Overview of Economic, Health, and Human Rights Issues of Racial and Ethnic Minorities - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Overview of Economic, Health, and Human Rights Issues of Racial and Ethnic Minorities PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 6c247f-MWJkZ



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Overview of Economic, Health, and Human Rights Issues of Racial and Ethnic Minorities

Description:

Overview of Economic, Health, and Human Rights Issues of Racial and Ethnic Minorities Martin Donohoe – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:31
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 65
Provided by: I765385
Learn more at: http://phsj.org
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Overview of Economic, Health, and Human Rights Issues of Racial and Ethnic Minorities


1
Overview of Economic, Health, and Human Rights
Issues of Racial and Ethnic Minorities
  • Martin Donohoe

2
Outline
  • Exploitation
  • Economics, Education, Environment, Health Care,
    Criminal Justice System
  • International Perspective
  • Solutions

3
Colonial Exploitation
  • Christopher Columbus log entry upon meeting the
    Arawaks of the Bahamas
  • Theybrought usmanythingsThey willingly
    traded everything they ownedThey do not bear
    armsThey would make fine servantsWith fifty men
    we could subjugate them all and make them do
    whatever we want.

4
Colonial Exploitation
  • Sir Jeffrey Amherst (French and Indian Wars -
    smallpox)
  • You would do well to try to inoculate the
    Indians, by means of blankets, to extirpate
    this execrable race

5
Colonial Exploitation
  • Winston Churchill (speaking in favor of RAFs
    experimental bombing of Iraqis in 1920s, which
    killed 9,000 people with 97 tons of bombs)
  • I am strongly in favor of using poisoned gas
    against uncivilized tribes to spread a lively
    terroragainst recalcitrant Arabs as an
    experiment

6
Colonial Exploitation
  • Cecil Rhodes (Rhodesia, Rhodes Scholarship,
    DeBeers Mining Company)
  • We must find new lands from which we can easily
    obtain raw materials and at the same time exploit
    the cheap slave labour that is available from the
    natives of the colonies. The colonies would also
    provide a dumping ground for the surplus goods
    produced in our factories.

7
Historical and Contemporary Exploitation
  • Slavery
  • Built U.S. infrastructure
  • Apartheid
  • Civil Rights Movements (U.S. and international)
  • Native American and immigration policies

8
Exploitation leads to
  • Maldistribution of wealth and resources
  • Environmental degradation
  • Wars

9
Racial Disparities Economic
  • Median income of black U.S. families as a percent
    of white U.S. families
  • 60 in in 1968
  • 62 in 2002
  • 62 in 2011 (69 for Hispanic families)

10
Racial Disparities Economic
  • Recession, housing crisis has hit black and
    Latino families harder than white families
  • Home ownerships rates whites (73), Latinos
    (48), African-Americans (43)
  • 7.5 on Blacks live in substandard housing (vs.
    2.8 of Whites)
  • Minorities face higher levels of unemployment

11
Poverty and Hunger
  • U.S. 14.3 of residents and 20 of children live
    in poverty
  • Rates of poverty in Blacks and Hispanics almost
    3X Whites
  • Poverty associated with worse physical and mental
    health

12
(No Transcript)
13
Income Inequality
  • Lower life expectancy
  • Higher rates of infant and child mortality
  • Short height
  • Poor self-reported health
  • AIDS
  • Depression
  • Mental Illness
  • Obesity

14
Voltaire
  • The comfort of the rich rests upon an abundance
    of the poor

15
Hudson River, 2009
16
Functional Apartheid
  • Segregated communities
  • Stress consequent to ongoing racism and poverty
  • Undocumented immigrants face constant threat of
    deportation, disruption of family and social
    relationships

17
Functional Apartheid Voter Restriction Measures
  • Photo ID requirements
  • Limits on number of polling sites and poll hours
  • Elimination of Sunday voting
  • Long waits
  • Limits on early voting
  • Gerrymandering districts
  • Intimidation

18
Functional Apartheid Voter Restriction Measures
  • Stated aim eliminate voter fraud
  • 2000-2010 643 million ballots cast in general
    elections, 441 killed by lightning, 13 credible
    cases of in-person voter impersonation
  • Recent study of 146 million registered voters
    found 10 cases of voter impersonation
  • Result potential disenfranchisement of tens of
    millions of voters, mostly poor, elderly, and
    racial minorities

19
Undocumented Immigrants
  • 25 million non-citizens in U.S.
  • 11-12 million undocumented
  • 80 of these in labor force
  • 2/3 lack insurance, source of non-emergency care
    (and many afraid to visit emergency rooms)
  • Children particularly affected

