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The Rise of Russia


Summary: The Dynasty of the Great Mughals in India Summary: The Dynasty of the Great Mughals in India 1605-1628 Jehangir succeeded his father, ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Rise of Russia

The Rise of Russia
Russian Expansion
  • Ivan III Ivan the Great
  • Expansion and post-Mongol stability
  • Ivan IV Ivan the Terrible
  • Expansion and absolutist rule
  • Begins efforts to Westernize
  • Both used cossacks to settle new regions
  • Russia was technologically behind and
    agriculturally based

Time of Troubles
  • Ivan IV dies with no heir
  • Romanov family rises to power
  • 1613 1917
  • Early Romanovs
  • Eliminate political rivals
  • Establish power base

Peter the Great (6-8??)1689 - 1724
  • Enlightened Despot
  • Studied for 18 months in Europe
  • Forced Russians to adopt Western Practices
  • Dress, facial hair, gender roles, etc
  • Models example of Western absolutism
  • Consolidates nobles in St. Petersburg
  • Window on the West and warm-water port
  • Lower Class in France and in Russia
  • France, 85 peasants and in Russia 90
  • Both societies have serfs
  • France, still obligated but not enslaved as in
  • French are bound to land because they have no
    means to move out

Why Westernize? How was it received?
  • New structure to catch up
  • Stimulate industrial economy (metallurgy)
  • Make them respectable, worldwide
  • Violent responses from all people at times
  • Resented changes
  • Some traditions destroyed

Catherine the Great (1761)
  • German Princess
  • Married Peter III (Peter the Greats grandson)
  • Heavily impacted by Enlightened thought
  • Felt like all serfs should be emancipated
  • Pugachev Rebellion
  • Forces her to be more absolutist and loyal to
    nobles because they helped her.
  • She shifted from liberal to more conservative
  • Both Peter and Catherine had looked to West but
    following Catherine they turn more inward

Why was Poland Partitioned?
  • The Parliamentary system there was slow and
    ineffective which led to the elimination of
    Poland as an independent nation-state.

Themes in Early Modern Russia
  • Landed nobles with power
  • Russia is big
  • Serfdom
  • Slooooows progress in Russia
  • Leads to rebellion
  • Agriculturally based economy
  • Much is exported to Western Europe or produced
    via antiquated methods
  • (also traded other items such as furs)

The Ottoman Empire
The Ottoman Empire
The Ottoman Empire
  • Existed from 1281 to 1923
  • one of the largest empires to rule the borders of
    the Mediterranean Sea
  • Rivaled China in size and economic power
  • reached its apex under Suleiman I
  • 16th and17th centuries
  • among the world's most powerful political
  • Countries of Europe felt threatened by its steady
  • organization
  • sultan in the top
  • below his viziers, other court officials, and
    military commanders.
  • A vizier is a high ranking political and/or
    religious official

Growth of the Ottoman Empire
  • Pre-Ottoman Turks
  • Earliest ancestors of the Turks in Europe were
    the Huns
  • The best known empire of Turks before the
    Ottomans were the Seljuk Turks
  • The rise of the Seljuk Turks ended the nomadic
    nature of Turks
  • Rise of a New Empire
  • The fall of the Seljuk Empire saw the rise of the
    Ottoman Empire
  • 1453 C.E.
  • Constantinople falls and becomes Istanbul
  • Capital of empire
  • 1517 C.E.
  • The holy sites of Islam - Mecca and Medina - are
    controlled by the Ottoman Empire
  • For nearly 300 years the Ottomans expanded into
    the Balkans and to Persia.
  • By 1683 the Turks controlled Hungary in Europe to
    the Persian Gulf.
  • Initial Ottoman conquest and expansion was
    under their able leader Osman (1299-1326).
  • Osman was a ghazi, or warrior, who was
    determined to spread the faith.

