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Special Education 519


Special Education 519 UNIT FIVE Other Systems and Universal Precautions Kevin Anderson Minnesota State University Moorhead 2006 Metabolic, Protective and Defensive ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Special Education 519

Special Education 519
  • Other Systems
  • and Universal Precautions
  • Kevin Anderson
  • Minnesota State University Moorhead
  • 2006

Metabolic, Protective and Defensive Function and
  • Endocrine and exocrine systems
  • Integumentary system - Skin
  • Immune system

Function of Endocrine System
  • System - network of glands that release
    secretions into circulatory system
  • Functions
  • Regulation of heartbeat
  • Maintains fluid and electrolyte balance
  • Maturation of reproduction system
  • Parts
  • Endocrine cell
  • Target cells or end organ
  • Environment

Function of Endocrine System
  • Glands
  • Pituitary gland - controls growth and development
  • Thyroid gland - regulates metabolic rate of body
  • Parathyroid gland - regulates calcium levels in
  • Adrenal glands - affects bodys metabolism and
    emotional status
  • Pancreas - produces digestive enzymes and
  • Gonads - produces and stores gametes - sperm and

Dysfunction of Endocrine System
  • Excessive hormone production - such as
    hyperpituitarism, hyperthyroidism, hypocalcaemia
  • Insufficient hormone production - such as
    hypopituitarism, hypothyroidism, hypocalcaemia,
    or hypoinsulinism or Diabetes, which is the most
    common form

Dysfunction of Endocrine System
  • Diabetes
  • Insipidus - bland urine diabetes, less common
    in children
  • Mellitus - sweet urine diabetes, Type I
    Diabetes Mellitus most common
  • Lack of or inadequate insulin production
  • Two types
  • Type I-(insulin dependent)
  • Type II (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes

  • Lack of insulin causes glucose shortage in cells
  • Blood glucose levels rise
  • Loss of glucose reserves lead to fatigue
  • Fats and proteins may be used as energy source

  • Levels monitoring
  • Glucose testing of blood
  • Ketone testing of urine if blood glucose is high
  • Prognosis
  • Controlled by diet, exercise, and insulin therapy
  • No known cure other than pancreas transplant

  • Continuum between hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia
  • Hypoglycemia - below normal blood glucose level
  • Too much insulin, rapid insulin absorption,
    sudden exercise, delayed eating
  • Too little sugar leads to insulin reaction
  • Needs sugar

  • Continuum between hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia
  • Hyperglycemia - above normal blood glucose level
  • Missed insulin dosing, not following recommended
    diet, lack of physical activity, illness or
    infection, emotional stress
  • Too much sugar leads to ketoacidosis
  • Needs insulin

Educational Considerations
  • Understanding condition
  • Should not require change in curriculum or
  • May develop educational needs despite normal
    intellectual functioning
  • Consider physical vs. psychosocial factors
  • Be aware of hypo- or hyperglycemia symptoms
  • Encourage self-sufficiency
  • Using condition as excuse
  • Controlled diet but not different foods
  • Encourage fluid intake and allow access to
  • Support groups if necessary
  • Occupational impact

Educational Considerations
  • Maintain effective communication
  • Contact with school nurse
  • Share information with family
  • Collaboration
  • Trained personnel for any necessary procedures
  • Advocate for exercise with caution

Function of Exocrine System
  • System - network of glands that release
    secretions to outer surface of organs or tissues
  • Functions
  • Regulates digestive glands
  • Produces digestive enzymes
  • Regulates body temperature
  • Glands
  • Sweat glands - regulate body heat
  • Sebaceous glands - maintains skin
  • Digestive glands - breaks down food
  • Lymph glands - fights off infection

Dysfunction of Exocrine System
  • Problems with exocrine glands mostly related to
    system involved
  • One disease affects all glands of exocrine system
    - Cystic Fibrosis
  • Abnormally viscous secretions
  • Secretions with abnormal electrolytes

Dysfunction of Exocrine System
  • Cystic Fibrosis - thick secretions may plug ducts
    and damage gland and surrounding tissues
  • Pancreatic involvement
  • Cystic - cyst-like appearance of pancreas ducts
  • Fibrosis - pancreatic tissue becoming fibrous

Dysfunction of Exocrine System
  • Pancreatic involvement
  • Cystic - cyst-like appearance of pancreas ducts
  • Fibrosis - pancreatic tissue becoming fibrous
  • Respiratory involvement
  • Abnormal mucus in the bronchioles of the lungs
  • Prevents removal of bacteria and foreign
  • Progressively leads to exercise intolerance and
    increased fatigue
  • Initially looks like asthma, but is not reversible

Dysfunction of Exocrine System
  • Cardiac involvement
  • Respiratory dysfunction leads to decreased
    oxygenation of blood to heart
  • Heart compensates by beating harder to circulate
    blood through the lungs
  • Right side of heart becomes thicker and larger
  • Gastrointestinal involvement
  • Decrease pancreatic enzymes to aid in metabolism
  • Increased risk for insulin-dependent diabetes
  • Liver damage
  • Growth deficiencies
  • Bodily odors
  • Glandular involvement
  • Elevated sodium and chloride levels
  • salty kiss

