THE INTERFACE OF SCIENCE AND POLICY: THE CRUCIAL ROLES OF FOOD AND HEALTH IN ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

THE INTERFACE OF SCIENCE AND POLICY: THE CRUCIAL ROLES OF FOOD AND HEALTH IN ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

Description:

THE INTERFACE OF SCIENCE AND POLICY: THE CRUCIAL ROLES OF FOOD AND HEALTH IN ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT Gilbert S. Omenn University of Michigan APS Centennial Special Plenary – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:544
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 38
Provided by: Gilb230
Learn more at: http://www.bibalex.org
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: THE INTERFACE OF SCIENCE AND POLICY: THE CRUCIAL ROLES OF FOOD AND HEALTH IN ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT


1
  • THE INTERFACE OF SCIENCE AND POLICY THE CRUCIAL
    ROLES OF FOOD AND HEALTH IN ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
  • Gilbert S. Omenn
  • University of Michigan
  • APS Centennial Special Plenary
  • On Agriculture, Food Security, and Public Health
  • Global IssuesGlobal Solutions
  • 28 July, 2008, Minneapolis
  • American Phytopathological Association (APS)

2
Disclosures
  • Board of Directors
  • Amgen, Inc (medical biotechnology)
  • Rohm Haas Co (materials and chemicals)
  • Occulogix (medical devices for eye
    diseases)
  • Scientific Advisory Boards
  • Divergence Inc (nematode genomics)
  • Population Services Intl (social
    marketing)
  • Innocentive Innovation Inc (internet
    problem-solving)
  • Compendia Biosciences Inc (bioinformatics)
  • 3M Co (toxicology and epidemiology)
  • Motorola Inc (electric and magnetic fields)

3
Outline of Talk
  • Societal Context for Science
  • Grand Challenges in Health, Nutrition, Water, and
    Economic Development
  • UN Millenium Development Goals
  • Gates Fdn Challenges in Global Health
  • Importance of sociopolitical dimensions
  • Need for indigenous scientific capabilities
  • Need for public understanding/support of
    scientific approaches to these challenges

4
International Science and Policy Often Dominate
the AAAS Presidential Addresses
  • 2008, David Baltimore International Cooperation
    in Science and Technology
  • 2007, John Holdren ST for Sustainable
    Well-Being (Science 319424-434, 2008)
  • 2006, Gil Omenn Grand Challenges and
    Opportunities in Science, Technology, and Public
    Policy (Science 314 1696-1704, 2006)
  • 2002, Peter Raven Science, Sustainability, and
    the Human Prospect. Science 297954-958, 2002.

5
Contributors to Global Mortality, 2000 (WHO,
Holdren)
  • Cause
    M yrs life lost
  • Malnutrition (child, maternal) 200
  • Excess nutrition/low activity 150
  • Unsafe sex
    80
  • Tobacco
    50
  • Unsafe water
    50
  • War and revolution
    40
  • Indoor smoke (solid fuels)
    35
  • Alcohol
    30

6
Societal Context for Science
  • Literacy, science, and math education for all
  • Scientific researchindigenous and collaborative
  • Practical applications of sciencepriority-based
  • Evidence-based decision-making
  • All depend upon the broader society---with
    functioning educational systems, robust economy,
    social justice, and effective governance and
    administration. And with respect for the
    scientific methods of observation,
    experimentation, and challenge of conventional
    views.

7
U.N. MILLENIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS
  • These goals for peace, security, development,
    human rights and fundamental freedoms (1990 to
    2015) are people-centered, time-bound, and
    measurable 191 signatories.
  • 1. Eradicate extreme poverty (lt1/day 1 billion
    people)
  • and hunger--in 50 of the affected
    population
  • Achieve universal primary education for boys and
    girls
  • Promote gender equality and empower women
  • Reduce child mortality rate before age 5 by 67
  • Improve maternal health--reduce mortality ratio
    by 75
  • Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other
    diseases---begin to
  • reverse incidence and spread
  • Ensure environmental sustainabiity--50 reduction
    in numbers without safe drinking water
  • 8. Develop a global partnership for development

