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New Mexico Community Health Council Training

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Title: New Mexico Community Health Council Training


1
New MexicoCommunity Health Council Training
The Prepared Community
Spring 2005
2
The Prepared Community
  • Module One Emergency Management from 20,000
    Feet
  • Module Two The Prepared Community
  • Module Three We Are All Affected
  • Module Four The Resilient Healthy Community
  • Module Five Community Profile

3
Module One
Emergency Managementfrom 20,000 Feet
  • What does health medical emergency management
    look like at the national and state level?

4
Module One Emergency Management from 20,000 Feet
  • What is an emergency?
  • Whos on first?
  • National, State, NMDOH plans
  • NMDOH roles

5
What is an Emergency?
6
What Makes an Incident an Emergency or Disaster?
  • affects entire community
  • community needs surpass capacity
  • include
  • natural disasters
  • human-caused disasters
  • technological disasters
  • economic disasters

7
Types of Emergencies
  • two types recognized by state law
  • Civil emergency (State Civil Emergency
    Preparedness Act)
  • Public health emergency (Public Health Emergency
    Response Act, PHERA)
  • may be declared simultaneously

8
Whos on First?
  • Response begins and ends at the local level
  • local command post set up
  • local, county, or tribal Emergency Operations
    Plan (EOP) activated
  • local Emergency Operations Center (EOC)
    established

9
Local Level Emergency Response
Local EOC Local/County/TribalEmergency
Response Plans
Mayor/CEO Requests State Assistance
Mayor/CEO Declares Local Emergency
Local Incident Command Post (ICP)
If the incident exceeds local capacity, the Mayor
or Chief Elected Official may request state
assistance.
10
State Level Emergency Response
State EOC New Mexico All-Hazard Emergency
Operations Plan
State Agency-Specific Emergency Operations Plans
Local EOC Local/County/TribalEmergency
Response Plans
Mayor/CEO Requests State Assistance
Mayor/CEO Declares Local Emergency
Local Incident Command Post (ICP)
  • If the incident exceeds State capacity, the
    Governor may request Federal assistance.

11
Federal Level Emergency Response
National Response Plan
Federal Agency Assistance and other plans
President Declares Emergency
State EOC New Mexico All-Hazard Emergency
Operations Plan
Governor Requests Federal Assistance
State Agency-Specific Emergency Operations Plans
Governor Declares Emergency
Local EOC Local/County/TribalEmergency
Response Plans
Mayor/CEO Requests State Assistance
Mayor/CEO Declares Local Emergency
Local Incident Command Post (ICP)
12
National Preparedness Goal
  • To achieve and sustain capabilities that enable
    the Nation to collaborate in successfully
  • preventing terrorist attacks on the homeland, and
  • rapidly and effectively responding to and
    recovering from any terrorist attack, major
    disaster, or other emergency that does occur to
    minimize the impact on lives, property, and the
    economy.

13
National Preparedness Goal
  • Focuses on building capabilities in six priority
    areas, including
  • strengthening medical surge capabilities -
  • establishing emergency-ready public health and
    healthcare entities

14
National Response Plan (NRP)
  • integrates prevention, preparedness, response,
    and recovery
  • comprehensive, national, all-hazards approach
  • defines the federal governments interface with
    state, local, and tribal governments, and the
    private sector

15
New Mexico All-HazardEmergency Operations Plan
  • Developed by the Office of Emergency Management
    (OEM) of the New Mexico Department of Public
    Safety
  • Refers to specific responsibilities during
    disasters
  • NMDOH responsible for Annex 5 Public Health,
    Medical Mortuary

16
NMDOH Emergency Operations Plan
  • Identifies responsibilities for public health,
    medical, and mortuary response
  • Includes the Basic Plan and Hazard and Response
    Specific Appendices

17
NMDOH Office of Health Emergency Management (OHEM)
  • CDC HRSA Grant Programs
  • Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Cooperative
    Agreement on Public Health Preparedness and
    Response for Bioterrorism
  • Health Resources Services Admin. (HRSA)
    National Bioterrorism Hospital Preparedness
    Program

18
NMDOH Roles - Preparedness
  • Establish policies, procedures standards
  • Assess preparedness develop exercise
    preparedness response plans
  • Develop public health statutes regulations
  • Provide education training related to emergency
    preparedness response

