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THE SUN

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Title: THE SUN


1
THE SUN
  • http//www.whfreeman.com/universe6e/con_index.htm?
    18http//www.chara.gsu.edu/http//sohowww.nascom
    .nasa.gov/

2
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3
Guiding Questions
  • What is the source of the Suns energy?
  • What is the internal structure of the Sun?
  • How can astronomers measure the properties of the
    Suns interior?
  • How can we be sure that thermonuclear reactions
    are happening in the Suns core?
  • Does the Sun have a solid surface?
  • Since the Sun is so bright, how is it possible to
    see its dim outer atmosphere?
  • Where does the solar wind come from?
  • What are sunspots? Why do they appear dark?
  • What is the connection between sunspots and the
    Suns magnetic field?
  • What causes eruptions in the Suns atmosphere?

4
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5
The Sun is the nearest star to the Earth.
  • It is a fairly typical star, middle sized and
    middle aged.
  • All energy on Earth comes from the Sun except
    Earths own internal energy!
  • In appearance the Sun is about the same size as
    the Moon (hence eclipses).

6
It is 1 AU or about 150 million km from the
Earth.
  • Its angular diameter from Earth is 31?59.
  • The diameter of the Sun is 1.39 million km (110
    times Earths diameter and bout 10 times that of
    Jupiter).

7
This is a radius of about 700,000 km 1 RO.
  • The mass of the Sun is
  • 1.99 1030 kg ? 2 1030 kg 1 Mass of the Sun
    1 MO,
  • which is over 300,000 times the mass of the
    Earth.

8
Rough Rule
  • About 1000 Earths will fit by volume into
    Jupiter, about 1000 Jupiters will fit into the
    Sun.
  • About how many Earths will fit into the Sun?

9
The Suns density (mass/volume) is 1.41 g/cm3.
  • Water has a density of
  • 1.0 g/cm3and Earth has a
  • density of 5.5 g/cm3.

10
The Sun rotates differentially
  • the parts of the Sun on the equator rotate faster
    than parts at the poles.
  • Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune also rotate
    differentially.

11
The Sun rotates differentially
  • This means that there can be no solid surface
    on the Sun or any of these worlds.
  • They are fluid throughout.

12
The Suns equator rotates in 24.4 days
  • and the poles rotate in about 40 days.
    Differential rotation arises because the sun is
    NOT SOLID.
  • It is gaseous (or fluid) throughout.

13
A straight line from pole to pole becomes
progressively more tangled over many solar
revolutions because of differential rotation.
14
The rotation coupled
  • with the Suns magnetic field is the prime cause
    of sunspots. Galileo observed sunspots.http//an
    twrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/ap020801.html

15
The temperature is 6000? C ? 5800 K.
  • The total power output of the Sun, the
  • LUMINOSITY 1 LO 3.9 10 W. A change of 1
    of the luminosity of the Sun could cause a change
    on Earth of 1? to 2? C.
  • This emission is in all portions of the spectrum.
    http//zebu.uoregon.edu/soper/Sun/luminosity.htm
    l

16
 THE CORE AND ENERGY GENERATION
  • See fig. 18-5 and next slide.
  • You will be expected to recreate the next slide
    on the midterm and final exams.
  • This is the simplest cross section of the Sun
    available.

17
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18
THE CORE AND ENERGY GENERATION
  • The Sun is about 4.6 BILLION years old and should
    continue to emit radiation for another 5 BILLION
    years!
  • How can this be?

19
THE CORE AND ENERGY GENERATION
  • In the mid 1800s, it was proposed by von
    Helmholtz and Kelvin that a slow gravitational
    contraction is the source of the Suns energy.
  • This could only power the Sun for a few hundred
    million years.

20
THE CORE AND ENERGY GENERATION
  • Gravitational contraction is what is believed to
    power the radiation from Jupiter.
  • Since the Earth was proved in the early 20th
    century to be at least billions of years old, the
    theory had to be abandoned.

21
THE CORE AND ENERGY GENERATION
  • In 1905 Einstein proposed his General Theory of
    Relativity, that mass and energy are
    interchangeable
  • (E mc2).
  • E is energy, m is mass, and c is the speed of
    light, c 3 108 m/s (KNOW THIS
    NUMBER!). http//www.drphysics.com/relativity.html

22
THE CORE AND ENERGY GENERATION
  • During the thirties physicists worked out the
    theories of nuclear reactions.
  • Nuclear fusion is the process that powers the Sun.

