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Title: WHMIS

  • Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System

Unit 1
  • Hazardous Chemicals

Lets Do an Experiment
  • Lets take two safe chemicals and mix them
  • Potassium permanganate
  • Glycerin
  • Both of these are available at any pharmacy.

Reasons for WHMIS
  • Designed after the US model called the Right to
    Know law.
  • Conveys knowledge of hazardous chemicals to
    workers who use them in their jobs.
  • Designed to reduce injuries and time lost due to
    exposure to hazardous chemicals.

Some Hazardous Chemicals
  • Undercoats Topcoats
  • Hardeners
  • Buffing Compounds
  • Cleaners
  • Solvents
  • Body fillers
  • Welding gases
  • Adhesives

Overexposure Effects
  • Acute Exposure
  • Burns
  • Dizziness
  • Nausea
  • Coughing
  • Chronic Exposure
  • Nerve Damage
  • Lung Scarring

Hazardous Materials Categories
  • Irritants
  • Corrosives
  • Toxins
  • Poisons
  • Carcinogens
  • Chemicals that cause cancer
  • Allergenics
  • Chemicals that cause an allergic reaction

Lung Irritants
  • Chemicals that affect the
  • Lungs and nasal passages
  • Skin
  • Eyes

Upper Respiratory Irritants
  • Affect the nose and throat
  • Dissolved by water
  • Normally not life-threatening
  • Can make breathing difficult after long exposure
  • Found in
  • Thinners, plastic cleaners, urethane reducers,
    body fillers, polishes, weld-through primers,
    sodium hydroxide powder (from airbag deployment)

Middle Respiratory Irritants
  • Cause coughing and wheezing
  • Partially dissolved by water
  • Normally not life-threatening
  • Can make breathing difficult after long exposure
  • Found in
  • Thinners, plastic cleaners, urethane reducers,
    body fillers, polishes, weld-through primers,
    sodium hydroxide powder (from airbag deployment)

Lower Respiratory Irritants
  • Travel deep into the lung
  • Not dissolved by water
  • Can be life-threatening
  • Found in
  • Adhesives, rubberized undercoatings, paints that
    contain isocyanates

Irritant Reaction
  • Itching
  • Burning
  • Rashes
  • Found in
  • Epoxy repair materials, plastic bonding
    adhesives, undercoatings, cleaners, hardeners and
    reducers, body fillers

Corrosive Materials
  • Can cause skin burns and respiratory problems
  • Are found in many cleaning products and metal
    preparation materials
  • Are either highly acidic or highly alkaline
  • Examples include
  • Paint strippers, prep solvents, wire wheel
    cleaners, sulphuric acid in batteries, oxalic
    acid, full-strength degreasers

Nervous System Effects
  • Dizziness
  • Headaches
  • Nausea
  • Blurred vision
  • Poor coordination

Nervous System Depression
  • Ingredients that cause central nervous system
    depression include
  • Benzene
  • Toluene
  • Xylene
  • These chemicals are added as thinning agents,
    allowing the product to be sprayed or flow easier.

  • Toxins can be broken down into
  • Mild neurotoxins
  • Liver toxins
  • Reproductive toxins
  • Blood toxins

Mild Toxins
  • Mild neurotoxins cause central nervous system
    depression and destroy nerve endings.
  • The effects of this condition are similar to
    drinking too much alcohol.
  • Effects include
  • Dizziness, headaches, nausea, blurred vision,
    poor coordination

Liver Toxin Exposure
  • Exposure to liver toxins comes from breathing
    vapors while

Liver Toxin Chemicals
  • Examples include
  • Toluene, xylene, butyl acetate, lead chromates,
    nickel compounds, methylene chloride.
  • Found in some
  • Urethane enamels
  • Adhesives

Reproductive Toxins
  • May cause birth defects
  • Birth defects can vary from minor to severe
  • Materials that may contain reproductive toxins
  • Products containing toluene
  • Gasoline
  • Products containing lead compounds
  • Acrylic lacquers
  • Urethane enamels

Blood Toxins
  • Destroy or deform red blood cells
  • Red blood cells carry oxygen through the blood
    stream. Destroying or deforming red blood cells
    reduces the amount of oxygen being carried
    through the blood stream
  • Overexposure may cause difficult breathing or
    loss of consciousness
  • Materials that may contain blood toxins include
  • Some aerosol cleaners and enamel clear coats

  • Examples of carcinogenic materials include

  • May cause people to react to certain chemicals.
  • Normally do not cause a reaction when first
    exposed. The reaction starts with the second
  • Each person will have a different reaction to
    different materials.
  • Some materials contain chemicals that are more
    likely to cause reactions than others.