19
NMDOH Roles - Response
  • Respond to incidents, natural disasters, major
    disease outbreaks
  • Coordinate with local, state, federal, and
    international response agencies
  • Activate the NMDOH Emergency Operations Plan.
  • Provide information risk communication
  • Collect, assess, and disseminate health
    surveillance information
  • Provide services at PHSS locations

20
NMDOH Response Roles (cont.)
  • Provide/coordinate laboratory testing
  • Provide/coordinate provision of crisis response
    mental health services
  • Coordinate with OMI
  • Facilitate community support in the event of
    evacuation, quarantine, or isolation
  • Coordinate medical radio communication
  • Coordinate availability of resources request the
    Strategic National Stockpile, when needed

21
Public Health Service Sites
  • Screening
  • Dispensing of prophylactic medication or
    immunizations
  • Education
  • Referral for psychosocial support

22
(No Transcript)
23
Module Two
The Prepared Community
  • What does health medical emergency management
    look like at the community and county level?

24
Goals of the Prepared Community
  1. Informed and involved public
  2. Prepared and informed professionals
  3. Planning, preparation and policies
  4. Communication systems and connectivity
  5. Scientific and technical support and other
    resources
  6. Administration, management, and fiscal systems

25
Goal 1 Informed Involved Public
  • timely, accurate, and useful public information
  • comprehensive and coordinated Risk Communication
  • trained spokespersons, trusted by the community
  • media contacts and media plan

26
Informed Involved PublicPublic Information
  • information to help individuals and families
    develop emergency plans
  • information for non-English speakers, people with
    sensory disabilities, and those in remote areas
  • culturally sensitive communication

27
Informed Involved Public Risk Communication
  • provision of information about the nature of the
    risk and recommendations for action
  • before, during, and after a crisis situation
  • accurate, honest, and immediate

28
Goal 2 Prepared Informed Professionals
  • clearly defined roles and relationships
  • ongoing, collaborative training for all active
    players
  • ongoing, collaborative drills and exercises
  • plan to pre-identify, train, and certify
    volunteers

29
Prepared Informed Professionals Roles
Responsibilities
  • Initial Responders (First Responders/First
    Receivers)
  • Hospitals Health Care Providers
  • Behavioral Health Providers
  • Public Health Office Personnel
  • Volunteers

30
Prepared Informed Professionals Initial
Responders
  • First Responders and First Receivers (Patient
    Receivers)
  • Trained EMS personnel
  • Fire fighters, law enforcement
  • Primary care clinics and hospitals
  • Anyone who receives patients directlyfrom the
    field
  • Even bystanders

31
Prepared Informed Professionals Hospitals
Health Care Providers
  • Prevention vaccination programs, public
    education
  • Preparedness comprehensive and coordinated
    emergency management plans
  • Response participation in community response
    activation of EOP liaison to local EOC
  • Recovery emotional support to survivors
    documentation of expenses and other items for
    reimbursement lessons learned

32
Prepared Informed Professionals Behavioral
Health Providers
  • Prevention mental health promotion community
    resilience
  • Preparedness comprehensive, integrated plans
    resources and collaborations
  • Response participation in community response
    crisis intervention, psychological first aid, and
    psychosocial support
  • Recovery longer term psychosocial support to
    survivors longer term behavioral health clinical
    services to those in need community resilience

33
Prepared Informed Professionals Public Health
Office Personnel
  • Prevention  public education about public health
    emergencies and emergency response
  • Preparedness  emergency response plans that are
    integrated with NMDOH and local emergency
    responders
  • Response participation in community response
    provision of emergency-related health services
  • Recovery  ongoing public education sharing
    "lessons learned" with other public health
    personnel statewide, NMDOH, and community

34
Prepared Informed Professionals Volunteers
  • important component of emergency response
  • both pre-identified and spontaneous, unaffiliated
    volunteers
  • could come from programs such as
  • American Red Cross
  • Faith-based organizations
  • Citizen Corps - Community Emergency Response
    Teams (CERT)
  • Volunteer Organizations Active in Disasters
    (VOAD)
  • National Disaster Medical System, including DMAT
    DMORT
  • NM Volunteer Health Professional Program (in
    development)
  • Albuquerque Medical Reserve Corp Project (in
    development)

35
Goal 3 Planning, Preparation, Policies
  • understanding of community hazards
    vulnerabilities
  • local Emergency Operations Plan (EOP) addressing
    vulnerabilities
  • local laws, ordinances, policies

36
Planning, Preparation, PoliciesHazards
Vulnerabilities
  • community vulnerabilities/hazards e.g., floods,
    forest fires, tornados, chemical spills, gas line
    explosions
  • psychosocial vulnerabilities
  • everyone is affected
  • some individuals/communities more vulnerable than
    others