20
Functional Apartheid
  • Undocumented immigrants pay taxes
  • State and local income
  • Property
  • Excise taxes
  • Employers share of Social Security
  • Medicare
  • Unemployment taxes

21
Functional Apartheid
  • BUT, they are not eligible for many public
    services
  • Medicaid
  • Supplemental Nutritional Assistance Program
  • Social Security
  • Medicare
  • All immigrants heavily subsidize Medicares Trust
    Fund (reducing immigration could seriously
    undermine Medicare)
  • Unemployment benefits
  • Temporary cash assistance

22
Educational Apartheid
  • High levels of de facto school segregation by
    race and SES
  • Gross discrepancies in per-pupil spending and
    teacher salaries
  • Achievement and graduation gaps growing

23
(No Transcript)
24
Benefits of Education
  • For every 1 spent on early childhood education,
    up to 17 are saved from increased school
    achievement, improved health, reduced crime, and
    reduced reliance on public assistance
  • Income increases 11 for every year of education

25
Benefits of Education
  • College graduates live 5 years longer than high
    school dropouts
  • Eliminating educational inequities would have
    saved 8X as many lives as medical advances from
    1996-2002

26
Environmental Racism
  • Polluting factories/waste dumps/incinerators more
    common in lower SES neighborhoods
  • Cancer Belt (Baton Rouge to New Orleans)
  • Poor, African-Americans, and Hispanics more
    commonly exposed to lead, other toxins

27
Pesticides
  • EPA U.S. farm workers suffer up to 300,000
    pesticide-related acute illnesses and injuries
    per year
  • 25 million cases/yr worldwide
  • NAS Pesticides in food could cause up to 1
    million cancers in the current generation of
    Americans
  • WHO 1,000,000 people killed by pesticides over
    the last 6 years

28
Racial Disparities in Health Care Coverage
  • Percent uninsured
  • Whites 12
  • Asians 18
  • African-Americans 21
  • Hispanics 31
  • Undocumented immigrants 100 (emergency care
    exception)
  • CA Proposition 189

29
(No Transcript)
30
Racial Disparities Health Care
  • Higher maternal and infant mortality
  • Higher death rates for most diseases
  • Shorter life expectancies for African-Americans
  • Not for Hispanic Americans (healthy immigrant
    effect and Hispanic paradox may be relevant, but
    largely due to decreased tobacco use)
  • Fewer diagnostic tests / therapeutic procedures /
    pain medications

31
(No Transcript)
32
Health Disparities Among Latinos
  • Higher rates of
  • Overweight and obesity
  • Certain cancers
  • Stroke
  • Diabetes
  • Asthma/COPD
  • Chronic liver disease/cirrhosis
  • HIV/AIDS
  • Homicide

33
Racial Disparities in Health Care African-America
ns
  • Equalizing the mortality rates of whites and
    African-Americans would have averted 686,202
    deaths between 1991 and 2000
  • Whereas medical advances averted 176,633 deaths
  • AJPH 2004942078-2081

34
Diseases Responsible for Illness and Death
  • Deaths in 2000 attributable to
  • AMI 193,000
  • CVD 168,000
  • Lung CA 156,000
  • AJPH 20111011456-1465

35
Social Factors Responsible for Illness and Death
  • Deaths in 2000 attributable to
  • Low education 245,000
  • Racial segregation 176,000
  • Low social support 162,000
  • Individual-level poverty 133,000
  • Income inequality 119,000 (population-attributabl
    e mortality 5.1)
  • Area-level poverty 39,000 (population-attributabl
    e mortality 1.7)
  • AJPH 20111011456-1465

36
Deaths per year
  • Tobacco 400,000 ( 50,000 ETS)
  • Obesity 300,000
  • Alcohol 100,000
  • Microbial agents 90,000
  • Toxic agents 60,000 (likely higher)
  • Firearms 35,000
  • Sexual behaviors 30,000
  • Motor vehicles 25,000
  • Illicit drug use 20,000

37
Exploitation Post-WW II Human Subject
Experimentation
  • Tuskegee Syphilis Study
  • Guatemalan Syphilis Experiment

38
Exploitation Contemporary Research Imbalances
  • Unethical research on special populations
    (cultural minorities, prisoners, developing
    world, etc.)
  • 90 of research dollars spent on diseases
    affecting 10 of the worlds population
  • Limited access of developing world to results due
    to scarcity of open-access publications

39
Medical Care
  • 50 of global health care budget spent in the
    U.S.
  • Per capita expenditure on health care
  • U.S. 8,160
  • Typical poor African/Asian country 5-10

