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New Issues in Canadian Foreign Policy

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Title: New Issues in Canadian Foreign Policy


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The political Arctic
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  • The Canadian Arctic

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Canadian interests in the Arctic
  • Security nothing comes before that (Harper)
  • Sovereignty
  • Natural resources oil, gas, diamonds, gold
  • Environmental management
  • Social issues

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Arctic Sovereignty
  • Northwest passage
  • Beaufort Sea
  • Hans Island
  • Continental shelf claims

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Northwest Passage
  • Legal claims
  • Internal waters by historic title
  • No one exercised possession once claims made
  • Belated claim 1973
  • Reaction of foreign governments
  • Inability to control navigation (other uses)
  • Internal waters included within straight
    baselines
  • Stronger claims but right of innocent passage

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Northwest Passage
  • The NW Passage route cuts about 5 days off
    alternative routes between China and
    Europe/Eastern North America
  • Oil, gas and other resources would also likely
    transit through NW Passage to get to eastern US
  • US and others maintain that the Passage is an
    international strait allowing for unfettered
    access
  • One option for resolving the dispute with the US
    might be joint seaway management
    infrastructure and policing

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Northwest Passage
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Climate Change and the Passage
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Climate Change in the Arctic
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vJak1pExql0U

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The Economist on Arctic issues
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vVTHsd9wiyiofeature
    related

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Arctic sea ice
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Beaufort Sea claim
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  • 400 onshore oil and gas fields have been
    discovered to date in Canada, Russia and US
  • US geological Survey estimates 90 billion barrels
    of undiscovered oil and 1,670 trillion cubic feet
    of natural gas (about 13 of worlds reserves)

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Drilling activity in the Beaufort Sea
  • http//www.aadnc-aandc.gc.ca/DAM/DAM-INTER-HQ/STAG
    ING/texte-text/nog_mp_bsmd_pg_1317059161670_eng.pd
    f

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Continental Shelf Claims
  • UNCLOS ratified in 2003
  • Canadian government has until 2013 to present its
    claim to the UN Commission on the Continental
    Shelf
  • This is not about sovereignty but about rights to
    exploitation of resources and management regimes

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Harpers Arctic Policy
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  • Five icebreakers, 14 long-range helicopters,
    radar satellite for tracking ships and mapping
    sea ice
  • Lack the capacity to operate year round

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2009 Northern Strategy
  • exercising our Arctic Sovereignty
  • promoting social and economic development
  • protecting our environmental heritage
  • improving and devolving northern governance

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Defence Measures I
  • Building six to eight armed Polar Class 5 Arctic
    Offshore Patrol Ships(AOPS)
  • The establishment of a multi-purpose Arctic
    training centre in Resolute Bay, Nunavut
  • The creation of a berthing and refuelling
    facility at the existing deepwater port of
    Nanisivik, in Nunavut, to serve as a staging area
    for naval vessels in the High Arctic and for use
    by Canadian Coast Guard vessels as well
  • The establishment of a permanent army reserve
    unit based in Yellowknife
  • Expanding the size and capabilities of the
    Canadian Rangers and the Junior Canadian Rangers
    Program.

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Defence Measures II
  • Plans to enhance the ability of the CF to conduct
    surveillance through the modernization and
    replacement of the Aurora patrol aircraft
  • The Polar Epsilon Project, which will provide
    space-based surveillance using information from
    Canadas RADARSAT-2 satellite to produce imagery
    for military commanders during the conduct of
    operations
  • The use of unmanned aerial vehicle technology

25
The budget and the Arctic
  • Uncertainty around commitment to Arctic research
    station, and to other Arctic research projects
  • support for developing some port facilities, but
    Nanisivik looks questionable
  • Arctic offshore patrol ships delayed until 2018
    cost increase of 40 million
  • Trying to multi-task, or in this case identify a
    clear task
  • spending cuts at the Canadian Space Agency will
    result in delays or cancellation of satellites
    for the Arctic.