Height of the Ottoman Empire
  • Suleyman the Magnificent
  • Reigned from 1520 - 1566
  • Expanded the Ottoman Empire from the gates of
    Vienna to the Persian Gulf
  • Siege of Vienna
  • First failed campaign for Ottomans
  • Brought coffee to the Europeans
  • Source of musical, theatrical, and cultural
    growth for Europe as it interacted with Islamic
  • Claimed the role of Caliph of Islam was held by
    the Ottoman Sultan

Why Did The Ottomans Succeed?
  • Ottomans tolerated other faithsdidnt fight wars
    of religious exclusivism
  • Many in Old Byzantine Empire were weary of
    corruption in Byzantine state

Key Events of the Ottoman State
  • 1389 Defeat the Serbs at Battle of Kosovo.
  • 1396 Crushed the Hungarians and foreign knights
    at Nicopolis.
  • 1402 Tamerlane defeats the Ottomans near
  • 1453 Turks capture Constantinople by Mohammed
  • 1517 Turks captured Cairo.
  • 1529 First siege of Vienna.
  • 1683 Second siege of Vienna.

The Sick Man of Europe
  • Decline in power
  • Young Turk Nationionalism
  • World War I
  • Wrong choice

Jannisaries Ottoman Special Forces
Who were they?
  • Ottomans
  • From the Turkish term yeniceri
  • First organized by bey Murad I in the late 14th
  • 7 14 year old Christian(non-Muslim) boys
  • Devsirme (labor tax)
  • Why is Christian a big deal

Who were they? (contd)
  • Later converted to Islam
  • Christians couldnt carry weapons in the Ottoman
  • Initially, most from Balkan regions (specifically
  • Forced to maintain a higher moral standard
  • Initially forced to be celibate and no beards
  • 16th Century Marriage becomes acceptable
  • Beards were a sign of freedom

Why they were better than the average conscripted
  • Allegiance
  • To the bey and not regional rulers
  • These regional rulers were often on competition
    for power
  • Their life was training
  • Family army Father Sultan

Why they were better
  • Lived as a part of upper society
  • Became VERY powerful
  • Inherited lands from dead Jannisaries

  • They were very powerful
  • They wanted to maintain their position in society
  • Eventually there were many of them
  • 20,000 in 1574 to 135,000 in 1826
  • Later corps were made up of men only interested
    in carrying the title in order to collect a salary

  • Staged Coups
  • Wanted more , more rights (marriage),
  • 1622 Killed sultan Osman II
  • Expensive
  • Maintained their own trades and became a state
    within a state
  • 1826 Sultan eliminates Janissaries
  • Either killed or exiled

Safavid Empire1501 - 1722
  • From Persia to Afghanistan
  • Founded by Safi al-Din
  • A sufi mystic and 1st ruler of the dynasty
  • (1322)
  • Empire marked by continual clashes with other
    Muslim powers
  • 1399 Empire becomes Shia

The SafavidsTurkish conquerors of Persia and
  • Shah Ismail (reigned 1501-1524)
  • Claims ancient Persian title of shah.
  • Proclaimed Twelver Shiism the official religion
    imposed it on Sunni population
  • Followers known as qizilbash (or "Red
  • Twelver Shiism
  • Traced origins to twelve ancient Shiite imams
  • Ismail believed to be the twelfth, or "hidden,"
    imam, or even an incarnation of Allah

Battle of Chaldiran - 1514
  • Sunni Ottomans persecuted Shiites within Ottoman
  • Chaldiran today is in Azerbaijan
  • Ottoman/Janissary forces
  • modern weapons (guns)
  • Safavid/Qizilbash forces
  • considered firearms unmanly though they did have
  • Results
  • Safavids crushed by Ottomans
  • Establishes border between Iran and Turkey

Shah Abbas the Great
  • (1588-1629)
  • revitalized the Safavid empire
  • Territorial Expansion
  • Modernized military sought European alliances
    against Ottomans
  • new capital at Isfahan
  • centralized administration
  • Post-Shah Abbas
  • Steady decline

The Great Mughal Empire 1526-1707
  • Under the Mughals, India was the heart of a great
    Islamic empire and a prolific center of Islamic
    culture and learning.
  • Dynasty was the greatest, richest and longest
    lasting Muslim dynasty to rule India.
  • Mongol Descendents
  • The Great Mughal Emperors were
  • Babur (1526-1530) The First of the Mughals
  • Humayun (1530-1556) The Luckless Leader
  • Akbar (1556-1605) The Great
  • Jehangir (1605-1627) The Paragon of Stability
  • Shah Jehan (1627-1658) The Master Builder
  • Aurangzeb (1658-1707) The Intolerant