23
THE CORE AND ENERGY GENERATION
  • An atoms nucleus is composed of
  • PROTONS positively charged particles and
  • NEUTRONS particles with no electric charge.

24
THE CORE AND ENERGY GENERATION
  • Nuclear reactions involve forces between these
    particles.
  • Most hydrogen atom nuclei are composed of a
    single proton.
  • Deuterium nuclei are composed of a proton and a
    neutron.

25
THE CORE AND ENERGY GENERATION
  • Four hydrogen atoms combine, or fuse, to create
    an atom of
  • helium, giving off a tiny bit of energy, ?, two
    neutrinos, ?, and 2 positrons in the process.

26
The Suns energy is generated by thermonuclear
reactions in its core.
  • The Suns luminosity (energy output) is 3.9 X
    1026 watts (or joules per second) and written as
    L?
  • The Sun is powered by thermonuclear fusion
    reactions in the core where hydrogen is being
    converted into helium and releasing energy in a
    process called the proton-proton-chain.
  • Einsteins equation, E mc2 describes how much
    energy can be created from an amount of mass, m.

27
The Suns energy is generated by thermonuclear
reactions in its core.
At extremely high temperatures and pressures, 4
Hydrogen atoms can combine to make 1 Helium atom
and release energy in the process according to E
mc2 4H ? He energy HYDROGEN FUSION
28
THE CORE AND ENERGY GENERATION.
  • The energy is in the form of gamma rays.
  • Neutrinos are tiny, nearly massless particles

29
THE CORE AND ENERGY GENERATION.
  • Positrons are antimatter, positive electrons.
  • They are almost instantly converted back to
    energy by interactions with the electrons.

30
THE CORE AND ENERGY GENERATION
  • Electrons are stripped from the nuclei by the
    high temperatures, and they form an electron
    sea.
  • This energy comes from the mass conversion, E
    mc2, of about 0.7 of the total mass of the
    hydrogen atoms.

31
THE CORE AND ENERGY GENERATION
  • The formula that represents this is
  • 4 H -gt 1 He 2? ?.
  • This is the definition of a star.

32
THE CORE AND ENERGY GENERATION.
  • It fuses hydrogen to helium in its core.
  • The process is called the Proton-Proton Cycle or
    the Bethe Cycle.
  • See fig 18-2 and box 18-1. http//www.whfreeman
    .com/universe6e/con_index.htm?18

33
THE CORE AND ENERGY GENERATION
  • This process requires VERY HIGH TEMPERATURES
    (16Million K)
  • AND PRESSURES (160g/cm3 or over a billion times
    sea-level atmospheric pressure).

34
A theoretical model of the Sun shows how energy
gets from its center to its surface.
Thermonuclear fusion can only occur at very high
temperatures and pressures.
35
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36
A theoretical model of the Sun shows how energy
gets from its center to its surface through
the(1) core, (2) radiative zone, and the (3)
convective zone
37
THE CORE AND ENERGY GENERATION
  • To produce the Suns energy about 5 million tons
    of matter must be converted each second!
  • 610 billion kg of hydrogen is transformed into
    606 billion kg of helium.

38
THE CORE AND ENERGY GENERATION
  • Fortunately, although this is a HUGE amount to
    us, it is a very tiny amount of the Sun.

39
THE CORE AND ENERGY GENERATION
  • The only place where these reactions take place
    is in the CORE or the Sun.

40
THE CORE AND ENERGY GENERATION
  • The rest of the star is there to create the
    temperatures and pressures required for fusion
    and to transport the energy created out of the
    Sun.

41
THE CORE AND ENERGY GENERATION
  • About 99 of the atoms in the Sun are hydrogen,
    but, by mass, the outer layers of the Sun are
    about
  • 78 hydrogen, 20 helium, and 2 everything else
    (metallicity).

42
THE CORE AND ENERGY GENERATION
  • Because the Sun has been fusing hydrogen to
    helium in the cove for nearly 5 billion years, we
    know the inner parts must contain more helium.

43
THE CORE AND ENERGY GENERATION
  • Overall, the Sun (by mass) is theorized to be
    about
  • 73 hydrogen, 25 helium, and 2 metallicity

44
THE CORE AND ENERGY GENERATION
  • Until recently the theory of fusion had some
    observational problems,
  • The Neutrino Problem.
  • Only about a third of the predicted neutrinos
    were seen.