Examples of allergens
  • Acrylic sealers
  • Adhesives
  • Sealers
  • Epoxy resins
  • Clear coats
  • Hardeners
  • Activators

Routes of Entry
  • Breathing
  • Swallowing
  • Absorption through skin
  • Injection through skin

Breathing Hazardous Materials
  • Most common way of entering the body.
  • Starts when products being mixed, poured, or
    used, give off vapors or dust particles.
  • Causes them to collect in the lungs and be
    absorbed into the blood stream.
  • Can be prevented by wearing a proper respirator.

  • Used to protect against
  • Grinding and sanding dust
  • Undercoating and rust proofing mists
  • Paint sprays
  • Asbestos
  • Welding fumes
  • Glass fibers

Types of Respirators
  • Dust respirators
  • Air-purifying respirators
  • Fume respirators
  • Vapor respirators
  • Combination fume and vapor respirator
  • Fresh-air supplied respirator

Dust Respirators
  • Generally used for dust that is non-toxic.
  • Should not be used for fumes or chemical vapors.
  • Should only be used if approved by NIOSH.

Air-purifying Respirators
  • Used when working with products that produce
    vapors, toxic dusts, asbestos, fumes, etc.
  • Consist of a filter media, activated charcoal, or
    a combination of both.

Vapor Filters
  • Have an absorbent material, usually activated
    carbon, contained in a cartridge.
  • Do not provide any protection from welding fumes.

Fume Filters
  • Made of layers of filter material.
  • Do not provide any protection from chemical

Combination Filters
  • Combine a charcoal cartridge with a particle
  • Provide protection from both chemical vapors and
    welding fumes.

Choosing the Proper Respirator
  • Cartridge-type filters are color coded to
    indicate the type of material each is designed to
  • Black color code is designed to protect against
    organic vapors.
  • Orange color code is designed to protect against
    dust, fumes, and mists.
  • Purple color code is designed to protect against
    fumes generated during welding operations.

NIOSH Classifications
  • National Institute For Occupational Safety And
  • Identifies a series of 3 particulate filters
  • 100-rated filters (99.97 efficiency). This
    filter offers similar protection to HEPA filters.
  • 99-rated filters (99 efficiency).
  • 95-rated filters (95 efficiency).
  • Divided in to 3 categories
  • N for non-oil resistant, R for oil resistant,
    P for oil proof.

Cartridge-type Respirators
  • Must be regularly cleaned and disinfected.
  • Must be properly maintained
  • Check for cracks, tears, or holes before use.
  • Replace clogged particle filters.
  • Replace vapor cartridges if contaminates can be
    smelled or tasted. If the respirator is
    disposable, throw it away.

Effects of Welding Fumes
  • Welding requires wearing a welding fume
  • Failure to wear a respirator could result in a
    sickness characterized by
  • Sore throat
  • Fever
  • Chills
  • Nausea
  • Headaches

Effects of Welding Fumes
  • These symptoms will usually occur within 4-8
    hours of exposure and can last as long as 24
  • Fumes which can result in fume fever include
  • Zinc oxide, magnesium oxide, copper, cadmium,
    chromium, and lead.

Effects of Welding Fumes
  • Long-term exposure to these fumes may cause such
    illnesses as
  • Cancer of the kidneys, larynx, or urinary tract.
  • Diseases of the heart, blood, stomach, and
  • Skin sensitivity, hearing loss, or eye problems.
  • Birth defects.

Fit-testing Respirators
  • To fit-test a respirator
  • Fasten the respirator around your head and neck.
    Make sure the fit is snug, but not too tight.
  • Check the fit by covering the exhalation valve
    and gently exhaling. There should be a slight
    pressure inside the respirator without leaking at
    the seal.
  • With cartridge-type respirators, cover the
    cartridges with your hands and inhale gently
    until the respirator collapses slightly.
  • Hold your breath. The respirator should stay
    slightly collapsed and not leak from the sides.

Air-supplied Respirators
  • Must be able to supply Grade D breathing air.
  • Should be worn whenever using products containing
  • Must be used when abrasive-blasting with silica
  • Can be supplied with air from the shop compressor
    or an air pump.