Babur 1526 - 1530The First of the Mughals
  • Babur was a direct descendant of the Turkish
    Ghengis Khan and Timur
    from Tamerlane.
  • Defeated the Delhi Sultanate established the
    Mughal Empire.
  • Gunpowder, a skilled commander, trained soldiers
    on horses contributed to the victory
  • Gained control of the whole northern India
  • Made Agra capital
  • He reigned for 4 short years and died at age 47
    in 1530.
  • Did not enact new laws or organization in the
    empire due to early his death

Humayun 1530 - 1556The Luckless Leader
  • After Babur died, he was succeeded by his son
    Humayun in 1530. Humayun
    was 23 years old.
  • He was not a soldier and unlike his father,
    neither skilled nor a wise leader.
  • Inherited a disunited and disorganized empire.
  • In 1540, Sher Shah of Bengal defeated Humayun and
    took over the Mughal Empire. The Empire was lost
    from 1540-1545.
  • He was exiled but later regained power in 1555.
  • Humayun died in 1556 after falling down the steps
    of his library he is known as the luckless

Akbar 1556 - 1605The Great
  • Akbar become the new Mughal ruler at the age of
  • Regent and his mother ruled in his name for 4
  • Akbar was an ambitious and noble commander
  • Built the largest army ever in the empire.
  • Helped to conquer nearly all of modern-day
    northern India and Pakistan.
  • Great administrator
  • developed a centralized government
  • It delegated 15 provinces each under a governor
    and each province into districts and each
    district was further sub-divided into smaller
  • Best known for tolerance of his subjects
    (especially Hindus)
  • Removed poll taxes on Hindus
  • Invited religious scholars to debate him in his
    private chambers.
  • Developed his own faith call Din Ilahi.
  • Din Ilahi was a mixture of the other religions
    Akbar had studied from those debates.
  • Religion never caught on

Jehangir 1605 - 1627The Paragon of Stability
  • Jehangir succeeded his father Akbar in 1605.
  • Opposite of his father
  • Poor monarch and warrior but good at maintaining
    the status quo.
  • He continued many of Akbars policies.
  • Freedom of worship.
  • Fair treatment of Hindus.
  • Continued friendship and alliance with Rajputs.
  • Allowed foreigners like the Portuguese and
    English into India for trade.
  • Jehangir married Nur Jahan. She became the real
    ruler of the empire until the death of her

Jehangir Issues (specific)
  • Under the influence of his wife and many others,
    Jehangir was not an able ruler like his father.
  • He loved to drink and enjoy himself.
  • He had to suppress many rebellions.
  • Important posts in the court were given to
    families, friends, and especially those close to
    his wife, Jahan.

Shah Jehan 1627 - 1658The Master Builder
  • Shah Jehan succeeded his father in 1627.
  • Better ruler than Jehangir.
  • Restored the efficiency of government.
  • Recovered territories.
  • Maintained peace
  • Foreign traders were allowed into India and trade
    increased considerably.
  • The empire was expanded.
  • Shah Jehan was a patron of the arts
  • Built many great architecture buildings including
    the Taj Mahal and the Peacock Throne, a brilliant
    gold throne encased in hundreds of precious gems.

Shah Jehan
  • Taj Mahal
  • Built in honor of his wife who died during
  • Took over a decade to build and it nearly
    bankrupted the empire.
  • 1657 - Shah Jehan became seriously ill and a
    dispute over the succession of the throne ensued
    between his three sons.
  • Aurangzeb deposed Shah Jehan in a coup detat in
    1658. Shah Jehan was imprisoned in the Octagonal
    Tower of the Agra Fort from which he could see
    the Taj Mahal. He died in 1666 and was buried
    next to his wife in the Taj Mahal.

Aurangzeb 1658 - 1707The Intolerant
  • Aurangzeb ascended the throne after disposing his
    father and beating out his two brothers.
  • Despot
  • severely persecuted Hindus of Northern India.
  • Empire declines under his reign
  • He removed the tax-free status for Hindus
  • Destroyed their temples
  • Crushed semi-autonomous Hindu states
  • Primary Interest - Promote Islam vs tolerance

  • Aurangzeb over expanded the empire and strained
    his resources.
  • Large sums of money and manpower were lost.
  • He lost the support of the Hindu people.
  • The over expansion of his empire weakened his
  • Aurangzeb died in 1707
  • s son Bahadur Shah succeeded him. Bahadur was so
    old by the time he ascended the throne, he only
    managed to live a few more years. But at this
    point in time, the government was so unstable and
    so weak, the empire become an easy target of
    invasion and exploitation, first by the Persians,
    and then by the British.
  • The death of Aurangzeb and the short reign of his
    son led to the end of the Mughal empire and the
    beginning of British Rule.

