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A Whole School Approach to Physical Activity


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Title: A Whole School Approach to Physical Activity

  • A Whole School Approach to Physical Activity

Matt Lowther
  • National Physical Activity
  • Policy Co-ordinator,
  • Scottish Executive

Schools (Health Promotion and Nutrition) Bill
  • Provision of food and drink in schools
  • Health promotion in schools
  • Place a duty on education authorities to
    endeavour to ensure that all schools are health
  • As a result of the Bill, all education
    authorities must ensure that health promoting
    school strategies form part of the annual
    statement of improvement objectives which then
    forms the basis of the school development plan
  • Incorporates physical activity, food and mental

Physical Activity Element
  • Steering group formed
  • Asked to produce a framework for taking a whole
    school approach to physical activity
  • Framework would identify what schools could and
    should be doing to promote physical activity
  • The idea being that a national framework would
    aid planning, build consistency and help share
    examples of good practice
  • Also help all the major delivery partners (ASC,
    School Travel Coordinators, Cultural
    Coordinators) identify their specific contribution

Schools Bill Physical Activity
  • Active Travel
  • Active Curriculum
  • Out of School Hours
  • Cross-cutting Themes
  • School ethos/culture
  • Partnerships
  • Facilities and environments
  • Staff training and education
  • Policy and planning
  • Monitoring and evaluation

How does it fit?
  • Health Promoting Schools
  • Builds on and strengthens HPS
  • A Curriculum for Excellence
  • Learning through health and well being
  • Guidance informing outcomes currently under

Aims of Today?
  • Us to update you and share examples of good
    current/good practice
  • You to give us your thoughts / comments through
  • The formal workshop sessions
  • Informally through the flipcharts or face-to-face
  • Collect examples of current/good practice (forms
    in delegate packs)
  • All presentations available via HPSU website

Gavinburn Primary SchoolOld KilpatrickWest
Active Travel The Evidence and the Practice
Promoting active school travel evidence base
  • Jo Inchley
  • Child and Adolescent Health Research Unit
  • The University of Edinburgh

(No Transcript)
Modes of travel to schoolScottish Household
Survey 2005
School journeys current trends
  • Younger children (aged 4-11yrs) more likely to
    walk than older children (aged 12-18yrs)
  • Travel by car more common among younger children
  • Travel by bus more common among older children
  • High household family income (gt40k) positively
    associated with car use and negatively associated
    with walking
  • Bus travel is more common in rural areas and
    walking is more common in urban areas. Travel by
    car does not vary much by area type.
  • Since mid-1980s, walking to school has fallen
    (69 ? 53) and travel by car has risen (6 ?
    21). There has been little change in bus use.
  • Proportion of 7-8 year olds who travel to school
    independently decreased from 80 in 1970 to 10
    in 1990

Sources http//www.scotland.gov.uk/Topics/Statist
Hillman et al., 1990
Active Travel days pupils who walked or cycled
to school every day last week
Source Physical Activity in Scottish
Schoolchildren (PASS) study
Relationship between active school travel and
physical activity
  • Walking to school associated with higher levels
    of physical activity among primary schoolchildren
    (Cooper et al., 2003, Cooper et al., 2005)
  • Among 13 year olds, walking to and from school
    was associated with a mean increase of 25.9
    minutes MVPA per day compared with those who
    travelled by car, bus or train (Alexander et al.,
  • Walking to school had no impact on overall weekly
    physical activity among 5 year olds (Metcalf et
    al., 2004)
  • Cycling to school associated with higher levels
    of cardiovascular fitness compared with walking
    or car among 9-15 yrs olds (Cooper et al., 2006)

Influences on active travel to school
  • Benefits include
  • Physical activity
  • Development of spatial skills road awareness
  • Knowledge of local environment
  • Promotes independence responsibility
  • Barriers include
  • ENVIRONMENTAL - distance, traffic, weather
    conditions, unsafe road crossings, condition of
    footpaths, lack of lockers
  • SOCIAL - personal safety, lack of company
  • PARENTAL - parental work patterns, parental
    views on importance of physical activity