8
(No Transcript)
9
(No Transcript)
10
(No Transcript)
11
(No Transcript)
12
Subtleties of MDG-1 Poverty and Hunger
  • UN Secretary-General Complex concerns which must
    be overcome by addressing the interconnected
    challenges of agriculture healthcare nutrition
    adverse and unfair market conditions weak
    infrastructure and environmental degradation.
  • Five indicators are used to measure progress on
    MDG-1
  • 1.The proportion of people living in poverty
    (ltUS1/day)
  • 2.The poverty gap (how poor are the poor)
  • 3.The share of national income or consumption
    enjoyed by those in the lowest quintile of income
    distribution (a measure of inequality)
  • 4.The proportion of people undernourished (a
    measure of food availability in a country)
  • 5.The prevalence of underweight preschool
    children (a measure of child malnutrition)
  • U. Gentilini P. Webb, Tufts Univ Food
    Policy/Applied Nutrition Program, paper 31, 2005

13
Mid-Course Assessment Toward Millenium
Development Goals (MDGs)
  • Excellent progress in most of south and east Asia
  • Many Middle East, Latin American, northern and
    sub-Sahara African nations failing.
  • Large sub-populations with persistent extreme
    poverty in middle-income nations like Brazil,
    China, Mexico

14
Tracking Progress in Maternal, Newborn Child
Survival (MDGs 4,5)
  • Despite rapid progress in providing vaccinations,
    vitamin A supplementation coverage and
    insecticide-treated mosquito nets to prevent
    major killers such as measles and malaria, few of
    the 68 developing countries that account for 97
    per cent of maternal and child deaths worldwide
    are making adequate progress to provide critical
    health care needed to save the lives of women,
    infants and children (MDGs 4,5).
  • Exceptions China, Haiti, Turkmenistan, several
    countries in sub-Saharan Africa in all, 16 are
    on track for MDG 4.
  • http//www.countdown2015mnch.org (4/16/08).

15
Reasons for Slippage (Countdown to 2015)
  • Family planning The unmet need for
    contraceptives is high. Only one-third of women
    in the 68 priority countries are using a modern
    contraceptive method a proven means of boosting
    maternal and infant survival. PSI and Buffett
    Foundation expanding global efforts.
  • Skilled care at birth Only half of women and
    newborns benefit from a skilled birth attendant
    even fewer receive care in the critical days and
    weeks after childbirth.
  • Clinical care for sick children Only one-third
    of children with pneumonia the biggest single
    killer of children receive treatment.
  • Nutrition Under-nutrition is the underlying
    cause of 3.5 million child deaths annually, and
    20 per cent of maternal deaths.

16
(No Transcript)
17
Food Security
  • Dire needs, especially in sub-Saharan Africa15
    million people in the Horn of Africa alone
    dependent on emergency supplies
  • Political chaos, worst in Zimbabwe
  • Political recovery, most dramatic in Uganda,
    Rwanda
  • Food aid in short term food production, less
    wasteful distribution in longer term
  • Added value of local agriculture employment
  • Crops at risk, like flu pandemic riskUg99 wheat
    rust (neglected since discovery in 1999)
  • Cooperation, governance needed African Peer
    Review Mechanism, AU/NEPAD TICAD

18
Broader Donor Programs--TICAD
  • Tokyo International Conference on African
    Development (TICAD IV, Summit 5/28-30, 2008, 15th
    anniversary
  • Convened 51 African countries, 74 regional and
    international organizations, private sector,
    civil society organizations, 34 partner
    countries.
  • Proposed by Japan and initiated in1991 at UN
    General Assembly which promulgated the UN new
    agenda for the development of Africa in the
    1990s.

19
Gates Foundation Grand Challenges in Global Health
  • Launched in 2003 to harness the power of science
    and technology to dramatically improve health in
    the worlds poorest countries.
  • Its roots lie in the Great Neglected Diseases of
    Mankind Program of The Rockefeller Foundation
    from 30 years earlier.
  • The initiative seeks scientific breakthroughs for
    preventing, treating, and curing diseases that
    annually kill millions of people, especially
    children, in developing countries.

