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SnowFlock:Rapid Virtural Machine Cloning for Cloud Computing

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H. Andr s Lagar-Cavilla, Joseph A. Whitney, Adin Scannell, Philip Patchin, ... They are: NCBI BLAST, SHRiMP, ClustalW, QuantLib, Aqsis-Renderman,Distcc. Comparison ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: SnowFlock:Rapid Virtural Machine Cloning for Cloud Computing


1
SnowFlockRapid Virtural Machine Cloning for
Cloud Computing
  • H. Andrés Lagar-Cavilla, Joseph A. Whitney, Adin
    Scannell, Philip Patchin, Stephen M. Rumble,Eyal
    de Lara, Michael Brudno, Satyanarayanan
  • University of Toronto and Carnegie Mellon
    University

2
Outline
  • Background
  • Design and building block of the P2P_VoD system
  • Performance metrics and measurement methodology
  • Measurement result and analysis
  • Future work

3
Background
  • Cloud computing shifts the hardware and staffing
    costs of managing a computational center to third
    parties.
  • Major advantage of cloud computing is the
    ability to use a variable number of physical
    machines and VM instances depending on the needs
    of the problem
  • Shortage
  • Instantiating new VMs is a slow operation
  • Unaware of the current application state
  • Idle VMs are likely to be consolidated and
    swapped out, incurring costly migration delays
    before they can be used

4
Related work
  • Area of replication
  • Potemkin(Vrable 2005)short-lived lightweight VMs
    cloned from a static template in the same machine
    with memory copy-on-write techniques
  • Remus(Cully 2008)instantaneous failover by
    keeping an up-to-date replica of a VM in a
    separate host
  • Copy on reference
  • Theimer 1985, Zayas 1987 precursor to our
    memory-on-demand technique
  • Lagar-Cavilla 2007,Sapuntzakis 2002,Kozuch 2002
    lazy copy-on reference for VM disk state
  • Capability
  • Amazon EC2follows industry standard techniques
    for the provisioning of VMs on the
    fly(unpublished)consolidtion via memory sharing
    live migration ballooning,resuming from
    disk(Steinder 2007,Waldspurger 2002, VMotiion
    2005)

5
Related work
  • SnowFlock take advantage of
  • Emeneker 2007,Foster 2006 ,Chase 2003virtual
    cluster focusing on resource provisioning and
    management
  • Usher(McNett 2007)a manager of clusters of VMs
    that could be plugged in as a SnowFlock resource
    manager
  • Emulab(Hibler 2008)instantiate dozens of nodes
    for a network emulation experiment
  • Frisbee(hibler 2003) multicast distribution to
    apply disk images to nodes during experiment
    setup
  • RDMA and Infiniband(huang 2007)high-speed
    interconnects

6
VM fork
  • familiar to process fork, each child have a vmid
  • Include integration with a dedicated, isolated
    virtual network connecting child VMs with their
    parent
  • Usage model the ephemeral nature of children
  • Replicate all the processes and threads of the
    parent VM

7
VM fork differences
  • Forked copy can instantiated on a set of
    different physical machines that takes advantage
    of large compute clusters.Compare to Vrable
    2005
  • Parallel enabling the creation of multiple child
    VMs with a single call
  • Replicates all of the processes and threads of
    the originating VM

8
VM fork
Several useful and well-known patterns that are
based on stateful replication
9
Design Rationale
  • Network latency

10
Four insights in implementation
  • Possible to start executing a child VM on a
    remote site by initially replicating only minimal
    state
  • Children will typically access only a fraction of
    the original memory image of the parent
  • Be common for children to allocate memory after
    forking
  • Children often execute similar code and access
    common data structures

11
SnowFlock implementation
  • Implemented as a combination of modifications to
    the Xen VMM and daemons that run in d0
  • Based on lazy state replication combined with
    avoidance heuistics to minimize state transfer
  • Steps of SnowFlock

12
API
13
VM Descriptors
  • Metadata describing the VM and its virtual
    devices
  • A few memory pages shared between the VM and the
    Xen hypervisor
  • The registers of the main VCPU
  • GDT used by the x86 segmentation hardware for
    memory protection
  • The page tables of VM

14
Replication descripter Time
15
Memory-On-Demand
  • Memtap impliments A copy-on-access policy for
    the clone VMs memory
  • Use shadow page tables
  • parent VM implements a copy-on-write policy to
    serve the memory image
  • SMP-safe shared bitmap is used by Xen and memtap
    to the presence of the memory

16
Memtap,Heuristics,multicast
17
Avoidance Heuristics
  • To bypass numbers of unnecesary memory fetches
    while retaining correctness, two fetch avoidance
    policies are provided
  • Optimize the general case in which a clone VM
    allocates new state
  • Addresses the case where a virtual IO device
    writes to the guest memory

18
Multicast Distribution
  • Switch programming
  • use IP-multicast in order to send data to
    multiplehosts simultaneously
  • Receive pages asynchronously and unpredictably in
    response to requests by fellow VM clones
  • Flow control logic
  • using a weighted average of the number of bytes
    transmitted or received every ten ms
  • lockstep detection, which aims to leverage the
    similarity in memory access patterns across clones

19
Virtural IO Devices in SnowFlock
  • SnowFlock provides a Virtual Disk for each clone
    VM
  • COW slice rendering the previous state of the
    disk immutable
  • For data-intensive tasks, use NFS, Hadoop or
    Lustre
  • Guarantees secure network isolation
  • Package level rewritting
  • ARP

20
Evaluation
  • 3 typical applications from bioinformatics and 3
    applications representative of the fields of
    graphics rendering, parallel compilation, and
    financial services.
  • They are NCBI BLAST, SHRiMP, ClustalW, QuantLib,
    Aqsis-Renderman,Distcc

21
Comparison
22
Single thread zero-cost
23
Cycle cloning
24
Future Work
  • Interactions of VM fork with data parallel APIs
    such as MapReduce
  • Push VM state in the background
  • Apply SnowFlock techniques to wide-area VM
    migration

25
Thanks
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