Evaluation of active travel across the
primary-secondary school transition pilot projects
  • Perceived benefits of walking and cycling to
  • Fitness 60
  • Social 40
  • Health 37
  • Environment 32
  • Practicality 29
  • Good exercise 27
  • Fun 26
  • Fresh air 22
  • Safety 10
  • Less traffic 7

Evaluation of active travel across the
primary-secondary school transition pilot projects
  • Reasons for not walking or cycling to school
  • Live too far away 48
  • Not enough time 24
  • Too much to carry 8
  • Busy roads 7
  • Not allowed 5
  • Feel unsafe 4
  • Dont like walking / cycling 3
  • Other 21

Evaluation of active travel across the
primary-secondary school transition pilot projects
  • What would encourage you to walk or cycle to
  • Continuous pathway 86
  • Safer road crossings 84
  • Wider footpaths 82
  • School lockers 81
  • Less traffic 80
  • People to walk with 78
  • Shorter distance 76
  • Safe cycle storage 76
  • No worries about bullies 76
  • Better street lighting 70

Who says P.E. class cant start at your door?
Nicola Boyle Project OfficerSustrans
  • 31 would like to cycle to school
  • 88 owned bikes
  • 1 cycle to school

What is a School Travel Plan?
Process Consultation Living document Sign of
Why are we looking at the school journey?
  • Scotland's National Transport Strategy
  • Promote cycling and walking as sustainable forms
    of transport especially for short journeys.
  • Reduce congestion in town and cities caused by
    the school run
  • Inactive Children
  • 26 of boys and 37 of girls in the 2-15 age
    group are not meeting guideline physical activity

  • Cycling, Walking and Safer Streets (CWSS)
  • Tackling The School Run Funding
  • Local Sponsorship
  • Fundraising

Success and sustainability can be achieved
without funding!
Sustainable success
  • Bring new members into action group
  • Include STP in school development plan
  • Curriculum links
  • Link to other schemes ie Health Promoting Schools
  • Involve pupil council
  • Introduce weekly/monthly/ annual events
  • Continue surveys - measure effectiveness
  • Keep up the profile - publicity
  • Adapt the plan as needs change


Kinloss Primary, Moray
  • Active travel group
  • -walking bus
  • -progressing their travel plan to cater for the
    growing numbers of cyclists.
  • 20 cycle
  • Cycle training

Skene School, Aberdeen
  • P6 P7 pupils, HT STC
  • Pupil led questionnaires
  • STP as leaflet
  • Hi Vis vest sponsorship
  • Travel Diaries, Green the tree, Walking Bus

Reduction in car use - 10
Oban High School, Argyll and Bute
  • Took part in Transition Pilot in 2006
  • This year they tied it in with Enterprise
  • Transition is now fully integrated into Oban High

Parkview Pupils Turf the Street, Glasgow
  • To launch the Parkview Travel Plan there was a
    temporary road closure
  • A day of fun activities for all the pupils to
    engage in

East Linton Primary, East Lothian
  • School Travel Plan
  • Travel survey data highlighted the need for a
    link path
  • Project received funding from TSR
  • The school anticipate that this link will allow
    over 60 of the pupils to travel to and from
    school by foot or cycle.
  • Provides a benefit to the whole community

Before and After

Develop a school travel plan which encourages and
enables safe and active travel in partnership
with staff, pupils, parents and other key
partners Implement and regularly review the
school travel plan in partnership with the School
Travel Coordinator Ensure continual support for
the promotion of safe and active travel Ensure
provision within the school of resources and
facilities to support active travel (e.g. cycle
racks, lockers, training) Integrate active
travel into existing transition programmes
including both nursery-primary and
primary-secondary transition

(No Transcript)
Presentation and workshop discussions
Active Curriculum
Benny Lawrie
  • National Development Officer
  • Scottish Health Promoting Schools Unit

  • Health Well Being Programme
  • Physical Education
  • Peer Education
  • Active Classroom
  • Outdoor Learning

Peer Support Mentoring Encourage and support
physical activity peer support and mentoring
opportunities within the curriculum Active
Classroom Maximise opportunities to be active
within the classroom throughout the school day
  • Outdoor Learning
  • Provide regular opportunities to
  • take learning outside of the
  • Classroom, either within the school
  • Grounds or into the wider
  • Community i.e. local park or
  • Community forest.