45
Neutrinos provide information about the Suns
core - and have surprises of their own.
  • Current models of the solar interior predict that
    1038 neutrinos should be released every second if
    our current theories are correct.
  • Current neutrino detectors on Earth watch for
    collisions between perchloroethylene cleaning
    fluid (C2Cl4) and neutrinos which produces
    radioactive argon.
  • Only 1/3 of the expected neutrinos from the Sun
    are being detected.
  • Astronomers do not know why this occurs.

46
Mystery of the Missing Neutrinos
  • Current models of the solar interior predict that
    1038 neutrinos are released every second.
  • Current neutrino detectors on Earth watch for
    collisions between perchloroethylene cleaning
    fluid (C2Cl4) and neutrinos which produces
    radioactive argon.
  • Only 1/3 of the expected neutrinos from the Sun
    are being detected.

47
THE CORE AND ENERGY GENERATION
  • Another theory said that neutrinos, which come in
    three types, oscillate between the types.

48
THE CORE AND ENERGY GENERATION
  • This has recently been confirmed, and the
    Proton-Proton Cycle is considered to be the most
    likely form of fusion in the Sun.

49
THE CORE AND ENERGY GENERATION
  • Hydrostatic Equilibrium is a balance within a
    star between the downward pressure caused by the
    gravity force of the overlying layers and the
    upward force of the radiation trying to escape
    from the core
  • (PR FG).

50
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51
THE CORE AND ENERGY GENERATION
  • Normal stars are in hydrostatic equilibrium.
    Without it a star will pulsate.

52
RADIATIVE AND CONVECTIVE ZONES AND ENERGY
TRANSPORT
  • Energy transport goes by two routes, convection
    (in the Convective Zone) and radiation
    (throughout the Sun).
  • The energy is carried by tiny particles of light
    called photons.

53
RADIATIVE AND CONVECTIVE ZONES AND ENERGY
TRANSPORT
  • As the energy moves out from the core the photons
    bounce around hitting atoms on their way out.

54
RADIATIVE AND CONVECTIVE ZONES AND ENERGY
TRANSPORT
  • In the Radiative Zone these photons perform a
    statistical Random Walk or Drunkards Walk.

55
RADIATIVE AND CONVECTIVE ZONES AND ENERGY
TRANSPORT
  • If the photon didnt bounce around, it would only
    take about 2.3 sec. to escape to the photosphere.
  • But, it takes anywhere from 30,000 to 100,000
    years for a photon to make it from its creation
    in the core to the visible surface of the Sun,
    the photosphere

56
RADIATIVE AND CONVECTIVE ZONES AND ENERGY
TRANSPORT
  • (It takes about 8 minutes for it to reach Earth
    after that).
  • As the photon bounces it loses energy.

57
RADIATIVE AND CONVECTIVE ZONES AND ENERGY
TRANSPORT
  • It starts as a high-energy gamma ray,
  • becomes an X-ray at the bottom of the convective
    zone,
  • becomes ultraviolet light, and then visible
    light.

58
RADIATIVE AND CONVECTIVE ZONES AND ENERGY
TRANSPORT
  • Some photons degrade as far as radio wavelengths.
  • The layers of the Sun exterior to the core change
    the lethal rays created by fusion to
  • primarily life-giving visible light at the
    photosphere.

59
  • See the CLEA link
  • in the lab for a
  • statistical model
  • of the photons
  • movement.

60
RADIATIVE AND CONVECTIVE ZONES AND ENERGY
TRANSPORT
  • In the Radiative Zone the pressure is too high
    for much transport of solar material,
  • but was we get into the Convective Zone the
    primary transport is by movement of the solar
    material
  • the Sun boils.

61
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62
RADIATIVE AND CONVECTIVE ZONES AND ENERGY
TRANSPORT
  • See the chicken noodle soup model.
  • A granule is a division of the Suns
    photosphere into small convection cells.

63
RADIATIVE AND CONVECTIVE ZONES AND ENERGY
TRANSPORT
  • The center of a granule heats up and rises
    (bright center)
  • as it gets higher it cools and sinks around the
    edges of the granule (darker edges).

64
RADIATIVE AND CONVECTIVE ZONES AND ENERGY
TRANSPORT 18
  • See figs. 18-11, 12, 13.
  • You can see the tops of the granule cells in the
    photosphere.
  • http//www.whfreeman.com/universe6e/con_index.htm?