Aurangzebs Architectural Legacy
Bibi ka Maqbara, Aurangbab 1678 Aurangzeb
Taj Mahal, Agra 1631-1652 Shah Jehan
  • Built nearly 50 years apart, the Taj Mahal and
    the Bibi la Maqbara are very similar in
    architectural style. Aurangzebs other
    architectural legacy included
  • Moti Masjid (Delhi Fort), Delhi (1659)
  • Buri-I-Shamali (Delhi Fort), Delhi
  • Badshahi Mosque, Lahore (1674)

(No Transcript)
The Success of the Mughals
  • It is agreed among many scholars that the Mughal
    empire was the greatest, richest and most
    long-lasting Muslim dynasty to rule India. This
    period of Mughal rule produced the finest and
    most elegant art and architecture in the history
    of Muslim dynasties.
  • The Mughal emperors, with few exceptions, were
    among the worlds most aesthetically minded
    rules. Although Turkish and Persian in
    background, the Mughals were not Muslim rulers of
    India but Indian rulers who happened to be
    Muslims. This idea is most evident in Akbars
    obsession of a utopian India for Hindus and
  • The longevity of the Mughal empire can be
    contributed to a number of factors. The Mughal
    emperors were ambitious and for the most part
    able rulers. But Akbar is perhaps the Mughal
    emperor responsible for much of the prosperity
    and harmony achieved during the Mughal Empire.

  • Akbar the Great, as he is referred, perceived
    that 3 things were needed if his Empire was to be
    stable and long-lasting.
  • 1. Fair rent must be fixed for the peasant and a
    steady revenue for the treasury,
  • 2. The land must be ruled by men who were
    impartial and responsible to himself,
  • 3. The Muslim must live at peace with the Hindu.
  • Akbar strove during his lifetime to achieve these
    3 things. He showed tolerance to Hindu scholars
    and women.
  • By 1650, the Mughal empire had expanded farther
    North and South.

Mughal Art
  • The Mughal Empire and the Great Mughals will
    always be remembered as a great influence on the
    artistic and cultural life of India. Their
    architectural style can still be seen today such
    as the Taj Mahal built by Shah Jehan and the
    buildings at Fatehpur Sikri.
  • The remarkable flowering of art and architecture
    under the Mughal Empire is due to several
  • The empire provided a secure framework within
    which artistic genius could flourish. Both Hindu
    and Muslim artists collaborated to produce some
    of the best Indian art.
  • The empire commanded wealth and resources that
    were unparalleled in Indian history.
  • The Mughal emperors were themselves patrons of
    art whose intellectual ideas and cultural outlook
    were expressed in the architecture.

Summary The Dynasty of the Great Mughals in India
  • 1526-1530 Baburs victory at Panipat in 1526
    established the Mughal Empire and ended the
    reign of the Delhi Sultanate. The rise of the
    great Mughal Dynasty in India began with
  • 1530-1556 Humayun succeeded his father Babur and
    became emperor. He was defeated and dislodged
    by insurrections of nobles from the old Lodi
    regime. In 1540, the Mughal domain came under
    control of Farid Khan Sur (Shir Shah Sur).
    Humayun died at the age of 48 when he fell
    down the steps of his library.
  • 1556-1605 Akbar, the most sophisticated Mughal
    commander and leader, was only 14 years of age
    when he succeeded his father Humayun. Under
    Akbar's reign, Muslims and Hindus received
    the same respect.

Summary The Dynasty of the Great Mughals in India
  • 1605-1628 Jehangir succeeded his father, Akbar.
  • 1628-1658 Prince Khurram was 35 years old when
    he ascended the throne as Shah Jehan, King of
    the World.
  • 1659-1707 In the summer of 1659, Aurangzeb held a
    coronation in the Red Fort where he assumed the
    title of Alamgir (World Conqueror). After a
    bitter struggle with his two brothers,
    Aurangzeb was the victor who took the throne.
  • 1857 Bahadur Shah II, the last Mughal emperor,
    was deposed in 1858. India was brought under
    the direct rule of the British Crown. This
    brought the end of the Mughal Empire.