37
Planning, Preparation, Policies Local
Emergency Operations Plans
  • The county/community EOP should include a
    health/medical component with
  • Psychosocial plan
  • Evacuation, quarantine, and isolation plans
  • Considerations for populations with special
    planning needs

38
Planning, Preparation, Policies The Emergency
Operations Plan
  • comprehensive, all-hazard in approach, focused on
    most likely hazards
  • overview of response organization and policies
  • general description of roles and
    responsibilities, command structure
  • drilled and exercised, lessons learned
    identified

39
Goal 4 Communication Systems
  • notification and alert systems
  • interoperable and redundant radio communication
  • EMSystem in local hospital(s)

40
Communication SystemsThe Health Alert Network
(HAN)
  • email fax notification of situations affecting
    the public health

41
Communication SystemsEMSystem
  • Provides hospital emergency departments with
    real-time information regarding
  • Hospital status
  • Current emergency situations
  • Health alerts
  • Bed counts
  • Allows better management of EMS services during
    regular activity and emergencies.

42
Communication SystemsRadio Communication
  • radio communication
  • interoperable everyone can talk to everyone
    else and
  • redundant different equipment and systems to
    keep communication happening
  • amateur (Ham) radio operators provide additional
    communication capability

43
Goal 5 Scientific/Technical Support Other
Resources
  • interoperable IT systems
  • policies and procedures for reporting notifiable
    conditions
  • connected medical labs using uniform data
    standards
  • mortuary resources
  • pharmaceutical caches

44
Goal 5 Resources (cont.)
  • plans for mass prophylaxis and patient screening
  • isolation and patient decontamination capacity
    and adequate PPE
  • plans and procedures for patient surge

45
Goal 6 Administration, Management, Fiscal
Systems
  • strategic leadership to manage public health
    emergencies and disasters
  • process for setting goals and objectives and
    allocating resources
  • accounting and other record systems for
    documenting actions, expenses, etc.

46
Module 3
  • We Are All Affected.

How does a disaster affect individuals, families,
and communities?
47
Psychosocial Reactions to a Disaster
  • The ripple effect

A
B
C
D
E
F
48
Individual Reactions
  • Emotional sadness, grief, anxiety/fear, guilt,
    anger, irritability, numbness, neediness, etc.
  • Physical tension, sleeplessness, aches and
    pains, appetite changes, agitation, etc.
  • Behavioral hypervigilance, withdrawal,
    changesin normal patterns, drug/alcohol use,
    etc.
  • Cognitive confusion, disorientation, difficulty
    concentrating, indecisiveness, memory lapses, etc.

49
Family Reactions
  • Emotional withdrawal of family members,
    especially children
  • Increased use of alcohol and other substances
  • Discord and/or increase in domestic violence
  • Decrease in functioning as a unit

50
Individual Family Reactions
  • Usually these are normal responses to abnormal
    situations.
  • However, some individuals and some families are
    more at risk than others for developing longer
    term behavioral health problems as a result of
    disasters.

51
What makes some individuals families more at
risk than others?
  • Pre-existing mental illness/substance abuse
  • Prior history of trauma
  • Chronic illness
  • Physical, sensory, or cognitive disabilities
  • Lower socioeconomic status
  • Lower educational level
  • Lack of family connections/community support
  • Language barriers
  • Immigration/citizenship status

52
Community Reactions
  • Mass panic is rare.
  • More often
  • acts of heroism, compassion, selflessness
  • community cohesion, resiliency
  • community creativity, resourcefulness
  • volunteers, donations

53
Community Reactions
  • We are all affected, but we are not all affected
    equally.
  • Like individuals, some communities are more at
    risk for developing longer term problems after a
    disaster.
  • And there are uniquely vulnerable population
    groups.

