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Sustainable Development


Was generated at the World Conservation Strategy (IUCN/UNEP/WWF ... Low fish populations, get better gear. Low oil, get better drills. Sustainable Development ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Sustainable Development

Sustainable Development
Sustainable Development
  • The concept of sustainable development emerged as
    the means by which biodiversity and natural
    resources might be saved while allowing humans to
  • Was generated at the World Conservation Strategy
    (IUCN/UNEP/WWF 1980), from a UN conference in 1972

Sustainable Development
  • So what is sustainable development?
  • It means many things to many people
  • However, most are anthropogenic focusing on human
    aspirations and how the environment might provide

Sustainable Development
Sustainable Development
  • Sustainable development vs. growth
  • Growth is a quantitative increase in the size of
    a system development is a qualitative change in
    its complexity and configuration
  • Thus, sustainable growth is an oxymoron
  • We can however, have sustainable development

Sustainable Development
  • One of the problems we face is that of looking
    for technical fixes rather than recognize and
    look for natural limits
  • Low fish populations, get better gear
  • Low oil, get better drills

Sustainable Development
  • Sustainable development might also be known as
    integrated conservation and development projects,
    community-based conservation or community
    adaptation and sustainable livelihoods projects
  • Many deal with sustainable agriculture,
    fisheries, aquaculture, or forestry

Sustainable Development
  • SD projects typically use a number of economic
    tools to promote sustainability, including
    incentives such as certification, subsidies, and
    grants, or job creation in sustainable
    enterprises, and sometimes penalties, such as
    fines or fees for continuing unsustainable

Sustainable Development
  • Importantly, SD projects often are par of a
    larger strategy for landscape- or ecosystem-scale
  • ICDPs are usually conceptualized as including
    protected areas and regions of sustainable
    enterprise (Fig. 16.1)
  • Stems from concern PA are not sufficient to
    conserve biodiversity

Sustainable Development
  • The goal of ICDPs are to conserve biodiversity,
    particularly in protected areas by enhancing the
    benefits adjacent communities

Sustainable Development
  • Frequently these plans are from state or federal
    levels in hopes of protecting areas and
    simultaneously decreasing poverty
  • There are many reasons governments may wish to
    pursue this avenuewhat?

Sustainable Development
  • How good are SD projects at conserving
  • A study suggested that genetic-, population- and
    species-level diversity may be particularly
    vulnerable to increasing intensive uses
  • Ecosystem processes and structure seem to be
    impacted later, when conditions further diminish

Sustainable Development
Sustainable Development
  • What if we made a comparison of the side-by-side
    options with various criteria (from Table 16.1)
  • E.g. the Pantanal in Brazil
  • Hidrovia would channelize the Paraguay R for
    barge traffic (with dams)

Sustainable Development
Sustainable Development
  • Unfortunately, there is a general tradeoff
    between the degree to which biodiversity can be
    protected and SD projects take place and succeed

Sustainable Development
  • Sometimes problems occur when local projects are
    attempted to scale-up to larger areaswhy?

Sustainable Development
  • The logic behind community-based,
    enterprise-based conservation projects that seek
    to enhance benefits from developing an enterprise
    that protects biodiversity and supports enterprise

Sustainable Development
  • Analysis of community-based conservation in Asia
    and the Pacific allowed researchers to develop a
    table of indicators for when a community-based,
    sustainable enterprise project is likely (or not)
    to succeed

Sustainable Development
Sustainable Development
Sustainable Development
  • Mexico has 300-480 community forest enterprises
    (CFE), which are community-owned and managed
    forest lands for producing commercial timber and
    other saleable goods
  • Some CFEs have gone further and promote
    sustainable forestry and biodiversity (read CS

Sustainable Development
  • How to promote sustainability?
  • A group of conservation organizations met and
    drafted a set of ecological principles of
    sustainability to promote sustainability
  • 1) nature should be understood to be an
    irreplaceable source of knowledge, from which we
    can learn potential solutions so some of our

Sustainable Development
  • 2) we should understand that issues of
    environmental deterioration and human oppression
    and violence are linked in analysis and action
  • 3) humility must guide our actions good
    stewardship begins with restraint

Sustainable Development
  • 4) we must appreciate the importance of proper
    scale. Place and locality are the foundation for
    all durable economies, and must be the starting
    oint of action to deal with our problems.
    Solutions are local and scale-dependent

Sustainable Development
  • 5) sufficiency must replace economic efficiency.
    Earths resources are finite, and this fact must
    be accepted in order for humanity to adopt
    limits. We must distinguish between need and
  • 6) community is essential for survival. The
    global community should reflect and encourage
    diversity while being interdependent

Sustainable Development
  • 7) biological and cultural diversity must be
    preserved, defended, and encouraged

Sustainable Development
  • What are the chances these will actually be
  • Fisheries are using empirically based models and
    marine PAs are widespread
  • Water supplies and watersheds are becoming better
  • Greenhouse gases are actually being discussed, by
    some nations

Sustainable Development
  • What are some potential pitfalls for SD
  • 1) wealth or the prospect of wealth generates
    political and social power that is used to
    promote unlimited exploitation of resources
  • 2) scientific knowledge is frequently lacking
    (e.g. idiosyncratic nature of systems, lack of
    funding, scale, lack of replicates)

Sustainable Development
  • 3) when many stakeholders are involved, effective
    and timely communication is essential
  • 4) organizations and governments tend to seek to
    maximize economic growth (short-term especially)
    rather than conserve for the future

Sustainable Development
  • What conditions need to change to expedite SD?
  • 1) the value system that lie at the core of the
    human fabric and drive our collective behaviors
    need to change drastically (e.g. wealthy
    countries need to more towards long-term goals)
  • This will require more knowledge about their
    relationship with the environment

Sustainable Development
  • 2) the growth-oriented economic systems that
    drive human existence must be replaced by
    steady-state economic systems that accept natural
    limits to our artificial economics
  • 3) human population growth must slow, stop, and
    eventually reverse toward this goal, sustainable
    development projects must contain internal
    incentives to limit population growth

Sustainable Development
  • Homework for next Tuesday lab
  • Read CS 16.1 (ecotourism), 16.2 (large-scale
    preservation and sustainability) and 16.5 (sea
    turtles in Australia)
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