65
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66
THE OUTER LAYERS
  • The Sun does not have a hard surface as we are
    used to on Earth.
  • The Photosphere is the visible surface we see
    when we look at the Sun.

67
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68
THE OUTER LAYERS
  • It is only about 400 km thin, too thin to draw on
    your diagram of the Sun.
  • It is the place in the Sun where the Sun becomes
    transparent to visible light.

69
Granulation caused by convection
70
THE OUTER LAYERS
  • The Limb of the Sun is the edge and is
    noticeably darker than the central section.
  • This is because we can see to a greater depth due
    to the angle of sight.

71
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72
Annular Eclipse on October 3, 2005
73
THE OUTER LAYERS
  • The temperature of the photosphere is generally
    taken to be
  • 5800? C 6000 K.

74
THE OUTER LAYERS
  • The pressure there is about one hundredth that at
    Earths surface with a thousandth the density.
  • http//www.whfreeman.com/universe6e/con_index.htm?
    18

75
THE OUTER LAYERS
  • The Sun shakes. It has seismic events. It has
    a great many harmonics and could be thought of as
    a giant drum.
  • http//www.whfreeman.com/universe6e/con_index.htm?
    18

76
Astronomers probe the solar interior using the
Suns own vibrations.
Sections of the Suns surface quickly oscillate
up on down.
77
Astronomers probe the solar interior using the
Suns own vibrations.
  • Exploring the Suns interior by studying its
    vibrations is called HELIOSEISMOLOGY.
  • Because we can not actually see inside the Sun,
    helioseismology provides theoreticians with a way
    to check to be sure their models of the solar
    interior are correct.

78
THE OUTER LAYERS
  • Flares are huge hydrogen explosions on the
    photosphere.
  • They can even poke holes in the outer atmosphere
    and send particle flux to the Earth.

79
THE OUTER LAYERS
  • A very large flare a couple of years ago fried
    the new IBM communications satellite in Earth
    orbit.

80
THE OUTER LAYERS
  • Flares, sunspots and prominences originate on the
    photosphere

81
THE OUTER LAYERS
  • The Chromosphere is a region of the solar
    atmosphere lying about 2 to 3 thousand km
  • above the photosphere and
  • inside the Corona, the outer atmosphere.

82
THE OUTER LAYERS
  • The chromosphere is usually observed during solar
    eclipse.
  • It is visibly pinkish and is the coolest part of
    the Sun.
  • It is in the chromosphere where the absorption
    lines in the Suns spectrum originate.

83
The chromosphere is characterized by spikes of
rising gas.
  • The chromosphere is the thin, pinkish layer of
    SPICULES just above the photosphere.
  • Spectrum is dominated by Ha emission lines
    suggesting it is quite tenuous.
  • The temperature is higher in the chromosphere
    than the photosphere (which is opposite one would
    expect where it should get cooler with increasing
    distance).

84
THE OUTER LAYERS
  • Spicules are narrow jets of gas originating in
    the chromosphere and extending 6 to 10 thousand
    km into the corona.
  • See fig. 14 15.

85
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86
THE OUTER LAYERS
  • Spicules last only a few minutes and are not well
    understood.
  • Plages are bright areas above the photosphere.

87
THE OUTER LAYERS
  • Filaments are high arching segments of solar
    material seen in darker relief against the
    chromosphere.
  • See fig 18-18.

88
THE OUTER LAYERS
  • The Corona is the outer atmosphere of the Sun.
  • It is about 1 to 2 million Kelvins in temperature
    with temperature increasing with height.

89
The corona ejects mass into space to form the
solar wind.
  • Most easily seen during an eclipse.
  • Thin gas at millions of degrees more than
    photosphere.
  • The outflow of mass from the Sun is called the
    solar wind.

90
THE OUTER LAYERS
  • It also is observed well on Earth only during
    eclipses.
  • Prominences are eruptions of solar material from
    the photosphere into the corona.

91
THE OUTER LAYERS
  • Prominences are often enormous, rising thousands,
    even millions of kilometers above the
    photosphere.
  • See fig 18-19 20.

92
THE OUTER LAYERS
  • They can reach speeds of 1500 km/s, and slower
    moving ones may last several days.
  • http//www.whfreeman.com/universe6e/con_index.htm?
    18

93
THE OUTER LAYERS
  • The solar wind boils off the corona and extends
    throughout the solar system.
  • It can vary from a breeze to a gale depending
    of the sunspot cycle and flares.