54
What makes some communities moreat risk than
others?
  • Proximity to the event
  • Lack of access to resources and services
  • Discrimination or stigmatization of certain
    groups
  • Lack of access to information, notification
  • Stressful, violent environments
  • Marginalized socioeconomic status
  • Level of pre-disaster functioning capacity

55
Vulnerable Population Groups
  • Children
  • Elderly
  • People with chronic mental illness/substance
    abuse disorders
  • People with disabilities
  • Culturally diverse communities
  • Economically disadvantaged communities
  • Others homeless, incarcerated, institutionalized
    populations

56
Vulnerable Groups Children
  • Process information and experience emotions
    differently than adults
  • Less developed coping skills
  • Difficulty deciding between fact and fantasy
  • May blame themselves
  • Differs according to age group and developmental
    level

57
Vulnerable Groups Children
  • Common reactions
  • Clinging to parent
  • Fear of strangers
  • Regression to earlier behavior
  • Worry, nightmares, fear of the dark
  • Changes in sleeping/eating habits
  • Reluctance to go to school
  • Disruptiveness
  • Drop in school performance

58
Vulnerable Groups Elderly
  • Some elderly people may be more at risk because
    of
  • Sensory deprivation
  • Delayed response
  • Chronic illness
  • Past trauma/loss
  • Reluctance to seek help difficulty negotiating
    systems

59
Vulnerable Groups People with Chronic Mental
Illness/Substance Abuse Disorders
  • Issues to be considered when planning for people
    with chronic mental illness or substance abuse
    disorders
  • Confusion between symptoms of illness v.
    reactions to disaster
  • Prior history of trauma
  • Disruption of support networks, medications
  • Increase in recidivism

60
Vulnerable Groups People with Disabilities
  • Issues to be considered when planning for people
    with disabilities
  • Difficulty accessing services
  • Exacerbation of medical conditions due to
    increased stress
  • Increased reliance on others
  • Separation from assistance animals, caretakers,
    special equipment, medications
  • Access to information channels

61
Vulnerable GroupsCulturally Diverse Communities
  • Issues to be considered when planning for
    culturally diverse communities
  • Previous exposure to racism, violence,
    discrimination, poverty, trauma
  • Reluctance to seek out services
  • Cultural differences in coping
  • Language barriers
  • Undocumented status

62
Vulnerable Groups Economically Disadvantaged
Communities
  • Issues to be considered when planning for
    economically disadvantaged communities
  • Lack of access to resources
  • Reliance on social service systems which may be
    overtaxed in a crisis
  • Lack of inclusion in planning, decision making
  • Lack of community protective factors high rate
    of exposure to violence, alcohol and substance
    abuse, etc.

63
Module 4
  • The Resilient and Healthy Community

What can we do? How do we prepare?How do we
respond?
64
The Resilient Healthy Community
Disaster Phases Psychosocial Services Psychosoci
al Interventions The Resilient Community the
Community Health Council
65
Disaster Phases
  • Impact (Heroic) Phase
  • Cleanup/Rebuilding (Honeymoon) Phase
  • Restoration (Inventory/Disillusionment) Phase
  • Reconstruction (Restabilization) Phase

66
Impact Phase - Services
  • 0 48 hours
  • Addressing basic needs (safety, food shelter,
    reuniting with family)
  • Psychological first aid
  • Monitoring of services, media coverage, rumors
  • Technical assistance, training, consultation to
    organizations and other caregivers

67
Impact Phase - Services
  • Within 1 Week
  • Assessment of current psychological status
    needs
  • Triage referral to behavioral health
    professionals, when needed
  • Outreach information dissemination
  • Fostering of resiliency recovery

68
Cleanup/Rebuilding Phase - Services
  • Community outreach culturally linguistically
    appropriate services social support
  • Public education information on normal stress
    reactions, coping mechanisms, availability of
    resources
  • Education to health care providers about
    psychosocial issues of incident

69
Cleanup/Rebuilding Phase - Services
  • Provision of behavioral health interventions
  • defusing
  • debriefing
  • providing relaxation training and respite care
  • promoting coping skills and strategies
  • Identification referral of survivors with
    serious reactions/problems to behavioral health
    professionals
  • Issuance of death notifications provision of
    grief services to survivors

70
Restoration Phase - Services
  • Continued provision care to individuals with
    disaster-related behavioral health problems
  • education of providers
  • screening
  • outreach
  • provision of variety of treatment modalities
  • Provision of community services support
  • Employment of symbols rituals

71
Reconstruction Phase - Services
  • Could take several years
  • Involves individuals rebuilding their lives,
    families, homes
  • Opportunity to look at response and identify
    lessons learned
  • Opportunity to foster resilience

72
Principles of Psychosocial Intervention
  • Do no harm validate individual reactions.
  • Assume resilience.
  • Everyone who experiences a disaster event is
    affected by it.
  • Be culturally competent.
  • Respect individuals differences in reactions.

73
Principles of Psychosocial Intervention
  • Simple human presence is reassuring.
  • Offer flexible services.
  • Utilize a team approach.
  • Coordinate services with the larger response
    activity (i.e., fire, police, recovery agencies,
    etc.).