20
Global Health GC Program Features
  • The Gates Foundation looked for a specific
    scientific or technological innovation that would
    remove a critical barrier to solving an important
    health problem in the developing world with a
    high likelihood of global impact and
    feasibility.
  • Based on 1500 suggestions from more than 1000
    scientists from around the world, 14 Grand
    Challenges were identified (next slide). Awards
    for 43 projects, involving collaborators in 33
    countries, were made in 2005. Total funding 500
    million from the Foundation, in collaboration
    with the Foundation for the National Institutes
    of Health, the Wellcome Trust, and the Canadian
    Institutes of Health Research. The Challenge
    generated tremendous interest and high
    expectations.
  • A global participatory process note Innocentive
    problem-solving analogy (www.innocentive.com).

21
GRAND CHALLENGES IN GLOBAL INFECTIOUS DISEASES 7
Goals, 14 Challenges, 43 Grants
  • Improve childhood vaccines (3)
  • Create new vaccines (3)
  • Control insects that transmit agents of disease
    (2)
  • Improve nutrition to promote health (1)
  • Improve drug treatment of infectious diseases (1)
  • Cure latent and chronic infection (2)
  • Measure health status accurately and economically
    (2)

22
Nutrition Projects in Grand Challenge 9
  • Pioneers term Seeds of Hope
  • Cassava, banana, sorghum, sweet potato
  • Florence Wambugus African Biofortified Sorghum
    multiple enhancements
  • --balanced amino acids (Lys, Trp, Thr, Met)
  • --suppressed phytans, kafirin/more digestible
  • --gene constructs to produce vitamin A (from
    rice) Lysine, Fe, and Zn (from maize strains)
  • --training in U.S. companies of African
    scientists
  • --close the yield gap with less fertilizer,
    maybe less water

23
(No Transcript)
24
(No Transcript)
25
Policy Challenges and Lessons from Africa
Biofortified Sorghum Project
  • Many candidates for nutritional and physical
    enhancementsmust be feasible and must be desired
    by the community
  • Fear about first test and first use in
    Africa--show us it works first in the U.S., at
    the cost of delayed introduction and potentially
    irrelevant soil/weather conditions parallel with
    drugs
  • Must satisfy many stakeholders---farmers,
    consumers, traders, regulators, activists,
    researchers, companies
  • Dr. Wambugu Only products will drive
    acceptance of new technologies.

26
Water and Health
  • As described by Ray Martyn and Shiney Varghese,
    the quantity, quality, safety, and affordability
    of potable water are all at risk.
  • Water-related diseases dominant mortality and
    morbidity statistics.
  • Ag and public health needs are in conflict
    agricultural entitlement devastating.
  • Local water purification kits effective (PSI).
  • Big tech/desalinization long-delayed.

27
(No Transcript)
28
ST for Smarter Water Policies
  • Work with nations around the world to develop low
    cost ways to make polluted water potable
  • Develop crop strains more resistant to drought 
  • Design improved irrigation methods including
    reduced losses during water transport
  • Improve technologies for low-water-use appliances
  • Use water more efficiently in industry, with
    maximal recycling
  • Improve weather and climate modeling to better
    understand how climate change and new weather
    patterns will affect rainfall and flood
    potentials in the US and around the world
  • Implement stronger policies to evaluate water
    impacts as part of economic development planning

29
Grand Challenges in Environmental Sciences
  • Biogeochemical Cycles
  • Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning
  • Climate Variability
  • Hydrologic Forecasting
  • Infectious Disease and the Environment
  • Institutions and Resource Use
  • Land-Use Dynamics
  • Reinventing the Use of Materials
  • National Research Council, 2001