94
The corona ejects mass into space to form the
solar wind.
  • Most easily seen during an eclipse.
  • Thin gas at millions of degrees more than
    photosphere.
  • The outflow of mass from the Sun is called the
    solar wind.

95
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96
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97
THE OUTER LAYERS
  • In a sense the Sun is evaporating.
  • The outer limits of the wind were found in 1995
    by the Pioneer spacecraft far beyond the orbit of
    Pluto.

98
THE OUTER LAYERS
  • Near the Earth the wind travels at about 400 km/s
    and has only 2-10 particles/cm3.
  • When the wind hits the Earths magnetic field
    auroras form near the poles.

99
THE OUTER LAYERS
  • Only about a tenth of one percent (0.1) of the
    original mass of the Sun has been lost since the
    Suns formation.

100
SUNSPOTS, THE MAGNETIC FIELD, AND CYCLE OF THE
SUN
  • http//www.whfreeman.com/universe6e/con_index.htm?
    18
  • http//www.hao.ucar.edu/public/slides/slide17.html

101
Sunspots are low-temperature regions in the
photosphere.
102
SUNSPOTS
  • The Chinese have seen spots on the Sun as early
    as the fifth century BC.
  • The first sunspots were seen telescopically by
    Galileo and by Harriott in the 17th century.

103
SUNSPOTS
  • Sunspots are very hot, but look dark in
    comparison to the photosphere because they are
    about 1500 K cooler.
  • They are temporary and last only a few hours to a
    few months.

104
SUNSPOTS
  • Sunspots are caused by kinks in the magnetic
    field of the Sun.
  • They have magnetic fields a thousand times
    greater than the surrounding photosphere.

105
SUNSPOTS
  • The smallest ones in fig. 21 are larger than the
    Earth.
  • Sunspots usually come in pairs with opposite
    magnetic polarities, one north and one south.

106
SUNSPOTS
  • The pairs are usually aligned in an east-west
    direction.
  • Sunspots have a cycle of about 11 years,
  • discovered by Schwabe in 1851.

107
SUNSPOTS
  • The inner, darker part of the spot is called the
  • umbra (T ? 4500K), and the outer part is the
  • penumbra (T ? 5500 K).
  • http//www.whfreeman.com/universe6e/con_index.htm?
    18

108
Sunspots are low-temperature regions in the
photosphere.
109
The daily movement of sunspots reveals that the
Suns rotation takes about 4 weeks.
110
SUNSPOTS
  • We measure the Suns magnetic field using the
  • Zeeman Effect,
  • which is the splitting of a spectral line by a
    strong magnetic field.
  • See fig. 18-23

111
SUNSPOT CYCLE
  • The sunspot cycle is composed of two sub-cycles
    of about 11 years each.
  • The overall cycle is about 22 years long.

112
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113
The cyclical change in the latitude of sunspots
also reveals that the Sun experiences an 11-year
solar cycle.
114
SUNSPOT CYCLE
  • In the beginning of the first cycle
  • 1. Few or no sunspots
  • form at about 35? latitude
  • north and south. The
  • North magnetic pole
  • is near the North geographic
  • pole.

115
Sunspot minimum
116
SUNSPOT CYCLE.
  • 2. More an more
  • spots form at lower
  • and lower latitudes
  • as the cycle advances.

117
Middle of 11 year cycle
118
SUNSPOT CYCLE
  • 3. Sunspot maximum after about 11 years with
    many large spots near the equator with many
    large flares

119
SUNSPOT CYCLE
  • 4. The first sub-
  • cycle ends with the
  • polarity of the Sun
  • reversing the North
  • magnetic pole is now
  • near the South geographic pole.

120
First sunspot maximum after 11 years, poles swap
121
SUNSPOT CYCLE
  • 5. Few or no sunspots
  • form at about 35?
  • latitude north and south.

122
Second sunspot minimum
123
  • 6. More an more spots form at lower and lower
    latitudes as the cycle advances.

124
Second middle of cycle
125
SUNSPOT CYCLE
  • 7. Sunspot maximum
  • after about 11 years
  • with many large spots
  • near the equator with
  • many large flares.

126
SUNSPOT CYCLE
  • 8. The second sub-
  • cycle ends with the
  • polarity of the Sun
  • reversing the North
  • magnetic pole is now
  • back near the North geographic pole.

127
Second maximum, end of magnetic cycle, poles back
at original orientation.
128
SUNSPOT CYCLE
  • Total magnetic sunspot cycle of the Sun is
    complete.
  • This sunspot cycle can be represented by a
    butterfly diagram of sunspot latitude vs. time.

