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OCT Environmental Profiles

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Example of effect of sea-level rise. Papeete, French Polynesia, with airport ... is one of the most important sea-bird colonies in the world, with 22 species ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: OCT Environmental Profiles


1
OCT Environmental Profiles
2
Climate change in Greenland
Source Arctic Climate Impact Assessment
3
Example of effect of sea-level rise
Simulation for Papeete
Same view, after sea-rise of 88 cm.
Papeete, French Polynesia, with airport at present
4
What is an environmental profile?
  • A concise (10 pages) document for each territory
  • describing the main environmental issues
  • giving sufficient background to put these issues
    in context
  • giving basic data about the organisational
    infrastructure
  • giving details of participation in international
    environmental agreements, cooperative
    partnerships and networks.
  • Environment includes climate change and natural
    hazards.
  • Special emphasis on socio-economic impacts,
    livelihoods, poverty.

5
Why an environmental profile?
  1. To feed discussions on the environment and
    possible consequences environmental trends may
    have on OCTs socio-economic development.
  2. More specifically, to assist the EU in
    programming its EDF assistance to the OCTs.

6
Methodology Timing
  • Basically a desk study
  • Questionnaire
  • Feedback

.. 2006
July August September October November
Drafting of EPs
Feedback from OCTs, finalisation of EPs
Draft EPs
Final EPs
7
About the OCTs Diversity
From To
GR 83N 90S BA
WF 176E 166W NC
PIT 0.05 2166 GR
SPM 12 5500 FP
PIT 0.05 275 FP
GR 0.03 538 MAY
BVI 38.5 2.2 MAY
24 2700
Aruba 1 113 FP
  • Latitude.
  • Longitude.
  • Land area (x 1000 km2)
  • EEZ .(x 1000 km2)
  • Population....(x 1000)
  • Population density (/km2)
  • GDP/capita (000)
  • Remoteness(km.).
  • No. of inhabited islands

8
(No Transcript)
9
About the OCTs Commonalities
  • (Small) islands or archipelagos
  • Small population
  • Vulnerable economies
  • Natural hazards incidence and vulnerability ?
  • A number of factors are of disproportionate
    importance
  • biodiversity, endemism
  • OCTs account for 0.02 of world population, 2.7
    of area, but 16 of worlds freshwater
  • strategic importance

10
Natural hazards and OCTs
ANG ARU BVI CAY FLK FP GR MAY MON NC NLA PIT STH STPM TC WF
Cyclone/ Hurricane WIND
Volcanic TDC
Seismic ASC
Tsunami
Severe risk
Moderate risk
Low risk
11
OCTs and the environment
  • Environmental problems characterised by
  • Complexity long chains of effects
  • Interrelatedness
  • Between environmental aspects
  • Between environment and economy

12
Example of complexity coral reefs
Extreme weather events
GLOBAL fossil fuel combustion
Green-house gas emissions
Sea and wave damage
Exacerbates
Acidification
GLOBAL Deforestation
Damage
Mitigates
Rising sea and air temp.
Habitat for fish
LOCAL Unsustainable tourism
Services
Protects spawning grounds
Bleaching
Sea level rise
LOCAL Unsustainable fishing
Tourist attraction
Drowning
Sand replenishment
LOCAL Other pressures
Destruction, sedimentation, nutrients
13
Dealing with complexity DPSIR model
Monitoring
Measures
  • Responses
  • Designation protected areas
  • Sewage treatment
  • Recycling
  • Adaptation
  • Pressures
  • Sewage discharges
  • Waste
  • CO2 emissions
  • Overfishing
  • Drivers
  • Population
  • Traffic
  • Development
  • Industry
  • State
  • Warmer air / water
  • Polluted water
  • Impacts
  • Loss of habitat, wildlife
  • Coastal retreat
  • Reduced fish catch
  • Reduced tourism

14
3 major environmental issues in OCTs
  • Climate change
  • Solid waste
  • Biodiversity

15
Issue 1 Climate change
  • Climate change has following features which
    distinguish it from other environmental problems
  • Global
  • Long-term
  • Some of the science is uncertain
  • Wide range of different effects
  • Some scenarios are catastrophic