40
Exploitation The Medical Brain Drain
  • Five times as many migrating doctors flow from
    developing to developed nations than in the
    opposite direction
  • Inverse care law
  • Those countries that need the most health care
    resources are getting the least

41
Racism in the Criminal Justice System
  • Violent crime associated with poverty, not race
  • Persons of color are more likely than whites to
    be
  • Stopped by the police (e.g., Driving while
    black, Stop and frisk)
  • Abused by the police
  • Arrested
  • Denied bail
  • Charged with a serious crime
  • Convicted
  • Receive a harsher sentence

42
Race and Detention Rates
  • African-Americans 1,815/100,000
  • More black men behind bars than in college
  • 13 of black men currently have no voting
    privileges
  • Latino-Americans 609/100,000
  • Caucasian-Americans 235/100,000
  • Asian-Americans 99/100,000

43
(No Transcript)
44
Outside the U.S.
  • Racial and cultural inequalities
  • Poverty, famine, war
  • Governments/corporations promoting poverty and
    worsening maldistribution of wealth and resources
    through trade agreements, internalization of
    profits and externalization of costs

45
The Third World Debt Crisis
  • Each African child inherits approximately 379 in
    debt at birth
  • Countries spend more each year repaying debt than
    on education and healthcare

46
Consequences of Debt Repayment Agreements
  • Government spending on food, fuel and farming
    subsidies reduced
  • Social service (healthcare/education) program
    spending cut
  • Countries strip and sell their natural resources

47
Foreign Aid
  • In total dollars U.S. 1
  • As a of GDP, U.S. 21
  • U.S. Aid Over 1/3 military, 1/4 economic, 1/3
    for food and development

48
Foreign Aid
  • Americans think that 24 of the federal budget
    goes toward foreign aid
  • 0.19 of the total federal budget, vs. UN target
    of 0.7

49
U.S. Charitable Giving
  • Approximately 250 billion/year
  • 2.5 of income
  • 2.9 at height of Great Depression

50
U.S. International Non-Cooperation/Isolationism
  • Failure to sign or approve
  • Kyoto Protocol on Climate Change
  • International Covenant on Economic, Social, and
    Cultural Rights

51
U.S. International Non-Cooperation/Isolationism
  • Failure to sign or approve
  • Convention on the Rights of the Child
  • Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination
    Against Women
  • UN Convention on the Rights of Disabled Persons

52
U.S. International Non-Cooperation/Isolationism
  • Failure to sign or approve
  • UN Declaration of the Rights of Indigenous
    Peoples
  • The Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic
    Pollutants
  • WHO International Code of Marketing of Breast
    Milk Substitutes

53
U.S. International Non-Cooperation/Isolationism
  • Failure to follow World Court Decisions
  • Failure to recognize International Criminal Court

54
Primo Levi
  • A country is considered the more civilized the
    more the wisdom and efficiency of its laws hinder
    a weak man from becoming too weak or a powerful
    one too powerful.

55
Solutions
  • More equitable distribution of medical research
    funds and health care dollars
  • Living wage laws
  • E.g., NY, LA, Chicago, and Philadelphia
  • Education reforms

56
Solutions
  • Creation of healthier communities
  • Stronger environmental and occupational and
    safety laws / enhanced enforcement
  • Single payer health care
  • Canadian blacks are as healthy as Canadian whites

57
Solutions
  • Improve status of women / access to reproductive
    health care
  • Increase racial and ethnic diversity of physician
    workforce
  • Overhaul immigration policy
  • Pass Dream Act
  • Reparations
  • Changes in law enforcement and sentencing

58
Fyodor Dostoyevsky
  • A society should be judged not by how it treats
    its outstanding citizens but by how it treats its
    criminals

59
Solutions
  • Publicly financed campaigns and campaign finance
    reform
  • Proportional representation
  • Instant runoff voting/cumulative voting/range
    (rating) voting

60
Solutions
  • Increase U.S. voter turnout
  • U.S. 139/172 worldwide
  • Wealthy vote at almost twice rate of poor
  • Whites gt Blacks gt Hispanics
  • Old gt Young
  • Property owners gt Renters
  • Activism / Protesting / Whistleblowing
  • Halt disenfranchisement, overturn voter
    restriction laws
  • Work in Groups

61
Günter Grass
  • The first job of a citizen is to keep your mouth
    open.

62
Anita Roddick
  • "If you think you are too small to have an
    impact, try going to bed with a mosquito in your
    tent"

63
(No Transcript)
64
  • Public Health and Social Justice Website
  • http//www.publichealthandsocialjustice.org
  • http//www.phsj.org
  • martindonohoe_at_phsj.org
About PowerShow.com