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Arctic Cooperation I
  • Arctic Council (1996) institutionalized
    cooperation on nonmilitary matters among the
    eight Arctic countries Russia, the United States
    (Alaska), Canada, Denmark (Greenland), Norway,
    Iceland, Sweden, and Finland

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Arctic Cooperation II
  • Ilulissat Declaration (2008) Russia, the United
    States, Canada, Denmark, and Norway reaffirmed
    their commitment to working within an existing
    framework of international law to delimit their
    respective areas of jurisdiction over the seabed.
    (UN LOS Treaty)
  • US-Russia notification agreement

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Environment and foreign policy
  • Environmental issues have gained increased
    prominence compare 1972 Stockholm meeting with
    1992 Rio conference
  • Canadian (government and societal) interest and
    support for environmental issues has been uneven
    at best
  • Acid rain, Great Lakes, coastal oil spills, and
    Arctic have been major concerns
  • Ozone protection, Montreal protocol of 1987

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Rio Earth Summit 1992
  • 172 countries 108 heads of state
  • 2400 representatives of nongovernmental
    organizations (NGOs)
  • Numerous conventions and action plans adopted

36
Rio Conference and Climate Change
  • June 1992 summit strongly supported by Mulroney
    government
  • Signed and ratified UN Framework Conventions on
    Climate Change and Biodiversity
  • Kyoto 1997, 3rd Conference of the Parties (CoP)
    to the UNFCCC agrees on Kyoto Protocol Chretien
    took lead Canada must cut average annual
    greenhouse gas emissions to six per cent below
    1990 levels over the period from 2008-2012
    ratified in December 2002

37
Climate change and Canadian policy
  • Kyoto Protocol ratified in 2002 (as Bush
    administration was rejecting it)
  • Greenhouse gas emissions increase significantly
    since signing on to Kyoto
  • Martin government complains about US policy in
    2005, but does nothing to change Canadian policy
  • Harper government rhetorically abandons Kyoto in
    2006 withdraws officially in December 2011
  • Harper government ties its emissions policy to US
    policy at Copenhagen in 2009 and Cancun in 2010

38
Greenhouse Gas Emissions
  • Reporting required by UN convention
  • Principal sources of emissions on energy related,
    both production and transportation waste and
    agriculture make minor contributions
  • Significant growth since 1990s fueled by
    expanding oil, gas and forestry sectors most
    designed for export markets
  • Conference Board of Canada report card

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Accounting for Canadas Climate Change Policy
  • Economic interests energy exports
  • US policy coordination
  • Multilateralism declining importance, influence
  • Federalism lack of coordination
  • Reduced influence of environmental lobby
    scientific community
  • Government is leaning heavily to shutting down
    dissent

42
Canadas Immigration Policy
  • When I speak of quality, I have in mind
    something that is quite different from what is in
    the mind of the average writer or speaker upon
    the question of immigration. I think of a
    stalwart peasant in a sheep-skin coat, born on
    the soil, whose forefathers have been farmers for
    generations, with a stout wife and half-a-dozen
    children, is good quality.
  • Sir Clifford Sifton, 1922

43
  • The data and tables for this section and related
    information can be found here
  • Citizenship and Immigration Canada
    (http//www.cic.gc.ca/english/resources/statistics
    /facts2010/index.asp)

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Establishing categories
  • 1976 New Immigration Act defines the 3 main
    priorities of immigration policy
  • . Priority 1 family reunification
  • . Priority 2 humanitarian concerns
  • . Priority 3 promotion of Canadas economic,
    social, demographic, and cultural goals
  • These priorities have varied in emphasis, but
    still form the core of our immigration policy

47
Demographic and Labour Concerns
  • mid 1980s increasing concern over future
    immigration levels in response to fertility
    patterns in Canada which had fallen and remain
    below replacement levels
  • Early 1990s family class was reduced by limiting
    range of family members included
  • government commits to stable inflows of about 1
    of the current population
  • The switch to long term goals and the desire to
    increase the numbers of skilled workers continued
    through the 1990s (the birth of designer
    immigration)

48
Immigration and Refugee Protection Act, 2002
  • To streamline several areas of the immigration
    process, including those for selecting applicants
    and ruling on refugee claims
  • To broaden criteria for selecting immigrants,
    both to make it easier to bring in skilled
    workers and to promote the reunification of
    families and,
  • In the wake of September 11, 2001, to implement
    measures that would remove or keep out persons
    who were inadmissible on grounds of security,
    violating human rights, or involvement in
    criminal activity or organized crime.