74
Principles of Psychosocial Intervention
  • Most individuals do not require additional
    assistance, and return to pre-disaster level of
    functioning within 18- 36 months.
  • Survivors with severe or long-term disorders
    should be referred to professional behavioral
    health providers.

75
Psychosocial Interventions Psychological First
Aid
  • Protect from viewing additional traumatic stimuli
    from event
  • Direct away from trauma scene and into safe
    environment
  • Connect individual with loved ones, and needed
    information and resources.

76
Psychosocial Interventions Psychological First
Aid
  • Address immediate physical needs
  • Comfort and console survivor
  • Provide concrete information
  • Listen to and validate feelings
  • Link survivor to support systems
  • Normalize stress reactions
  • Reinforce positive coping skills
  • Facilitate telling of the trauma story as
    appropriate
  • Support reality-based, practical tasks

77
Other Psychosocial Interventions
  • Crisis Intervention - similar to psychological
    first aid aims to empower survivor to meet
    immediate challenges
  • Informational briefing usually provided by
    officials about situation status
  • Psychological debriefing group intervention for
    highly exposed survivors, emergency responders

78
Other Psychosocial Interventions
  • Psychoeducation information about the nature of
    emotional reactions to disasters, grief and
    bereavement, coping strategies, how to recognize
    when to seek professional assistance
  • Community outreach contact where community
    members gather reaching out via the media
    attendance at meetings of faith-based
    organizations, schools, community centers
    resource and referral information

79
Characteristics of the Resilient Healthy
Community
  • Capable of bouncing back from adversity
  • All sectors inter-related and share knowledge,
    expertise perspectives
  • Wide community participation, local government
    commitment
  • Healthy public policies

80
Characteristics of the Resilient Healthy
Community
  • Adequate access to basic needs, i.e., water,
    food, shelter, work, learning, etc.
  • Adequate access to health care services
  • Strong diverse cultural spiritual heritage
  • When disaster strikes, financial human losses
    are reduced

81
Role of the CHC
  • Train individuals families to make emergency
    preparedness plans
  • Exit route from home
  • How to contact each other
  • Where to gather
  • Care for pets
  • Emergency preparedness kits

82
Role of the CHC
  • Identify and understand various populations and
    vulnerable groups in community
  • Identify liaisons (gatekeepers) to groups
  • Partner with organizations representing specific
    communities i.e., faith-based orgs., youth
    senior centers schools, daycare centers
    cultural organizations, etc., and recruit
    partners and volunteers
  • Identify training needs of organizations
  • See Community Health Emergency Management Profile

83
Role of the CHC
  • Develop relationships with County Emergency
    Manager, first responder groups, and Red Cross
    chapter
  • Develop relationships with local/district public
    health offices
  • Participate in local emergency planning via
    attendance at Local Emergency Planning Committee
  • Advocate for inclusion of health issues in
    emergency planning

84
Role of the CHC
  • Identify community resources maintain current
    contact information
  • Emergency response community emergency manager,
    elected officials, first responders
  • Service providers hospitals, health behavioral
    health care providers, schools
  • Community groups Red Cross, faith community,
    service and charitable organizations,
    professional associations
  • Volunteer groups Community Emergency Response
    Team (CERT), Fire Corps, Neighborhood Watch
    Programs, Medical Reserve Corps, Volunteers in
    Police Service (VIPS) block associations, etc.
  • See Community Health Emergency Management Profile

85
Role of the CHC
  • Create networks of related organizations
  • The community is an interconnected matrix of
    networks, for example
  • Civic (churches, social clubs, schools)
  • Occupational (businesses, unions, professional
    organizations)
  • Informational (libraries, bulletin boards)
  • Each network can be a conduit for organizing
    public response for its own constituency.
  • Identify training needs for each network

86
Role of the CHC - Results
  • The CHC is an active partner in the emergency
    response network in the County.
  • The CHC is an active advocate for health
    emergency preparedness.
  • The CHC is the lead advocate for community
    resilience and psychosocial response and
    recovery.
  • Your county is ready to respond to public health
    emergencies.

