlberg
  • Born into wealth on October 25, 1927 in
    Bronxville, New York.
  • Did most of his research at Harvard University
  • Missing on January 17 1987.

32
Kohlbergs Stages of Moral Development
  • Pre-conventional Stages moral values reside
    outside people (Stages 1 2)
  • Conventional Stages Moral values come from
    within but are measured in performance. (Stages 3
    4)
  • Post-Conventional Stages Principled moral values
    are universal. (Stages 5 6)

33
Stage 1
  • Pre-conventional moral values reside outside
    people, in bad people or things. No way to
    conceptualize STANDARDS, or rules for behavior.
  • (1) Focus on obedience and avoiding punishment.
  • (2) Ego-centric, self centered.
  • (3) Defer to superior power or prestige.
  • (4) Think mostly about avoiding trouble.
  • (5) Can only take responsibility for the most
    concrete things or situations where the rules are
    obvious.

34
Stage 2
  • Pre-conventional moral values reside outside
    people, in bad people or things. No way to
    conceptualize STANDARDS, or rules for behavior.
  • (1) Naively egotistical orientation.
  • (2) Right is satisfying ones own needs, and
    MAYBE somebody elses.
  • (3) See values as relative, only beginning to see
    that your values may not be my values .
  • (4) Naively egalitarian Were all equal and
    whats good for me is good for you.

35
Stage 3
  • Conventional Moral values come in performing
    good roles well, in maintaining the conventional
    order, and in meeting other peoples
    expectations.
  • (1) Want approval and want to please and help
    others.
  • (2) Will try to conform to everybodys idea of
    what good is.
  • (3) Not concerned with just outcomes, but
    INTENTIONS countIm doing this for your own
    good. This hurts me more than it does you...

36
Stage 4
  • Conventional Moral values come in performing
    good roles well, in maintaining the conventional
    order, and in meeting other peoples
    expectations.
  • (1) External standards in place you do your duty
    because that is what is right.
  • (2) Show respect for authority and maintain the
    social order for its own sake.
  • (3) Like approval, but only EARNED approval.

37
Stage 5 -- Principled Thinking
  • Post-conventional Moral values come from
    principles that can be applied everywhere with
    all human beings.
  • (1) Understand legal/contractual obligations.
  • (2) Recognize the spirit and the letter of law.
  • (3) Duty is defined in terms of social/legal
    contracts
  • (4) Avoids violation of will or rights of others.
  • (5) The few for the many .

38
Stage 6
  • Post-conventional Moral values come from
    principles that can be applied everywhere with
    all human beings.
  • (1) Oriented toward conscience or principles, not
    ordained social rules.
  • (2) Principles seen as universa, logical
    consistent.
  • (3) Self and The conscience.
  • (4) High regard for mutual respect and trust.
  • (5) The Mother Teresa Stage

39
Research Findings
  • States are qualitatively distinct.
  • Stages form a hierarchy.
  • Sequence is invariant.
  • System transcends cultures in urban societies.
  • Gender neutral
  • Consistency between stage and moral behavior

40
The end
About PowerShow.com