49
2012 Budget and Immigration
  • Close domestic offices and lay off more than 100
    people
  • Close visa offices in Japan, Malaysia,
    Bangladesh, Iran and Germany

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Admissions by category
  • On the following slide the top chart represents
    the absolute number of individuals admitted under
    the categories (from top to bottom) family class,
    economic class, refugee, other
  • The bottom chart represents the percentage of
    total individuals admitted under each of the
    categories in the same sequence from top to bottom

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Immigration in Canada TodayComponents of
Immigration Intake
Family Reunification Members of the Family Class
Humanitarian Convention Refugees Members of Designated Classes Persons eligible under special humanitarian measures
Economic Assisted Relatives Business Immigrants Entrepreneurs Self-employed persons Investors Retirees Other Independent Immigrants
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Selection Grid for Economic Immigrants (Point
System)
Factor One Education Maximum 25
Factor Two Official Languages Maximum 24
1st Official Language Maximum 16
2nd Official Language Maximum 8
Factor Three Experience Maximum 21
Factor Four Age Maximum 10
Factor Five Arranged Employment in Canada Maximum 10
Factor Six Adaptability Maximum 10
Total Maximum 100
Passing Mark 67
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Selection Factor Adaptability
Factor Six Adaptability Maximum 10 points
Spouses or common-law partners education 3 - 5
Minimum one year full-time authorized work in Canada 5
Minimum two years full-time authorized post-secondary study in Canada 5
Have received points under the Arranged Employment in Canada factor 5
Family relationship in Canada 5
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Immigrants Skills Are Underutilized
  • Principal Cause the non-recognition of foreign
    education and foreign experience
  • Professional associations are often accused of
    placing too many barriers in front of otherwise
    qualified immigrants
  • Even with a work authorization given by a
    professional association, there is still an
    earnings gap between newcomers and the
    Canadian-born as well as higher rates of
    unemployment

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Responding to this problem
  • The wage and employment gap has been identified
    by Jason Kenney as one of the principal
    restraints to raising immigration levels
  • Some proposals suggest increasing levels from the
    current 250,000 to 400,000 annually
  • Provincial governments and business are pushing
    for higher levels

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Provinces and immigration
  • Provincial Nominee Program (PNPs) are in place
    with 10 jurisdictions (the Yukon and all
    provinces except Ontario and Quebec), through
    which provinces and territories nominate
    individuals as permanent residents to address
    specific labour market and economic development
    needs.
  • Provinces also put demands on the government to
    increase national immigration quotas
  • Quebec has its own agreement with the federal
    government
  • Has become an area of increase conflict in light
    of federal efforts to restrict immigration

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Temporary foreign workers program
  • the selection of economic immigrants is not based
    on chronological order (first come, first serve
    basis), but on an occupational demand basis in
    response to industry requests most evident in
    the temporary workers program
  • Government has expedited the application program
    for temporary workers with online applications
  • Government has also allowed industry to pay up to
    15 less to these workers (not clear how this
    helps address Kenneys concerns over wage gap)

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Immigration policy and ethical issues
  • Should Canada have more open immigration
    policies?
  • Who regulates immigration practices government
    (federal/provincial) or business?
  • How to address unfair labour practices?
  • What is the proper response to uneven labour
    markets?
  • Should Canada be concerned with the brain drain?

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Canadas refugee policy
  • Refugees are defined by international law
  • As a signatory to international conventions,
    Canada is bound to offer a home to those who
    qualify as a refugee
  • Issues arise in the determination process in the
    level of support in the return to safe
    countries

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Canadian refugee support
  • Canada has the one of the largest resettlement
    programs in the world, this program brings
    refugees from camps and elsewhere to Canada many
    under sponsorship activities
  • Current numbers allowed to come to Canada are
    about 14,000 of the approximately 100,000 who are
    resettled annually of the 16 million refugees
    worldwide
  • Last year Canada was the eighth largest supporter
    of the UNHCRs budget, contributing about 59
    million.