16
Climate change and small tropical islands
PRESSURES
STATE ........... IMPACTS.............
Physical Socio-economic
direct econ. costs
coastal erosion, inundation
tourism

degradation coral reefs
fisheries
salinisation of soils groundwater
disruption communities
health issues
agriculture
17
Climate change in Greenland
PRESSURES
PHYSICAL IMPACTS
GLOBAL IMPACTS
GHG emissions
Global deforestation
Rising global sea-level
Thermohaline circulation
Melting ice-sheet flux of (fresh) water
SOCIO-ECONOMIC IMPACTS
higher air and water temps
Impacts on fisheries
Changes in drainage / hydrology
Wildlife loss
Impacts on society, traditional customs
Changes in ecosystems / habitat
Opening of new navigational possibilities
Loss of sea-ice
Impacts on infrastructure
Changes in permafrost
STATE
18
Vulnerability to climate change
Vulner-ability OCTs Remarks
High ANG, ARU, BVI, FP, NLA, TC, CAY, FP GR MAY MON NC PIT Low-lying areas, tourism-dependent Threats to sea-ice, fisheries, wildlife, permafrost Large population in low-lying areas More intense natural events Cyclone-prone, fishing industry Risk of drought
Medium FLK STH STPM Fishery dependent Some threat to agric. fisheries Flooding and erosion of low-lying areas
19
Issue 1 Climate change CO2 emissions
  • OCTs account for lt0.1 of CO2 emissions, will
    bear disproportionate impact.
  • But, look at per capita emissions.

Source US Department of Energy CO2 Information
Analysis Centre (CDIAC)
20
Issue 2 Solid waste in OCTs
  • Main challenges
  • Lack of critical size to make modern WM
    facilities cost-effective
  • Lack of facilities, critical size, markets to
    make recycling and composting feasible
  • lack of public awareness
  • Hazardous waste
  • Problems noted in following
  • ARU, CAY, MAY, NC, NLA, PF, STH ( ASCTDC), WF

21
Issue 3 Biodiversity Conservation
  • The OCTs are very rich in biodiversity, including
    many endemic and endangered species
  • New Caledonia contains the highest number of
    endemic species in the Pacific 2500 plants, 20
    freshwater fish, 60 reptiles, 25 birds, 6 mammals
  • The UK overseas territories contain at least 10 x
    as many endemic species as the UK itself.
  • Gough Island, a WH site in TDC, is one of the
    most important sea-bird colonies in the world,
    with 22 species breeding on island, some
    threatened.

22
Issue 3 Biodiversity Conservation
  • Why conserve biodiversity?
  • Because of international obligations under the
    Convention on Biological Diversity.
  • Because the wildlife is one of the major assets
    of the islands, a source of actual or potential
    livelihoods and food (tourism, fishing)

23
Issue 3 Biodiversity Conservation
  • Main threats to biodiversity
  • Habitat loss and fragmentation
  • Introduced species
  • Overharvesting
  • MEAs such as the CBD, Ramsar, Convention on
    Migratory Species, CITES provide instruments to
    help conserve biodiversity (designation of
    protected areas, preparation of management
    plans), but these have not yet been properly
    implemented in law by many OCTs.

24
Some first tentative conclusions
  1. Generally no conflict between general development
    objectives and environmental objectives. On the
    contrary, the protection of the environment,
    marine and terrestrial habitats and wildlife is
    crucial to the economic and social well-being of
    territories.
  2. Most decision-makers are aware of the need to
    ensure their development is sustainable. However
    awareness needs to be translated into formal and
    legal safeguards provisions for EIA, full
    implementation of MEAs, etc.

25
Some first tentative conclusions (contd.)
  • Climate change
  • Some OCTs are amongst the most vulnerable in the
    world to climate change. All will be
    significantly affected.
  • OCTs need to take all possible measures to
    impress on the world community the need for
    strong action to reduce GHG emissions.
  • At the same time, adaptation needs to be
    mainstreamed into development planning.
  • Possible actions include
  • - form alliances with regional and international
    groupings to make sure the voice of the OCTs is
    heard by the world community
  • - participate in research projects for which
    they are suited in regional or global
    partnerships, so as to reduce uncertainties
  • - maintain credibility by setting a good
    example
  • - public awareness campaigns.
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