Works Cited
  • http//
  • http//
  • http//
  • http//
  • The Mughal Empire, 1526-1707. The Cambridge
    Encyclopedia of India. Ed. Fancis Robinson. New
    York Cambridge UP, 1989.
  • Moreland, W.H. and Atul Chandra Chatterjee. A
    Short History of India. 4th ed. New York David
    McKay Co., 1957
  • Wallbank, T. Walter. India a survey of the
    heritage and growth of Indian nationalism. New
    York Henry Holt and Co., 1948.
  • Welch, Stuart C. The Art of Mughal India. Japan
    Book Craft Inc., 1963.
  • Wolpert, Stanley. India. Englewood Cliffs
    Prentice Hall, Inc., 1965.
  • Wolpert, Stanley. India. Berkley University of
    California Press, 1991.
  • Woodruff, Philip. The Men Who Ruled India. New
    York Schocken Books, 1953.
  • denotes sources from which pictures were
    obtained with descriptions

Taika Reforms
  • To unify kingdom
  • Established Yamato claim to throne
  • Official history written which claims all
    emperors descend from the sun goddess- what does
    this explain?
  • What is the significance of this?
  • National army never instituted

Japanese Society
  • Samuraithose who serve
  • Bushidocode of conduct(honor, obey, be loyal to
    daimyo and emperor)
  • Daimyo lord
  • Seppuku/hari kari
  • Samurai carried 2 swords-1 for battle, 1 for
  • Samurai were Buddhists

The Tale of RoninWhat do we learn of Japanese
society from this tale?
Taiho Code
  • 702 CE (AD) What was happening in Europe at this
    time? Africa?
  • Set up the basic governing structure
  • Type of constitution
  • Emperor at the center
  • No censors , no criticism-Why?
  • Govt based on aristocracy-what Chinese practice
    did this exclude? Why?

Nara Period
  • So named from new capital-why did they move to
  • 710-784 CE period of artistic flourishing
  • Borrowed and expanded the use of lacquer

(No Transcript)
Heian Period
  • Kyoto is modern Heian
  • 794-1185 CE What is happening elsewhere?
    Europe, SW Asia?
  • Fujiwara family gains influence , much like the
    Carolingian monarchs
  • Extend control to other islands
  • Emperor stripped of power but not replaced

  • Fujiwaras granted rights to their own estates and
    tax free, this took away power and
  • Central govt became weak
  • Local govt (feudal estates) became powerful
  • Court life presented in TALE OF THE GENJI

Kamakura Shogunate
  • 1185CE Yoritomo took title of shogun
  • Strongest daimyo built castles
  • Organized military
  • Feudal system created
  • Shogunate rule until 1868

  • Depended on loyalty
  • Loyalty to ruler (Confucian) loyalty to family
  • Lord/vassal relationship unlimited on part of
  • Not a contract
  • Lord seen as having superior wisdom

  • What does this do to the development of rights?
  • Women were not fragile, not to be sheltered
  • Women were considered to be samurai
  • Taught the arts, did not have contempt for
  • How has this shaped modern Japan?

  • Small farmers turned over land to daimyo
  • 12th century most land was private
  • Emperor in name only
  • Eventually turned to primogeniture for protection
  • What did this do to the status of women?
  • Who else was hurt? What choices did they have?
  • Buddhist monks opposed unity-why?

Mongol invasion
  • Bow and arrow of samurai
  • kamikaze
  • Japanese successful but Kamakuras were supplanted
    by Ashikaga

Ashikaga Shogunate
  • 1338-1567 CE What was happening elsewhere?
  • Constant fighting until 16th century
  • Nobunaga brilliant general, apptd. Hideyoshi
    and Ieyasu
  • Accepted Portuguese and allowed Christianity

  • Europeans brought guns
  • HIDEYOSHI Napoleon of Japan, unified Japan,
    never shogun because not noble
  • Wanted to conquer China
  • Koreans wouldnt allow trespass
  • Battles with Koreans weakened his army
  • Died 1598
  • Power passed to Ieyasu