Using Compressor Air
  • To ensure Grade D air from a shop compressor, a
    3-stage filter is generally used
  • Bulk liquids and visible particles (stage 1)
  • Particles and liquid droplets larger than .01
    microns (stage 2)
  • Hydrocarbons and odors from the compressed air
    (stage 3)

Full-face Coverage
  • Since isocyanates can enter the body through the
    eyes, a hood or full-face mask is recommended.
    Safety glasses do not offer enough protection for

General Respirator Rules
  • Must be NIOSH approved.
  • Employees must be trained on their use.
  • May not be altered in any way.
  • Must be stored in a location that prevents
    deformation of the face piece and exhalation
    valve and protects them from
  • Dust, sunlight, extreme temperatures, excessive
    moisture, and damaging chemicals.

Ingesting Hazardous Chemicals
  • Swallowing is the second most common way
    hazardous materials enter the body.
  • Ingestion can occur by
  • Not washing before eating.
  • Eating or drinking in an area where hazardous
    materials are used.
  • Biting fingernails.
  • Touching the mouth while coughing or sneezing.
  • Smoking after handling hazardous materials.

Preventing Hazardous Ingestion
  • To prevent ingesting hazardous materials
  • Wear gloves when handling hazardous materials.
  • Wash hands after any contact with hazardous
  • Keep hands away from the face.
  • Eat and smoke only in designated areas.

Absorption Through Skin
  • Hazardous materials can be absorbed through the
    skin. Skin is porous, like a sponge.

Skin Cutaway
Absorption Through Skin
  • Absorption occurs by
  • Skin contact, such as picking up a solvent-soaked
  • Washing hands with gasoline or other solvent.
  • Floor cleaning materials splashing into shoes.
  • Always wear protective equipment such as
  • Gloves
  • Aprons
  • Boots

Absorption Through Eyes
  • Hazardous materials can also enter eyes through
    exposure to hazardous
  • Vapors
  • Dust
  • Spills
  • Wear safety goggles to help prevent eye exposure.

Injection in Skin
  • Hazardous material can enter the body through
    injection. This can be caused by a material
  • Entering through a broken cut or a skin rash.
  • Being forced through the skin by air tools or
    cleaning equipment.
  • Prevent injection by
  • Covering and protecting open cuts or sores.
  • Following recommended safety procedures when
    working with tools and cleaning equipment.

Review Question 1
  • Technician A says that lethal exposure to
    hazardous materials can occur from biting
    fingernails or not washing before eating.
    Technician B says that lethal exposure can occur
    from breathing the vapors or dust of a hazardous
    material. Who is right?

A. Technician A only B. Technician B only C.
Both Technician A and Technician B D. Neither
Technician A or Technician B
Review Question 2
  • Technician A says that overexposure effects are
    classified as either acute or chronic.
    Technician B says that acute exposure is repeated
    exposure over a long time and chronic exposure is
    a one-time sudden, high exposure to a chemical.
    Who is right?

A. Technician A only B. Technician B only C.
Both Technician A and Technician B D. Neither
Technician A or Technician B
Review Question 3
  • Technician A says a supplied air respirator
    should always be worn whenever painting for
    proper protection against isocyanates.
    Technician B says any respirator will provide
    adequate protection against welding fumes as long
    as it is approved by both NIOSH and MSHA and
    properly maintained. Who is right?

A. Technician A only B. Technician B only C.
Both Technician A and Technician B D. Neither
Technician A or Technician B
Review Question 4
  • The most harmful type of lung irritant is the

A. Upper respiratory irritant B. Middle
respiratory irritant C. Lower respiratory
irritant D. None of the above
Review Question 5
  • Hazardous materials can enter the body by

A. Swallowing the material B. Absorbing the
material through the skin C. Injecting the
material into the skin D. All of the above
Unit 2
  • Product Labels

Product Labels
  • All materials in the workplace are required to
    have a label. Labels are an important source of
    information that may include
  • The name of the material
  • Part number

Product Labels (Contd)
  • Possible hazards when using the material
  • Hazard symbols
  • A statement that the MSDS is available
  • How to safely handle the material Suggestions for
    first aid treatment
  • The manufacturers name, address, and emergency
    telephone number
  • The intended use of the product

Minimum Label Requirements
  • Labels for hazardous materials are required to
  • A product identifier or name.
  • Hazard warnings.
  • A statement that the MSDS is available.

