Wind Power: Fundamentals, Technologies, and Economics - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Wind Power: Fundamentals, Technologies, and Economics PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 412b47-OGMxO



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Wind Power: Fundamentals, Technologies, and Economics

Description:

Wind Power: Fundamentals, Technologies, and Economics Author: Norman Horn Last modified by: Norman Horn Created Date: 11/15/2007 3:37:07 PM – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:195
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 29
Provided by: Norma70
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Wind Power: Fundamentals, Technologies, and Economics


1
Wind Power Fundamentals, Technologies, and
Economics
  • Norman Horn and
  • Tony VanderHeyden

2
History of Wind Power
and
From
to
3
World Capacity for Wind Power
  • Solar energy produces the large-scale motion of
    the atmosphere and winds
  • Differential heating causes minor fluctuations
  • Coriolis acceleration
  • Power in wind ? cube of velocity
  • World Energy Council estimated 20,000 TWh/yr in
    potential wind power

4
United States Annual Average Wind Power
5
United States Installed Capacity
6
Altamont Pass Over 6,000 Turbines!
7
Texas Wind Power
  • Texas is the leader in wind power in the United
    States (ahead of California!)
  • Nearly 4,000 MW installed in 2007
  • Goal of over 25,000 MW by 2012
  • Horse Hollow Wind Farm
  • 735 MW capacity
  • 47,000 acres
  • 421 total turbines

Horse Hollow Wind Farm
8
Types of Wind Turbines
Aerodynamic Systems
Drag Systems
Cp-max 0.44
Cp-max 0.2
Horizontal Axis
Vertical Axis
Darrieus
1
Savonius
2
3
H Rotor
Drag w/ Windbreak
9
Modern System Components
10
Rotor Blades Materials
11
Rotor Speed Control
Active Stall Control
Passive Stall Control
Advantages Simple, self regulating Disadvantages
requires strength in high winds, hard to
start-up, complex brake systems
Advantages dynamic, reduces train
complexity Disadvantages costly, more complex
12
Where should we put all the stuff?
  • Situation dependent
  • Maintenance requirements
  • Size
  • Wind quality
  • Budget

13
Ideal Extractor Derivation
Due to Albert Betz
  • Continuity, energy balance, and force balance
    across rotor area
  • Key Results

14
Ideal Extractor Derivation
  • Irrotational system
  • No boundary layer or compression flow
  • Creeping flow (Re ltlt 1)
  • Uniform power extraction
  • No geometry boundary conditions
  • Never true!

15
More Rigor Deviation from Betz Limit
16
Blade Pitch Trade-offs
Since most designs use twisted blades, power
quality is never ideal across the entire rotor
blade.
17
More Cp, or Why you should choose three blades
too
18
Technological Challenges
  • Integrating unpredictable energy resources into
    existing power systems / grids.
  • Accurate estimation of wind resources
  • Location, location, location!
  • Not a commodity, a custom product.
  • Scaling up, scaling down
  • Energy storage?

19
Location and Grid Connection
  • Avg. wind speed of over 10 mph required
  • Ideal location near constant flow of
    non-turbulent wind, minimal fluctuations gusts
  • Critically important to have accurate wind speed
    and direction data
  • Overestimating wind ? massive loss of profit
  • Wind park effect loss (as low as 2)
  • How far away is the grid?
  • Capital costs of any connection is substantial

20
Environmental and Social Concerns
  • Pollution? Virtually none What about
    construction?
  • Actual Average EROI 18
  • Net energy gain between 17 and 39
  • Birds? Studies have been published with
    contradictory results
  • Negligible harm compared to other human activity
  • Noise? Wind power noise is far less than most
    other human activity.
  • Does off-shore wind technology affect marine
    life?
  • Aesthetics and safety?
  • Offshore wind farms can reduce aesthetics
    complaints.
  • Wind energy has an excellent safety record.

21
Economics of Wind Power 1
Wind Turbine Components Medium-sized turbine 750 kW (stall-controlled) Proportion Large turbine 1500 kW (variable-speed controlled) Proportion
Rotor Blades 34.0 21.0
Rotor hub Blade bearings Hydraulic blade-pitch system Rotor shaft Rotor bearings with housings Gearbox Load-bearing nacelle structure Yaw drive (including azimuth bearings) Nacelle fairing Miscellaneous (rotor brake, clutches, etc.) 2 -- 0.8 2.7 1.0 12.5 8.7 2.4 2.0 5.0 2.1 3.1 4.0 2.6 1.7 13.6 4.7 3.4 1.6 3.2
Generator (and inverter for large turbine) Control system and monitoring equipment 7.5 5.0 10.9 7.4
Tower 16.4 20.7
Component Costs 100.0 100.0
Assembly (in the factory) 5.0 5.0
22
Economics of Wind Power 2
23
Economics of Wind Power 3
  • 6-9 cents / kWh!!!
  • Roughly competitive with current prices
  • Tech innovations
  • Innovative drive trains
  • Less than 3 blades
  • Reducing mass in vertical-axis turbines
  • Evolution of technology

24
Advantages of Wind Power
  • After installation, only cost is maintenance
  • Wind is renewable
  • Available everywhere to some extent
  • No pollution
  • Simple designs
  • Supply of wind energy cannot be controlled by
    anyone (no political maneuvering)
  • Wind farms make it profitable

25
Disadvantages of Wind Power
  • Expensive to set up, custom products
  • Wind speed varies a lot
  • Hard to predict
  • Not steady, so unreliable
  • Accurate data absolutely necessary
  • Environmental impact from manufacturing
  • Turbines can require large areas of land

26
Gearbox Design Decisions
27
Generator Design Considerations
  • Other Factors
  • Weight
  • Starting overcurrent
  • Dynamic response behavior
  • Speed range

28
Dirt and bug juice The enemy
About PowerShow.com