  • Easily identified through sweat test and
    detection of CF gene
  • No known cure, treatment focuses on alleviation
    of symptoms
  • Improving pulmonary function through inhalation
    or chest therapy
  • Enzyme replacement therapy
  • Maintaining adequate nutrition
  • Surgical organ replacement

Educational Considerations
  • Does not affect intellectual development
  • Strong communicative and social skills
  • Decreased focus on physical activity
  • Increased interaction with adults through medical
  • School attendance
  • Medical appointments or hospitalizations
  • Health-related procedures and medications during
  • Prone to respiratory infections and may have
    persistent cough in effort to clear airway

Educational Considerations
  • Exercise and diet
  • Caution during hot weather
  • Prevent excessive perspiration
  • May need diet high in calories
  • Access to bathroom
  • Bowel movements
  • Hygiene needs
  • Social issues
  • Self-esteem and self-image
  • Prognosis increasing
  • Occupational outlook

Function of Integumentary System
  • Skin - serves as protector from environmental
    dangers and barrier against invading organisms
  • Three layers
  • Epidermis - outermost protects from invading
    organisms, prevents loss of body fluids, and
    stores pigment
  • Dermis - tough, thick inner layer protects body
    and contains blood vessels, sweat/sebaceous
    glands, nerves lymphatic vessels, and hair
  • Hypodermis - innermost layer which insulates

Function of Integumentary System
  • Appendages
  • Nails - hardened skin cells that serve to protect
    the soft tips of extremities and aid in grasping
  • Hair - filament of the protein, keratin which
    serves primarily as a decorative function
  • Glands
  • Sweat - produces sweat to fight off
    microorganisms and regulate body temperature
  • Sebaceous - attached to hair follicles and
    produces sebum for skin lubrication and

Dysfunction of Integumentary System
  • Not typically life-threatening, however can be
    socially stigmatizing
  • Can be non-infectious or infectious
  • Can be systemic or localized

Dysfunction of Integumentary System
  • Non-infectious skin conditions
  • Not communicable
  • Can become infected
  • Types
  • Atopic Dermatitis (Eczema )
  • Itchy, chronic skin condition characterized by
  • Allergy-related
  • Allergic contact dermatitis - direct contact with
    natural or manufactured agent that triggers an
    allergic response
  • Psoriasis - recurrent inflammatory skin condition
  • Pigmentation disorders - either change in amount
    or dispersement

Dysfunction of Integumentary System
  • Non-infectious skin conditions
  • Resulting from injury
  • Abrasions, lacerations, punctures
  • Thermal injuries - burns and scalds
  • Depth of injury
  • 1st degree - partial-thickness burn at epidermis
  • 2nd degree - partial-thickness burn at epidermis
    and dermis layer
  • 3rd degree - full-thickness burn at all skin
  • 4th degree burn - extends beyond skin to muscles,
    tendons, and bones
  • Amount of body surface area affected - rule of
  • Treatment
  • From minor first aid to extended hospitalization
  • Goals of therapy include prevention of infection,
    growth of tissue, and regain functional abilities

Dysfunction of Integumentary System
  • Non-infectious skin conditions
  • Affecting skin appendages - congenital or
  • Disorders of nails
  • Disorders of hair
  • Disorders of glands

Educational Considerations
  • School attendance
  • Dependent on severity of injury
  • May require specialized garments
  • Rehabilitation
  • Long and painful process
  • Intolerance of extreme temperatures
  • Education
  • Prevention
  • Appropriate and timely treatment response

Dysfunction of Integumentary System
  • Infectious skin conditions
  • Typically caused by microorganism entering body
    through a break in the skin - such as bacteria,
    viruses, fungi, or parasites
  • Contagious either directly or indirectly

Dysfunction of Integumentary System
  • Types of infections
  • Bacterial infections - such as impetigo
  • Viral infections - such as cold sores, warts, and
  • Fungal infections - such as nail infections
  • Parasitic infections - such as lice or scabies

Educational Considerations
  • Attendance
  • Most can attend school if Universal Precautions
    are followed
  • Treatment
  • May require treatments at school
  • Apply pressure to itch rather than scratch
  • Social issues
  • Appearance issues
  • Assumption of poor personal hygiene
  • Must learn and follow proper hygiene techniques

Function of Immune System
  • Immune system - collection of organs, glands,
    cells, and proteins located across body
  • Serve as protection from disease and
  • Discriminate between essential components of body
    and foreign bodies or pathogens
  • Protects from excess cellular wastes and abnormal
    development of cells

Function of Immune System
  • Immunity - the bodys ability to defend itself
    against foreign substances
  • Natural - born resistant to particular diseases
    due to transmission of mothers antibodies
  • Acquired
  • Self-producing antibodies due to previous contact
    with disease
  • Artificially acquired immunity - by vaccination

