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The Rise of Europe: The Early Middle Ages

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Title: The Rise of Europe: The Early Middle Ages


1
The Rise of Europe The Early Middle Ages
2
Decline of Roman Empire Barbarian Migrations
3
Introduction Western Europe500-1000 A.D.
  • During the Roman Empire, Europe was linked by
    Roman Roads
  • spread classical ideas, Latin language
    Christianity
  • After fall of Roman Empire, invaders swept across
    Europe
  • Trade slowed, towns emptied, learning almost
    ceased
  • Western Europe cut off from sophisticated
    civilizations of Middle East, China, India
  • Focus of European history shifts North
  • New culture emerged-blended Greco-Roman,
    Germanic, Christian traditions
  • Medieval-Latin for middle Ages

4
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5
Geography Resources
  • Frontier-sparsely populated, underdeveloped
  • Dense forests
  • Fertile soil
  • Minerals
  • Seas for fish transportation
  • Rivers for trade
  • Mountain streams for water wheels

6
Germanic Kingdoms
  • Germanic tribes migrated across Europe were
    farmers herders
  • Very different culture from Romans
  • No cities, no written laws
  • Small communities, governed by unwritten customs
  • Elected kings to rule during war
  • Warrior nobles swore loyalty to king in exchange
    for weapons loot

7
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8
Germanic Peoples
  • 5th- 6th centuries, political unity of Roman
    Empire ended
  • peoples moved southwards, attracted by Romes
    glory
  • wanted fertile land/better climate
  • organized into tribes
  • chief made final decisions
  • lived in big wooden houses
  • moved constantly
  • Called barbarians (foreigners) by Romans

9
5th Century Germanic Kingdoms
  • Borders not fixed
  • Christian Church provided order security
  • Several kingdoms in Roman territory
  • Franks
  • Visigoths
  • Burgundians
  • Anglo-Saxon
  • Vandals

10
How were Germanic societies organized?
  • Germans were rural
  • Most peasants
  • animal grazing and working the land
  • Most land in hands of Roman a Germanic families
  • Some small land owners
  • Monasteries owned vast territories
  • received donations in exchange for prayers said
    by the monks
  • Population of cities decreased
  • commercial activity had slowed
  • currency had almost disappeared

11
The New Society Germans Romans
  • Germans were the minority
  • Initially, Romans Germans maintained own laws,
    customs religion
  • societies started to blend-Germans adopted Roman
    institutions/laws
  • Used latin
  • Converted to Christianity

12
Government Changes
  • Rome
  • Loyalty to public governments
  • written law
  • citizenship
  • Germanic Kingdoms
  • Family personal ties
  • Made it difficult to govern a large area
  • Small communities
  • Unwritten rules traditions
  • Chief leads warriors who pledge loyalty

13
Art culture in Germanic Kingdoms
  • Few artistic artifacts remain
  • Some small churches
  • Art of gold silver
  • Early Monasteries
  • Community of monks
  • Daily life organized according to rules
  • Saint Benedict
  • Monasteries places of prayer
  • cultural centers
  • school
  • a scriptorium where manuscripts were copied

14
Rise of Christian Monasticism
  • Monasteries Convents were separate religious
    communities for men women
  • Monks nuns held no private possessions servants
    of God

15
Rules of Benedict
  • Strict yet practical
  • Give up attachment to world love of self
  • Devotion to God
  • Balance between work study
  • Scholastica
  • Twin sister?
  • Devoted life to the church
  • Took Benedicts rules to convents

16
Germanic Kingdoms The Franks
  • Strongest of the small Germanic kingdoms of
    Western Europe
  • In 486, Clovis, king of the Franks, conquered
    Gaul, a former Roman province
  • Converted to Christianity
  • earned the support of the people
  • Christian Church of Rome

17
Christianity Spreads
  • Germanic peoples converted
  • missionaries
  • fear of Muslim attacks
  • New converts settled in Romes former lands