What If There Is No Label?
  • Do not handle the product.
  • Determine the nature of the material from the
    shop manager.
  • Place a label on the container once the material
    has been identified.

Hazard Symbols
  • Hazard symbols on product labels are in picture
    form so they can be read in any language. The
    symbols show an immediate hazard warning about
    the contents of the container. Examples are
  • Cylinder
  • Flame
  • Skull and crossbones inside a circle
  • Hand being corroded by a chemical

Compressed Gasses
  • White cylinder on a green background

Flammable and Combustible
  • Flame on a red background

Oxidizing Material
  • Flame over a circle on a yellow background

Immediate Toxic Effects
  • Causes immediate and serious (acute) toxic
  • Skull and crossbones on a white background

Other Toxic Effects
  • Causes other toxic effects.
  • Letter T with a dot below it.

Biohazardous Materials
  • Four overlapping circles.

Corrosive Materials
  • Hand and piece of material being corroded by a

Dangerously Reactive Materials
  • Letter R with a test tube in the middle.

Types of Labels
  • There are 3 types of labels commonly used for
    identifying hazardous materials. These are
  • Supplier labels
  • Workplace labels
  • Other Means of identification labels

Supplier Labels
  • Must contain
  • Product name
  • Supplier identifier
  • Statement of MSDS availability
  • Hazard symbols
  • Handling, use storage instructions
  • First aid measures
  • Risk phrases explaining possible dangers of the

Risk Phrases
  • Examples of risk phrases
  • Explosive
  • Flammable
  • Lung irritant
  • Causes burns
  • May cause birth defects
  • Reacts violently with water
  • May cause cancer

Container Label Requirements
  • The supplier does not have to label
  • An inner container if the outer container is
    properly labeled and the workplace agrees to
    apply labels to the inner container.
  • The package liner of a hazardous material.
  • The outer container if the inner container label
    can be seen and read through the outer container.

Limited Vs. Detailed Label
  • Supplier labels can be either detailed or basic
    depending on the size of the containers as long
    as the minimum requirements are met.

Workplace Labels
  • Labels created and attached in the workplace.
  • Usually a result of pouring material into a
    smaller container.
  • Example of mixing paint using a mixing system
  • Only 3 items required on the label
  • Product identifier
  • Hazard warning information
  • Reference to MSDS

Workplace Label Format
  • Can be a pre-made format or something as simple
    as masking tape.

Personal Protection Symbols
  • Some workplace labels include personal protection
    symbols that can be checked.

Code Symbols
  • Some workplace labels may also have a system of
    codes to show the level of certain elements in a
    hazardous material.
  • The system measures
  • Health hazards
  • Flammability
  • Reactivity
  • Personal protection required

Code Symbols
  • Code system has 5 numbers (0-4).
  • The higher the number, the higher the danger
  • 0 is very low danger
  • 1 is slightly dangerous
  • 2 is moderately dangerous
  • 3 is seriously dangerous
  • 4 is severely dangerous

Code Symbols
  • For example, a material with a
  • Flammability of 0 is not likely to catch fire.
  • Flammability of 4 will catch fire very easily.
  • Health hazard of 2 is moderately hazardous to
    your health.
  • The code numbers can usually be found on the MSDS.

Code Symbols
  • Codes are shown in different colored boxes.
  • Blue for health hazard
  • Red for flammability hazard
  • Yellow for a reactivity hazard
  • White for personal protection information
  • The 4 categories are usually shown in the form of
    a diamond.

Code System Example
Hazard Code Information
Other Means Label
  • Used when labels are not visible due to something
    covering the labels
  • Labels covered in paint
  • Large storage containers where labels are hidden
    from view
  • Examples
  • A mark or symbol on the container
  • Special colour coded area
  • A sign or placard above or off to one side that
    indicates what the material is

Paint-Covered Container
  • Paint waste containers
  • Paint containers
  • Large storage containers

Review Exercise
Technician A says that workplace labels are
normally created when the contents of a larger
container are transferred into a smaller
container. Technician B says that workplace
labels do not need to meet the minimum label
requirements. Who is right?
  • A. Technician A only
  • B. Technician B only
  • C. Both Technician A and Technician B
  • D. Neither Technician A or Technician B

Technician A says workplace labels are required
to follow a code system that measures a
materials flammability, shelf life, and
reactivity. Technician B says workplace labels
can take any form as long as they contain the
basic information. Who is right?
  • A. Technician A only
  • B. Technician B only
  • C. Both Technician A and Technician B
  • D. Neither Technician A or Technician B

The supplier label
  • A. Must be attached to any hazardous material
    that comes into the shop.
  • B. Needs only to contain the product name,
    statement that a MSDS is available, and risk
  • C. Needs to have black text over a white
  • D. All of the above.