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Canadian policy concerns
  • Number of refugees allowed to remain has been
    declining Safe Third Country Agreement with US
    Mexico, Czech visas 2009
  • Determination of qualification seems arbitrary
  • Proposed policy changes that arose from Sun Sea
    incident in 2010 through Bill C-31
  • Proposed extended detention period for irregular
    arrivals
  • Concerns also raised about limited time to
    prepare for appeals
  • Increase in the discretionary authority of the
    minister, for example in identifying safe
    countries

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Source country refers to the principal country of
alleged persecution
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Diaspora communities
  • Foreign born and immigrant communities have
    always been an important political consideration
    in foreign policy
  • So-called ethnic lobby has had influence on
    specific decisions
  • Politicians will also use foreign policy to win
    the ethnic vote
  • Personal connections/interest
  • Expertise, information, familiarity

72
Global Migration Flows
  • Top emigration countries in the world are
    Mexico, India, China, Ukraine, Bangladesh,
    Pakistan, UK, Philippines, Turkey
  • Top immigration destinations are US, Russia,
    Germany, Saudi Arabia, Canada

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Diaspora communities
  • Foreign policy officials are looking to these
    communities in a more systematic manner
  • Diaspora communities send more money back in
    remittances than the government provides in
    foreign aid
  • Canada and other governments also looking more
    closely at non-traditional diplomacy citizens
    through both diaspora communities and Canadians
    abroad

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Diaspora communities
  • These communities can be problematic internal
    divisions
  • There are also concerns that they have too much
    influence in shaping foreign policy interests
  • Yet if national interests are determined by the
    interests of citizens at what point do the
    interests of diaspora communities become Canadian
    national interests
  • At the same time, foreign policy might benefit
    from their involvement, eg. no Afghani on the
    Manley Panel
  • Governments will pick and choose, though this
    might have political costs

75
The Canadian Diaspora
  • 2.8 million Canadians live abroad (about 8 of
    the Canadian population)
  • Canadians Abroad a number of groups already
    exist in New York, Florida, Silicon Valley, Hong
    Kong, Philippines
  • Global Citizens initiative being considered by
    DFAIT
  • 2012 budget cuts result in the withdrawal of 5m
    support for Canadian Studies programs abroad (39
    countries) that reportedly generate 70m annually

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Human rights and religious freedom is this
diaspora politics?
  • Political parties in Canada have always played to
    the ethnic vote, is this government different
  • Harper government has dismantled Rights and
    Democracy as an independent agency and brought it
    into DFAIT also cut support to groups critical
    of Israeli human rights practices
  • Discussion of a centre for promoting democracy
    has been shelved
  • Developing an Office of Religious Freedom to
    champion religious rights (inspired by Shabaz
    Bhatti, assassinated Pakistani Minister)
  • Policy statements on Holodomor, Armenian
    genocide, Japanese use of comfort women but
    critical towards Tamils

77
Canadas rank among 194 countries (rank may vary
slightly depending on year consulted)
  • 1st in percentage foreign born population
  • 2nd largest in size 35th in population
  • 2nd in advanced education
  • 2nd in energy production among OECD
  • 4th human development index
  • 5th per capita income
  • 7th in trade
  • 9th in competitiveness
  • 9th in FDI recipient 10th in FDI abroad
  • 13th in military spending

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  • Given Canadas position in the global community,
    is the country -
  • pulling its weight
  • punching above its weight, or (and changing the
    metaphor)
  • shirking its responsibilities

79
  • tom.keating_at_ualberta.ca
  • http//www.ualberta.ca/tkeating/ELLA.ppt
  • http//www.ualberta.ca/tkeating/ELLA2.ppt
  • http//www.ualberta.ca/tkeating/ELLA3.ppt
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