18
Germanic Kingdoms Europe Muslim World
  • Islam appeared in Arabia in 622
  • Christians were stunned when Muslim armies
    overran Christian lands, building a huge empire
    from Spain to North Africa to Palestine
  • Charles Martel stopped Muslims at Battle of
    Tours, France in 732
  • Muslims advanced no further into Western Europe
    but continued to rule Spain
  • Caused Christians great anxiety and hostility

19
Age of Charlemagne
  • Grandson of Charles Martel
  • Built empire across France, Germany, part of
    Italy
  • Ruled for 30 years
  • Spent most of that time fighting Muslims in
    Spain, Saxons in the north, Avars Slavs in
    east, Lombards in Italy
  • United much of Old Roman Empire

20
Age of Charlemagne The Carolingian Era
  • In 800, crushed rebellious nobles at request of
    Pope Leo III
  • Pope crowned him
  • gave him title Emperor of Romans
  • Joined Germanic power to Church heritage of
    Roman Empire
  • Laid path for future power struggles
  • Emperor in Constantinople outraged
  • Increased division between east west Christians

21
Age of Charlemagne Government
  • Worked to create a united Christian Europe
  • Worked with Church to spread Christianity to
    conquered peoples
  • Limited power of nobles-(counts)
  • Gave land in return for support and soldiers for
    his armies
  • Missi dominici were officials sent out to check
    on roads, listen to grievances administer
    justice

22
Age of Charlemagne Revival of Learning
  • Wanted to make his court at Aachen a second
    Rome
  • Promoted education for all social classes
  • Founded a school
  • Curriculum was grammar, rhetoric, logic,
    arithmetic, geometry, music and astronomy
  • Ordered monasteries to open schools - train monks
    priests

23
After Charlemagne
  • His son Louis, took over 814 AD
  • ineffective
  • He had 3 sons
  • They battled for 30 years
  • In 843, Treaty of Verdun-split empire into 3
    regions
  • Central authority broke down
  • Led to feudalism

24
After Charlemagne Legacy
  • Extended Christian civilization into northern
    Europe
  • Increased blending of German, Roman, Christian
    traditions
  • Set up a strong, efficient government
  • Set an example for later medieval rulers

25
After Charlemagne New Invasions
  • 800s, Muslims conquered Sicily which became a
    thriving center of Islamic culture
  • In 896, the Magyars, nomads overran eastern
    Europe and plundered Germany, parts of France,
    and Italy
  • After about 50 years, pushed back into Hungary

26
After Charlemagne The Vikings
  • Expert sailors from Scandinavia
  • burned looted along the coasts and rivers of
    Europe
  • Traders explorers who sailed around the
    Mediterranean Sea and across the Atlantic Ocean
  • Opened trade routes that linked northern Europe
    to Mediterranean lands
  • Settled in England, Ireland, northern France and
    parts of Russia
  • Around 1000, Leif Erikson set up a short-lived
    colony on North America

27
The Vikings
http//www.bbc.co.uk/history/ancient/vikings/launc
h_gms_viking_quest.shtml
28
Big Question
  • What changes altered the economy, government, and
    culture of Western Europe?
  • Disruption of trade
  • Downfall of cities
  • Population shifts
  • Decline in learning
  • Loss of common language

29
After the fall of Rome, what institution
provided security and stability?
  • The Roman Catholic Church

30
Who was Clovis?
  • Frankish king in region of Gaul
  • Brought Christianity to the region
  • Won the support of the Church against others
  • United the Franks into one kingdom
  • Mark the beginning of the alliance between
    political and religious powers

31
Who was Benedict?
  • Monk who develop a set of strict yet practical
    rules for monasteries.
  • Became a model for religious communities
  • Monasteries became centers of learning
  • Venerable Bede wrote a history of England
  • Illuminated manuscripts