Function of Immune System
  • Defensive system
  • Made up of primary and secondary organs
  • Serves a defensive reaction if the bodys first
    line of defense is compromised
  • Lymph system - the bodys drainage system
  • Chain of infection
  • Cause of condition - pathogen
  • Host - source of the pathogen
  • Means of transmission - mode of transmission
  • Communicable diseases
  • Caused by microorganisms not visible to the naked
  • Not always pathogenic or disease producing
  • Direct or indirect transmission

Dysfunction of Immune System
  • Dysfunction can be harmful
  • May occur due to many factors
  • Genetics
  • Developmental defects,
  • Infection
  • Malignancy
  • Injury
  • Drugs
  • Altered metabolic states

Dysfunction of Immune System
  • Most common dysfunction
  • Hypersensitivity disorders - asthma,
    drug/product/food reactions, rejection of
    transplanted organs/tissues
  • Immunodeficiency disorders
  • Autoimmune diseases
  • Cancer

Dysfunction of Immune System
  • Hypersensitivity disorders - asthma and allergies
  • Types
  • Immediate - immediate response to allergen
  • Delayed - may take 1-6 days
  • Characteristics
  • Localized - specific site
  • Systemic - found throughout body
  • Severity - depends on sensitivity and exposure

Educational Considerations
  • Attendance - not necessarily related to academic
    achievement in well supported environments
  • Symptoms - medication, removal of allergens,
    response to emergency
  • Awareness and acceptance
  • Medical response to certain conditions -
    emergency plan, auto-injectors

Dysfunction of Immune System
  • Hyposensitivity or immunodeficiency disorders
  • System underreactive and unable to defend against
    disease-producing organisms - immunodeficiency
  • Most well-known type is Acquired Immunodeficiency
    Syndrome (AIDS)
  • Results from invasion of retrovirus - Human
    immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
  • Spread by exposure to contaminated blood/blood
    products or exposure to bodily fluids of infected

Educational Considerations
  • Communication with parents of child who is
    immunosuppressed, especially if exposed to
    communicable diseases
  • Follow universal precautions
  • Prejudice and isolation

Dysfunction of Immune System
  • Autoimmune diseases - autosensitivity leading to
    autoimmune disease
  • Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis
  • Glomerulonephritis
  • Juvenile-onset insulin dependent diabetes

Dysfunction of Immune System
  • Malignant tumors
  • Abnormal cell growth and development
  • Replacement and kill normal cells
  • Kinds
  • Benign - non-life-threatening and easily removed
  • Malignant - life-threatening and easily spread or

Dysfunction of Immune System
  • Types of cancerous conditions
  • Hematopoietic system - leukemia
  • Central nervous system
  • Lymph system
  • Musculoskeletal system
  • Sympathetic nervous system
  • Urinary system
  • Visual system

Educational Considerations
  • Communication with family is crucial
  • Increased awareness and understanding of impact
    on student
  • Maintain attendance at school to maintain
  • Ongoing medical treatments may interfere in
    academic progress
  • Susceptibility to infections, bleeding, pain
  • Self-awareness and determination

Communicable Diseases
  • Invasion of pathogenic agents which are
  • Common bacterial infections
  • Pinkeye, pneumonia, Lyme disease, meningitis,
    middle-ear infection, rubella, mononucleosis,
    Fifth disease, hepatitis
  • Treated with antibiotic medication
  • Common viral infections
  • adenoviruses, enteroviruses, rhinoviruses,
  • Treated with antiviral medication

Communicable Diseases
  • Common fungal infections
  • Certain types of fungi can be pathogenic in
  • Treated with antifungal medicines
  • Common parasitic infections
  • Tapeworms, pinworms, lice, and mites
  • Treated with antiparasitic agents

Educational Considerations
  • Decreased incidence due to widespread use of
  • May need to be remain home until condition is not
  • Notice of exposure to communicable diseases is
  • Enforce proper hygiene in the classroom and
    proper cleanliness in food preparation

Sexually-Transmitted Diseases
  • Transmitted primarily through sexual intercourse
    or contact
  • Second most common infection the first is the
    common cold
  • Caused by bacterial, viral, and fungal agents
  • Often non-symptomatic and not treated properly

Educational Considerations
  • Awareness of signs of STDs
  • Formal and informal instruction is necessary
  • Increasing numbers secondary to better medical
  • Do not restrict access to education
  • Changes in programming should only be made
    amongst collaborative team

Policies and Procedures
  • School health services versus medical services
  • Handling and administration of medications
  • Provision of special health care procedures
  • Contact with bodily fluids
  • Use of Universal Precautions
  • Do Not Resuscitate (DNR) orders
  • Disagreement with physician orders

Universal Precautions
  • Definition - the usual and ordinary steps all
    school staff need to take in order to reduce
    their risk of infection with HIV, the virus that
    causes AIDS, as well as all other blood-borne
    organisms (such as the Hepatitis B virus)

Universal Precautions
  • They are universal because they refer to steps
    that need to be taken in all cases, not only when
    a staff member or student is known to be
  • They are precautions because they require
    foresight and planning, and should be integrated
    into existing safety guidelines.

See document from the Boston Public Schools
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