Health Well Being Programmes Integrate
physical activity into the health and well being
programme. Physical Education Demonstrate a
commitment to 2 hours quality PE Maximise
opportunities for cross curricular links
Bathgate Academy
Heading Text 42pt
Body Copy, Arial 28pt, black.
Girls get Active PE, Sport Physical Activity
Hazel Williamson Youth Sport Trust
  • TOP Tots, TOP Start
  • TOP Play, TOP Sport, TOP Dance, TOP Outdoors
  • TOP Play, TOP Sport, TOP Activity
  • TOP Link, LIVING for SPORT, Dreams Teams, Nike
    Girls in Sport

Active Woods presentation Kevin
Lafferty Central Scotland Health Advisor

Childrens access to woodland
  • Children have less free or wide ranging access
    to the outdoor environment than previous
  • There is a rapidly growing understanding of the
    fundamental importance of experiencing natural
    settings such as woodlands for their healthy
    physical, mental, cognitive, emotional and social
    development (Travlou, 2006)


Woods For Health

There is substantial evidence that links the
natural environment with good physical health and
psychological well-being The Biophilia
Hypothesis states that the desire for contact
with nature is partly innate. As natural green
environments have increasingly come under
pressure from economic development, so it seems
our own well-being has suffered as a consequence
Childrens access to woodland
nature deficit disorder
  • Louv (2005) Claims such deprivation can result
    in cultural autism. It is claimed that nature
    deficit disorder results from the replacement of
    a primary experience of nature by the secondary,
    vicarious, one way experience of television and
    electronic media.
  • (Louv 2005) advocates that the only way to
    prevent or cure this disorder he calls nature
    deficit disorder is for children to experience
    natural environments

Childrens access to woodland
  • Research on the development of 11 and 12 year
    old children has produced the alarming finding
    that they are now on average between two and
    three years behind where they were 15 years ago
    in terms of cognitive and conceptual development
  • Shayer has speculated that the most likely
    reason are lack of experiential play in
    primary schools and the growth in video-game, TV
    culture (Shayer in Crace, 2006)

Childrens access to woodland
  • Bingley and Miligan (2004) have documented the
    links between outdoor play in natural settings
    during childhood and mental health and well-being
    during young adulthood
  • They concluded that childhood play in natural
    settings has a long term positive effect on
    mental health and well-being during young
    adulthood and that woodlands and forests can
    provide certain therapeutic qualities that a
    young adult may use to alleviate stress and
    mental health problems.

Childrens access to woodland
Evidence of mental health benefits of
nature Increasing evidence that children with
attention deficit disorder have better levels of
concentration when exposed to nature Source
Taylor AF, Kuo FE and Sullivan WC, 2001. Coping
with ADD The surprising connection to green play
settings. Environments and Behaviour 3355-77
Woods for health
  • Woodlands and green spaces improve our health and
  • Taking part in green exercise and using and
    viewing woodlands and open spaces helps improve
  • Physical health
  • Social wellbeing and
  • Psychological wellbeing

What is Forestry Commission Scotland doing to
help improve Scotlands health and
well-being? Woods for Health