129
The cyclical change in the latitude of sunspots
also reveals that the Sun experiences an 11-year
solar cycle.
130
DIAGRAM SOURCE NASA RECENT SUNSPOT PLOT
131
DIAGRAM SOURCE UK
132
Sunspots are produced by a 22-year cycle in the
Suns magnetic field.
  • Charged particles, such as electrons, will move
    along magnetic field lines.
  • The Sun experiences 11 years of magnetic fields
    in one direction, then 11 years of field in the
    opposite direction.

133
SUNSPOTS
  • The current model of sunspot formation has the
    magnetic field lines fastened the material of the
    Sun.
  • As the Sun rotates differentially the lines form
    tubes that become gradually twisted within the
    Sun.

134
The interior of the Sun rotates at different
rates than the exterior as well as differentially
at various latitudes. The radiative zone seems
to rotate as a rigid sphere.
135
SUNSPOTS
  • When the tubes are forced to the surface, they
    become visible as sunspots.
  • Breaking out in this sunspot kink weakens the
    lines and the sunspots die out

136
The sunspot cycle maybe be due in part to the
Suns differential rotation which might cause the
magnetic fields to wrap, intensify, then become
chaotic and cancel itself.
137
SUNSPOTS
  • The kinks also appear to cause flares. See fig.
    18-24 through fig. 18-29.
  • As new lines form deep within the Sun, the
    magnetic field direction in the emerging tubes
    will reverse over time, leading to the 22 year
    cycle.

138
This X-ray image of the Sun shows bright regions
where gas is moving along magnetic field lines.
139
SUNSPOTS
  • Sunspot cycles are NOT constant,
  • some are shorter, some longer, some stronger, and
    some nonexistent.

140
SUNSPOTS
  • The Maunder Minimum occurred in the late middle
    ages from about 1600 to about 1850.

141
SUNSPOTS
  • During part of the minimum almost no sunspots
    were observed,
  • and far fewer sunspots were observed during the
    entire minimum.

142
SUNSPOTS
  • This time corresponds to the Little Ice Age in
    Europe when temperatures were much lower than
    average.
  • Other cool minimums have been deduced for earlier
    periods including

143
MAUNDER MINIMUM INFORMATION
  • Oort minimum 1010 1050 AD
  • Wolf Minimum 1280 1340 AD
  • Spoerer Minimum 1420 1530 BC
  • Maunder Minimum 1410 1720 AD.
  • Apparently these periods of cold hot are
    cyclical and somewhat due to the Sun.

144
SUNSPOTS
  • There also may be a connection to our global
    warming cycle,
  • since the last two sunspot cycles have been the
    most active on record.
  • We have been at record warmth during these cycles.

145
SUNSPOTS
  • There is no evidence that sunspots are related to
    real ice ages.
  • These appear to be due to geographical, axial,
    and orbital changes.

146
SUNSPOTS
  • Sunspots, flares and solar wind have other
    effects on the Earth among which are

147
SUNSPOTS
  • 1. Communications Disruptions (EMFs)Satellite
    destruction2. Aurora (Northern and Southern
    Lights)3. Atmospheric expansion4. Cooler (and
    hotter?) overall Earth temperatures.

148
The Suns magnetic field also produces other
forms of solar activity.
  • plages
  • filaments

149
Solar magnetic fields also create other
atmospheric phenomena.
  • plages
  • filaments
  • prominences

150
Solar magnetic fields also create other
atmospheric phenomena.
  • plages
  • filaments
  • prominences
  • solar flares
  • coronal holes

151
Solar magnetic fields also create other
atmospheric phenomena.
  • plages
  • filaments
  • prominences
  • solar flares
  • coronal holes
  • coronal mass ejections (CMEs)

152
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153
Guiding Questions
  • What is the source of the Suns energy?
  • What is the internal structure of the Sun?
  • How can astronomers measure the properties of the
    Suns interior?
  • How can we be sure that thermonuclear reactions
    are happening in the Suns core?
  • Does the Sun have a solid surface?
  • Since the Sun is so bright, how is it possible to
    see its dim outer atmosphere?
  • Where does the solar wind come from?
  • What are sunspots? Why do they appear dark?
  • What is the connection between sunspots and the
    Suns magnetic field?
  • What causes eruptions in the Suns atmosphere?
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