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Removing barriers to Education For All: What


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Title: Removing barriers to Education For All: What

Removing barriers to Education For All Whats
new and notable China Case
  • Prof. Zhou Mansheng
  • Deputy
  • National Center for Education
  • Research of China

  • 1. The overall Progress in meeting the EFA
    goals Concepts, Achievements
  • 2. The education system Administration, Finance
  • 3. Key policies and good practices
  • 4. Foreseen challenges and the plan in
    education beyond 2020

The overall Progress in meeting the EFA goals
Concepts, Achievements
  • Concepts (p1)
  • Basic education is the cornerstone of the
    national education system, the key to increase
    the comprehensive national strength and to
    improve citizens quality, the foundation of
    social justice and a humorous society, and an
    important way to eliminate poverty.

Concepts (p2)
  • The main objectives
  • to improve the overall quality of the labor
    force continuously,
  • to increase the strength and competitiveness of
    the nation ,
  • to shift from a big country in term of its huge
    population to a powerful country in term of its
    advanced education system.
  • There should be five principles
  • A giving priority to development.
  • B taking the cultivation of people as the
  • point.
  • C carrying out reform and innovation.
  • D promoting equity.
  • E improving quality.

Achievements (p1)
  • In 2009, 99.5 counties in China, which had 99.7
    of the total population, realized the goal of
    basically popularizing the 9-year compulsory
    education and basically eliminating illiteracy
    among youth and mid-aged population. The net
    enrollment rate for children of primary school
    age rose further to 99.40.

Achievements (p2)
  • Enrollment gap between boys and girls has been
    closed. The national gross enrollment rate of
    lower- and upper- secondary school reached 100
    and 82.5 respectively in 2010.
  • The average years of schooling of the population
    above 15-year-old is 8.7 years now, 3.5 years
    higher than the figure in 1982, and the average
    years of schooling of the newly added labors has
    exceeded 11.5.

2. The education system Administration,
  • The Administrative Division in China
  • Ministry of Education
  • law, plan, policy, supervision
  • Provinces
  • local policy, evaluation
  • Counties
  • major responsibility, and managed mainly by
    county-level governments.
  • Towns
  • implementation

A balanced system
  • Chinas economic and finance system reforms moved
    toward decentralization and the education finance
    and management system followed suit. Chinas
    approach has been to seek a balanced system of
    decentralization with both shared responsibility
    and costs across levels of government.

  • Improved budget allocations.
  • Increased revenues in Chinas financial progress
  • Total public funding for compulsory education
  • Total public funding is the direct and indirect
    funding for education provided by all levels of
    government .
  • Public funding per student in compulsory
    education increasing .
  • Central government proportion of total education
    spending increasing .

Brief Summary
  • Chinas experience may provide valuable lessons
    on designing effective strategies for
    decentralized education management, ensuring
    adequate funding for compulsory education. It
    reflects clear central level commitment and the
    shifting of responsibilities to upper levels of
    government increased central revenues and
    targeted assistance to local governments and
    increased oversight with accompanying
    accountability measures.

3. Key policies and good practices
  • Recent policies and measuresFocus to solve the
    rural education problems in depressed areas by
    key projects and committed investment. A series
    of projects, such as A.the National Project of
    Depressed Area Compulsory Education, B. the Rural
    Primary and Secondary Schools Dilapidated
    Building Renovation Project, C.the Western Area
    Two-basic Universality Breakthrough Project,
    D.the Rural Primary and Secondary Boarding
    Schools Project, E.Project of Modern Distance
    Education in Rural Primary and Secondary Schools,
    F.the Rural Teacher Special Posts Project and
    G.the pilot project of Free Normal Education have
    been implemented.

ExampleA The Rural Primary and Secondary
Boarding Schools Project
  • China has carried out the Rural Primary and
    Secondary Boarding Schools Project , which has
    improved the school-running conditions and the
    learning environment of compulsory education in
    poor mountainous and traffic hard areas. By
    2007, China had established 7,651 new lodging
    schools, offering basic accommodation for the
    newly increased 2.07 million lodging students in
    the west.

Education situation analysis
  • Regional gap has been narrowed in terms of
    popularization level of compulsory education.
    Differences in net enrollment of primary school
    in various areas of China (referring to 31
    provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities)
    have been reduced too.

4. Foreseen challenges and the plan in
education beyond 2020
  • Main Challenges and Difficulties
  • An uneven distribution of the limited education
    resources. Education quality among regions and
    schools, between rural and urban areas is still
    disparate. Rural compulsory education is still a
  • The quality of the education
  • Outdated educational ideas and methods, which
    cannot meet the demand of the fast changing
    society and the international competition. Heavy
    students workload, cramming, lack of sleep,
    de-emphasis on social practice have seriously
    influence the overall development of the children
    and their health.

Chinese Education in the Next Decade
  • National Outline for Medium and Long Term
    Educational Reform and Development (2010-2020)
  • The Outline includes a comprehensive plan for
    education reform and development by the Year 2020
  • General Strategy
  • Development Missions
  • Educational System Reforms
  • Guaranteeing Measures

OutlineGeneral Strategy
  • Guidelines
  • Giving strategic priority to education
  • Prioritizing talent cultivation as the bottom
    line for education
  • Reform and innovation as a driving force for
    education development
  • Equal access to education as a basic state policy
  • Quality enhancment as the central task for
    education reform and development

New Development
  • MOUs are signed by central and provincial
    governments to ensure the balanced development of
    basic education.
  • Plans developed by provincial governments
  • Plan for balanced development of compulsory
    education in province
  • Basic standards for school running
  • Plan for implementing national projects on
    standard construction for compulsory schools
  • Implementation plan for national projects on
    education system reform
  • All documents are required to submit to MOE by

Responsibilities of Central Government
  • Qualification authorized and certificated
  • Monitory and evaluation
  • Curriculum innovation support
  • Guidance and supports for National innovation
    projects and programs on education
  • Experiences-sharing promotion
  • Financial support for migrant children
  • Financial support for less developed provinces
  • Special funds to support informal education

Responsibilities of Provincial Governments
  • Developing provincial goals for balanced
    development of education in 2012 and 2015
  • Financial support for education especially for
    poor areas in the province
  • Developing curriculums meet the local needs
  • Providing quality compulsory education for
    migrant children
  • Developing indicators for quality of compulsory
  • Promoting the national pilot projects of
    educational system innovation
  • Plans developing

New policies and measures
  • To set up national quality standards for
    compulsory education and to establish a
    monitoring system. To complete the school
    standardization process step by step by 2020.
  • To balance the educational resources of teachers,
    educational equipments, library and books, school
    buildings and so on. To transform the weak
    schools, improving the quality of their teachers
    and establishing a teacher and school principle
    mobility mechanism.
  • To guarantee the migrant childrens right to
    compulsory education, with full-time public
    schools shouldering the main response.

  • Chinese education reform is still being explored.
    In general,China can concentrate sufficient
    national financial resources to do big things,
    but is still low per capita income and a large
    disparity of wealth. China has no intention to
    promote their own development path and experience
    to other countries. Similarly, we believe that
    any country should go for their own path of
    development. Development paths of different
    countries can respect each other and learn from
    each other.
  • Thank You!
  • April 28, 2011
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