30
Chemistry and Chemical Engineering for
Sustainability
  • Green chemistry, replacing solvents, improving
    catalysts
  • Life cycle analysis tools and models
  • Toxicologic characterization of all chemical
    inputs and outputs
  • Renewable chemical feedstocks from various
    biomass
  • Renewable fuel sources
  • More efficient chemical processing
  • Separation, sequestration, and utilization of
    carbon dioxidediscussed by Dr. Field
  • Science literacy at all levels

31
Joining Science and Policy-Making
  • Education, health, and governance
  • Capacity-building in executive, legislative,
    judicial, public administration, and electoral
    institutions, with protection of human rights
  • Proactive prevention of conflict and
    post-conflict reconstruction
  • A results-oriented ST approach
  • Setting priorities high maternal and under-five
    mortality rates, prevalence and spread of
    HIV/AIDS, TB, and malaria
  • Need health system infrastructure/workforce
    continuity
  • More nutritious crops with local production

32
On The Responsibilities and Long-Term Interest of
Rich Nations
  • Kai Lee Search for a life good enough to
    warrant our comforts. In Compass and Gyroscope
    Integrating Science and Politics for the
    Environment, Island Press,1993.
  • Ismail Serageldin Humanity cannot survive
    partly rich and mostly poor. Science 29654,
    2002.
  • Comment by Peter Raven The scientific attitude
    can bring people together on a rational basis.
  • First, we must bring scientists together on hotly
    debated topics, as IPCC has. GEOs pending.
  • A special opportunity for APS around global
    threats to the food supply.

33
Donor/Partner Policies and Attitudes
  • MDG 8 calls for partnerships, rather than
    donor-recipient relationshipkey distinction
  • Rich nations have been very slow to step up to
    0.7 percent of GDP commitments from UN General
    Assembly in 1970 for O.D.A. Official Development
    Assistance
  • Economic stresses always seem to trump foreign
    assistance or environmental pledges
  • People needs, especially medicines for HIV/AIDS
    patients, trump prevention, nutrition, and
    environmental imperatives.

34
New Instruments for Financing Global Health
Initiatives
  • Intl Finance Facility for Immunization bonds
  • Advance Market Commitments for vaccines
  • Debt2Health Debt conversion for The Global Fund
    to fight AIDS, TB, Malaria
  • Airline Solidarity Contribution, led by France
    since 2004 (surcharge on travelers)
  • Global Artemisinin-Based Combination Therapy
    (ACT) subsidyto avert certain malaria resistance
    to monotherapy
  • (Product)RED Bono/Shriver trademark,
    LLCcause-related marketing

35
Data for the Next Decades IHME
  • Gates Foundation created an Institute for Health
    Metrics and Evaluation (IHME) at the University
    of Washington (Chris Murray, PI).
  • New Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk
    Factors Study launched in 2007 (successor to 1990
    GBD study). DALY estimates due in 2010.
  • First product under-5 mortality rates and
    projections ww.healthmetricsandevaluation.org.
  • CJL Murray, J Frenk. The Lancet 3711191-1199, 5
    April, 2008.

36
SUMMATION
  • Improved health for the entire population,
    especially those in deep poverty and/or
    disenfranchised subpopulations, is an imperative
    in every country.
  • Improved nutrition and health are essential to
    learn, to contribute to economic growth and
    sustainability, and to make decisions that
    control population numbers.
  • The UN Millenium Development Goals for 2015 are
    science-based and technically feasible. They were
    launched with broad political agreement and
    financial commitments in 2001.

37
  • At this midpoint to 2015, the overall integrated
    strategy faces a chasm between lofty goals and
    social and policy deficiencies--reflecting poor
    governance, corruption, paralyzing poverty, armed
    conflicts, growing inequalities even within
    prosperous countries, and inadequate global
    investment, both financially and intellectually.
  • There are remarkable successes in many places.
    The Gates Foundation Grand Challenges in Global
    Health and the multiple other initiatives
    described by the remarkable speakers in this
    Plenary give us optimism. The overall challenge
    is scalewe must find the will, the trust, the
    data, the resources, and the collaborative policy
    instruments to achieve innovation and measurable
    progress throughout the world.
About PowerShow.com