The blue section of the code system indicates
  • A. Fire hazards.
  • B. Reactivity.
  • C. Specific hazards.
  • D. Health hazards.

Examples of other means of identification
labels include
  • A. Marks or symbols.
  • B. Special color coded areas.
  • C. Signs or placards above or off to the side of
    the material.
  • D. All of the above.

Unit 3
  • Material Safety Data Sheets

Label vs. MSDS
  • MSDS
  • More detailed
  • Overexposure effects
  • Detailed steps to avoid overexposure
  • Emergency information

Employer-Written MSDS
MSDS Includes
  • Product information
  • Hazardous ingredients
  • Physical data
  • Fire and explosion hazards
  • Reactivity data
  • Health hazard data
  • Preventive measures
  • First aid measures
  • MSDS preparation information

Product Identification
Hazardous Ingredients
Physical Data
MSDS - Paint
Fire Explosion Data
Fire Extinguishers
  • A Ordinary combustibles
  • B - Flammable liquids
  • C - Electrical fires
  • D - Combustible metals

Reactivity Data
MSDS - Wax Grease Remover
Health Hazard Data
Exposure Limits
  • Must be comfortable
  • Know your physical limits
  • Maintain equipment
  • Know signs of respirator failure
  • Store properly

Preventive Measures
Types of Hazardous Waste
  • Thinners
  • Cleaning solvents
  • Metal-etching acid
  • Used batteries
  • Waste oil
  • Antifreeze

First Aid Measures
MSDS Preparation Information
MSDS -Acid Clean
Unit 4
  • Workplace Education

Supplier Responsibilities
  • Classify and label supplied materials
  • Provide current MSDS
  • Provide source for data on toxicity of a material

Employer Responsibilities
Inventory Roster
Hazardous Materials Inventory
  • Count materials
  • Refer to purchase invoices
  • Look at MSDS sheets

Employer Responsibilities
  • Make sure MSDS is up-to-date
  • Add new information
  • Have MSDS available
  • Make sure workers understand
  • Have MSDS information available for medical

Employee Education Program
  • Assign ownership
  • Set up check system
  • Make sure copy of program is available
  • Schedule employees for training
  • Set up training records
  • Review program once per year

Employee Testing Procedures
  • Give employees a written test
  • Conduct a hands-on demonstration
  • Set up a mock emergency and test the response

Employee Responsibilities
  • Know and understand labels
  • Follow label directions
  • Follow safe-use procedures
  • Know MSDS information
  • Know emergency procedures
  • Avoid removing or defacing labels
  • Inform employer of missing information
  • Wear required equipment
  • Help develop safety plan

Hazardous Program Requirement List
Review Exercise
  • (Page 75)

Technician A says that the MSDS provides
information on hazardous material handling,
storage, and use. Technician B says that the
MSDS can be used in place of a label. Who is
  • A. Technician A only
  • B. Technician B only
  • C. Both Technician A and Technician B
  • D. Neither Technician A or Technician B

Technician A says that manufacturers and
suppliers are responsible for supplying training
to those who work with hazardous materials.
Technician B says the employer needs to supply
training for each hazardous material used in the
workplace. Who is right?
  • A. Technician A only
  • B. Technician B only
  • C. Both Technician A and Technician B
  • D. Neither Technician A or Technician B

The section of the MSDS that explains what
conditions, such as heat or shock, make the
hazardous material unstable is
  • A. Hazardous Ingredients
  • B. Fire and Explosion Data
  • C. Reactivity Data
  • D. Physical Data

Technician A says that the First Aid Measures
section of the MSDS explains how to treat a
worker who has been overexposed to a material.
Technician B says medical or emergency personnel
generally need the First Aid Measures section.
Who is right?
  • A. Technician A only
  • B. Technician B only
  • C. Both Technician A and Technician B
  • D. Neither Technician A or Technician B

The section of the MSDS that explains how to
control the material during a spill or leak is
  • A. Hazardous Ingredients
  • B. Fire and Explosion Data
  • C. Reactivity Data
  • D. Preventive Measures

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