32
What were the most important events in the
unification of the Germanic kingdoms?
  • 400s Roman Empire invaded
  • 511-Clovis unites Franks in Christian kingdom
  • 590-Gergor the Great becomes Pope
  • 732-Charles Martel defeats Muslims at Battle of
    Tours
  • 751-Carolingian Dynasty begins
  • 800-Pope crowns Charlemagne Emperor
  • 800s-French, Spanish, other languages evolved
    from Latin

33
What happened to Charlemagnes empire after he
died?
  • Grandsons fought for control
  • Treaty of Verdun
  • Empire broken up into three kingdoms
  • Carolingian kings lost power
  • Central authority broke down
  • Lack of strong leadership created a new system of
    governing and landholding
  • Feudalism is born!!!!

34
Feudalism in Europe The Impact of Vikings
  • Climate Change
  • Sailed up rivers
  • Traders, farmers, explorers
  • Russia
  • Constantinople
  • North Atlantic
  • Gradually accepted Christianity
  • Warming trend in N. Europe
  • Settled down

Longship
35
Magyar Invasions-late 800s AD
  • Nomads from Hungary
  • Horsemen
  • Took captives as slaves

36
Muslims
  • Came from south
  • Strongholds in N. Africa
  • wanted to spread Islam into Europe and plunder
    wealth

37
New Political System Feudalism
  • Based on rights obligations
  • Loyalty Military Service exchanged for Land
    Privilege
  • Loyalty Labor exchanged for protection

38
Social Classes
  • Social status determined prestige power
  • Those who fought
  • Those who prayed
  • Those who worked
  • Inherited
  • Most people were peasants most peasants were
    serfs

39
Manors The Economic Side
  • Manor was lords estate
  • Provided serfs with housing, farmland, protection
  • Serfs tended lords land, cared for animals,
    other tasks to maintain the estate
  • Peasant women worked along their husbands
  • All owed duties to the lord
  • Grain, labor, etc.

40
Life on a Manor
  • Self-sufficient
  • Peasant taxes
  • grinding their grain
  • Marriage
  • Church

41
Age of Chivalry
  • Nobles constantly fought
  • Conflict kept Europe fragmented
  • Violent society valued combat skills
  • High ideals guided warriors actions- glorified
    their roles

42
Age of Chivalry Education
  • At age 7, trained as a page in castle of another
    lord
  • at age 14, trained as squire, acted as servant to
    knight
  • at 21, became a knight

43
Age of Chivalry Weapons Equipment
  • Saddles stirrups from Asia
  • Armor
  • Long bow
  • Cross bow and missiles

Caltrops
44
Age of Chivalry War Games
  • Fought in local wars or tournaments
  • Combined recreation with combat training

45
Code of Chivalry
  • Be loyal
  • Brave
  • Courteous
  • Defend three masters
  • Feudal lord
  • God
  • chosen lady
  • Protect the weak poor

46
Castle Life
  • Lived in protected home of feudal lords
  • castles designed as fortresses, massive walls
    guard towers

47
Romantic Love
  • courtly love
  • Ideal form of spiritual love
  • Knight or courtier completely devoted himself to
    a noblewoman
  • Expected to defend his chosen lady keep her
    entertained with love poems songs

48
The Art of Courtly Love by Andreas Cappellanus
  • Marriage is no real excuse for not loving.
  • He who is not jealous cannot love.
  • No one should be deprived of love without the
    very best of reasons.
  • It is not proper to love any woman whom one
    should be ashamed to seek to marry.
  • A true lover does not desire to embrace in love
    anyone except his beloved.
  • When made public love rarely endures.
  • The easy attainment of love makes it of little
    value difficulty of attainment makes it prized.
  • Every lover regularly turns pale in the presence
    of his beloved.
  • When a lover suddenly catches sight of his
    beloved his heart palpitates.
  • A new love puts to flight an old one.
  • Good character alone makes any man worthy of
    love.
  • Love can deny nothing to love.
  • A lover can never have enough of the solaces of
    his beloved.
  • A man who is vexed by too much passion usually
    does not love.
  • A true lover is constantly and without
    intermission possessed by the thought of his
    beloved.