87
Purpose of Profile
  • Psychosocial Response and Recovery Planning
  • Building Community Understanding
  • Creating a Common Directory

88
Five Parts
  • Part One Psychosocial Assessment
  • Part Two Populations with Different Planning
    Needs
  • Part Three Psychosocial Response Capacity
  • Part Four Emergency Response and Recovery
    Planning
  • Part Five The Directory

89
Part One Psychosocial Assessment
  • Describing community vulnerabilities
  • Demographics
  • Socio-economic
  • Family Composition
  • Community Health
  • Risk and Protective Factors

90
Demographic Indicators
  • Age distribution
  • Race and Ethnic distribution
  • Primary language

91
Socio-Economic Indicators
  • Per capita personal income (last three years)
  • Household income (last three years)
  • Unemployment rate (last three years)
  • Average monthly TANF and Food Stamp cases
  • Average monthly Medicaid eligibles
  • Estimated number and percent of people in poverty
    (last three years)

92
Family Composition Indicators
  • Distribution of households by type family,
    married, male head, female head
  • Number and percentage of grandparent headed
    households number of children raised by
    grandparents

93
Community Health Characteristics
  • Birth rate (last three years)
  • Birth rate to mothers under 20 years of age (last
    three years)
  • Birth rate to single mothers (last three years)
  • Number and percentage of children with chronic
    health conditions (last three years)

94
Community Health Characteristics (cont.)
  • Number of child abuse cases investigated and
    substantiated (last three years)
  • Number of adult abuse cases investigated and
    substantiated (last three years)
  • Injury death rates by mechanism (last three
    years)
  • Motor vehicle fatality rate (last three years)

95
Community Risk and Protective Factors
  • School achievement and dropout rate
  • Domestic violence
  • Substance abuse alcohol
  • Substance abuse other drugs
  • Access to health insurance/medical care
  • Access to child care

96
Community Risk and ProtectiveFactors (cont.)
  • Housing characteristics
  • Homelessness
  • Crime rate adult and juvenile
  • Teen suicide rate (last three years)
  • Adult suicide rate (last three years)
  • DWI rate (last three years)
  • Other community violence

97
Part Two Populations with DifferentPlanning
Needs
  • Numbers
  • Locations, Providers, and Contact Points
  • Liaisons/Information Conduits

98
Populations
  • Children
  • Elderly
  • People with chronic mental illness
  • People with substance abuse problems
  • People with cognitive or developmental
    disabilities
  • People with physical disabilities

99
Populations (cont.)
  • People who are blind or have visual impairments
  • People who are deaf or have hearing impairments
  • Non-English speaking populations
  • Undocumented individuals
  • People who are homeless
  • Incarcerated and other institutionalized people

100
Part ThreePsychosocial Response Capacity
  • Strengths
  • Resources
  • Challenges

101
Descriptors
  • Leadership and local communication
  • Volunteer groups and organizations
  • Community and neighborhood organizations
  • Experience with crisis
  • Recent experiences or changes
  • Overall strengths
  • Needs for better coordination

102
Part Four Emergency Response and Recovery
Planning
  • Plans and planning
  • Hazards and vulnerabilities
  • Coordination

103
Areas to be described
  • Understanding - potential hazards and
    vulnerabilities
  • Understanding - vulnerable people and populations
  • The county emergency response plan
  • Emergency Operations Center plans
  • Other emergency response plans
  • Plan coordination

104
Part Five The Directory
  • Purpose
  • Name the players
  • Create a directory for all


105
Directory Listings
Emergency Management Contacts
  • County Emergency Manager
  • Local Emergency Planning Committee (LEPC) Members
  • Local public health office emergency preparedness
    contacts
  • Hospital emergency manager
  • School districts safety officer

106
Directory Listings
Emergency Management Contacts
  • Red Cross
  • Local CERT program (if any)
  • Other pre-identified and trained health
    professional volunteers
  • Emergency Medical Services (EMS)
  • Law enforcement

107
Directory Listings
Emergency Management Contacts
  • Fire
  • Search and rescue
  • CISM members and others trained in crisis
    intervention/response
  • Other agencies, organizations, and individuals
    who might be involved in emergency response

108
Directory Listings
Health Care Provider Contacts
  • Hospital(s)
  • Primary care clinics and ambulatory care
    providers
  • Other health care agencies, facilities (long term
    care, home health, etc.)
  • Behavioral health care providers
  • Pharmacies
  • Laboratories (hospital-based and private)
  • Mortuaries

109
Directory Listings
Community Contacts
  • Local/county government contacts for public
    utilities, public works, human services, public
    information, waste management, etc.
  • Faith community contacts
  • Food banks and shelters
  • Supermarkets and other food resources
  • Ham radio operators
  • Others
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