FCS Forestry For People Programmes
Woods for Health
Increasing our contribution to health Location
Increase woodland access opportunities
Accessibility safe, attractive, high quality
woodland-based facilities for target groups
Working in partnership
Information increasing awareness
A whole school approach to physical activity
Environment Tree nursery, gardens, access to
local Woods and Greenspace, safe routes to
school via green corridors, natural play spaces.
Curriculum links Health well-being Peer
support and mentoring Physical education Active
classroom Outdoor learning
Ethos climate Physical activity policy that
supports outdoor activity in woodland and
Links with family community Outward looking
programme Extra curricular activities, woodland
health walks natural play, cycling, bug hunts and
woodland art
Staff health welfare Staff become more active.
Social interaction with children improves.
Role of specialist Services Forest Schools
Mountain bike case study / Cumbernauld glen
Mountain biking case study Aim To encourage
children to participate in mountain biking in
woodland settings as part of secondary schools
core PE, after school OSHL programs Partnership
with Scottish Wildlife Trust, Cycling Scotland
and two secondary schools in Cumbernauld New
mountain bike trail in urban woodland setting
with skills loop, blue and red trail options.
Coaching opportunities for senior pupils to
become mountain bike leaders
Woodland visit / Merrylee primary school
Curriculum links Health and well-being, active
classroom and outdoor learning
Natural Play an example of a whole school
approach to Physical Activity Utilising school
grounds or adjacent greenspace and woodland

Key Elements
  • Topography - hills and hollows
  • Vegetation - Trees
  • and bushes

Key Elements
  • Logs for climbing and balancing
  • Gravel safety surface
  • Low Fall Height

  • Focus on natural environment
  • Less play structures
  • More robust in urban settings
  • Greater play value
  • social interaction
  • constructive play
  • health benefits
  • children choose

  • Recent research has shown a need to re-connect
    people with the great outdoors
  • Forests and woodlands are natural stress
    relievers as they offer a calming environment and
    help improve our health and well-being
  • Evidence demonstrate the link between nature and
    health the Biophilia Hypothesis
  • Children who use and enjoy outside places grow
    into adults who do likewise. The natural
    environment encourages physical activity

Clear links to curriculum for excellence
including outdoor learning, active classroom,
health wellbeing. PE and peer support and
mentoring standards
Active Woods for Learning
  • Wendy Gray
  • Central Scotland Education Officer


British Medical Association, June 2005 Report on
Childhood Obesity Such prevention
strategies will require a co-ordinated effort
between the medical community, health
administrators, teachers, parents, food producers
and processors, retailers and caterers,
advertisers and the media, recreation and sport
planners, urban architects, city planners,
politicians and legislators.
Local Woods for Learning
  • Why Woods?
  • Forestry Commission
  • Forest Education Initiative
  • Forest School
  • Outdoor Classrooms

Why Woods?
  • Special qualities of woodlands for learning
  • Resource-rich
  • Robust
  • Safe
  • Sheltered
  • Changing
  • Calming

Forest Education Initiative
Wooden Games
Woodland Bus
Forest School Aim
  • To develop young people who are successful
    learners, confident individuals, who effectively
    contribute towards the natural environment and
    are socially and environmentally responsible
  • Forest School Scotland.

How is Forest School Different?
  • Regular, repeated visits to a woodland setting
  • Takes full advantage of special qualities of
  • Encourages and develops an individuals self
    esteem and independent skills
  • Observe and identify participants natural
    learning styles in a different environment
  • Tailor activities and challenges to suit learning

Forest School Activities
den building
exploring nature
lighting fires cooking
using tools
arts, crafts, games and activities
Health Benefits
The best kind of classroom
  • This is the best kind of classroom
  • no walls, just sky and trees
  • This is the best kind of classroom
  • no radiators, just a gentle breeze.
  • You can learn well here,
  • as the birds sing,
  • about your place
  • in the scheme of things.
  • This is the best kind of classroom
  • its a journey through time and space
  • from the smallest seed to the largest tree
  • this is a forest and a learning place
  • This is the best kind of classroom
  • where the seasons dont happen in books
  • where the learning is watching and thinking and

Out of School Hours Learning, the evidence and
the practice
Kirsten Collin
  • Partnership Manager
  • sportscotland