49
How did feudal lords in Western Europe in the
11th century defend their territories?
  • Private armies
  • Rewarded knights with fiefs from their estates
  • Allowed knights to use their wealth to purchase
    supplies weapons, armor, horses for battle

50
How were the lives of a noblewoman and a peasant
woman different?
  • Peasant woman
  • Worked as hard as a man in order to survive
  • General work duties
  • look after children organize food for family
    and animals
  • Noblewoman
  • Centered around Church and home
  • Inherit husbands estate, title of military
    commander and warrior when husband was away in
    battle

51
How did invading armies go about attacking a
castle?
  • To capture a castle, first engineers would check
    the walls to find any weak points
  • Attacking soldiers would ram the walls with
    weapons such as the battering ram and then walls
    would collapse
  • Attacking soldiers could infiltrate the walls of
    the castle

52
How did some of the troubadours songs promote a
false image noblewomen knights?
  • portrayed noblewomen as always beautiful,
    constantly pure
  • Reality Check Knighthood was a particularly
    brutal office

53
Power of the Church
  • In 936,Otto I, crowned Holy Roman Emperor for
    protecting the Church
  • Began Holy Roman Empire
  • Close relationship between Church State
  • Tensions over who would appoint Church
    officials-investiture

54
Conflict Between Popes Emperors Gregory VII
  • Reform corrupt church leaders
  • Make the Church independent of secular rulers
  • 1075, Banned practice of lay investiture-(church
    official chosen by kings)

55
Conflict Between Popes Emperors Henry IV
  • Holy Roman Emperor
  • Angered by Pope Gregorys actions
  • Needed church leaders to support him against
    powerful German lords

56
Conflict Between Henry and Gregory
  • Henry IV demanded that Gregory VII resign as Pope
  • Gregory excommunicated Henry
  • Henry realized he could not win so begged
    forgiveness
  • Henry was forgiven

57
Why was the Church so important in the lives of
the people?
  • Church was a unifying force in a time of
    political turmoil warfare
  • Church provided a sense of security

58
How did popes in the 11th century use
excommunication interdicts as political tools?
  • Popes threatened excommunication to have power
    over them the decisions they made
  • The pope could threaten a king with an interdict
    to frighten the kings subjects in order to force
    him to submit

59
What was the Concordant of Worms?
  • Compromise between Church emperor in 1122
  • Church officials appointed church leaders
  • King could veto appointments
  • Kings could give titles land grant to church
    officials
  • 1st document outlining separate areas of
    responsibility for Church and State

60
What happened at the Battle of Legnano?
  • 1176,Frederick Is army of mounted knights fought
    against foot soldiers of the Lombard League
  • Lombard League was a group of Italian merchants
    who stood up to Fredericks plundering of Italy
  • The Italians, with the support of the pope,
    defeated Fredericks army

61
The Scriptorium Remember Your Vow of Silence!!!!
  • You are a monk in the scriptorium.
  • Create an illuminated manuscript of the Latin
    proverb Moderatio in omnibus rebus

62
The Dormitory Remember Your Vow of Silence
  • Pretend you are a monk in the dormitory at 900
    pm.
  • Put your head down on your desk, close your eyes

63
The Workhouse Remember Your Vow of Silence
  • You are a monk in a workhouse. Today, you and
    your fellow monks are in charge of cleaning.
  • Get paper towels, use Windex to clean all parts
    of your workspace.
  • Work diligently and quietly with a cheerful
    spirit.

64
The Chancel Maintain total silence
  • You are a monk in the chancel
  • Sit and listen to the Gregorian chant.
  • Think about how the Gregorian chant helped bring
    monks closer to God.
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