OSHL Definition
  • Out of School Hours Learning has evolved to
    become a collective term encompassing the wide
    variety of opportunities and activities offered
    through schools with their partners, outwith the
    formal school day. For example
  • Study support, homework clubs and additional
    support for key skills
  • Activities related to enterprise, sustainability
    and the environment
  • Creative ventures music, drama, school shows
    and the full range of arts
  • Sports, games and adventurous activities
  • Community service and volunteering opportunities
  • Transitional events primary to secondary
  • Summer to Easter schools
  • Active travel and playground activities
  • Breakfast clubs and lunchtime study
  • Links to Duke of Edinburgh and other accredited
  • More than 9 to 4 out of school hours learning in
    scottish education, Scottish Executive 2006

Out of School Hours LearningEvidence and
AspirationsSummer KenessonDirectorQuality and
Education Centre
Our recent work
  • Working with LTS and SEED to
  • Research international applications of out of
    school hours learning
  • Develop the wider achievement agenda
  • Support practice which enhances the principles of
  • A Curriculum for Excellence

What we know
  • OOSHL is good for parents...
  • OOSHL is good for the community...
  • OOSHL is good for providers...
  • OOSHL is good for government...
  • OOSH L C is good for children!
  • Risk can be transformed into opportunity for our
    youth by turning their non-school hours into the
    time of their lives.
  • --A Matter of TimeCarnegie Corporation

Whats happening
  • Thirty years of research show the difference
    family involvement makes in children's learning
    and in life chances for success. Family
    involvement in after-school programs is just as
    important. The success of an after-school program
    depends on the involvement of both families and
    the community.
  • PTA policy statement 1992

Whats happening
  • Collaboration often requires changes in
    traditional roles, responsibilities,
    expectations, relationships, and schedules. These
    changes can frustrate even the best of efforts if
    the people who implement the new program do not
    share common goals, a vision for what the
    after-school program can accomplish, and an
    understanding of the populations the program will
    target and the strategies to be used.
  • US DE 1996

Links in Scotland
  • The link to learning recognising wider
    achievement and developing OOSHL
  • What do we mean?
  • Celebration, assessment, or reflection?
  • What are we trying to achieve? What can we learn?
  • Whats stopping us?
  • How far should we go?

Recognition and recording
  • Recognition might be
  • Learners making a connection with learning
  • Understanding learning intentions
  • assessment of understanding
  • Recognition is a learning process too
  • Recording might be
  • Part of the process/activity (reflective diaries)
  • Assessing the learning and not the activity
  • Structure the evidence to show the
  • Ownership by children based on understanding

Whats the point?
  • A multitude of objectives who knows whats
  • Policies
  • Agencies
  • Activities
  • Stakeholders
  • Are we looking in the wrong places?
  • Good practice in policy, good practice in practice

Findings Issues, challenges, obstacles
  • We contact local community groups and ask them
    which of our students are involved
  • When they leave us, the portfolio may never get
    opened again, let alone continued
  • The parents are amazed to see what their children
    can do
  • Its all attainment, attainment, attainment
  • Please dont turn this into a certificate for the
    nice but not too brighta standard grade in
    being good
  • It takes quite a bit of time
  • Were working in a bit of a vacuum
  • We do this already

What do pupils think?
  • Findings here and abroad
  • Students respond to assessment
  • Students dont have equal accesshow wide does
    the responsibility go?
  • Can reinforce low as well as high self esteem,
    bad as well as good behaviour
  • I do it because it isnt part of school and I
    dont who all the people are who are looking at
    it (57)
  • Time consuming and not important (17)

Contact Details
  • Summer Kenesson
  • Director, QIE
  • Tel 0141 950 3369
  • summer.kenesson_at_strath.ac.uk

OSHL Recommendations
  • Schools should
  • promote and/or provide a broad balanced and age
    appropriate range of extra curricular actvities
    in sport and physical activity for all pupils
  • Provide and promote a range of opportunities for
    both formal and structured, informal and
    unstructured physical activity opportunities
    within breaktimes and lunchtimes
  • Provide work in partnership with the wider
    community to maximise their grounds to promote
    physical activity opportunities for all

Out of School Care Recommendation
  • The range of opportunities provided by Out of
    School Care providers will vary from service to
    service, but where these are provided on site,
    schools should support the integration and
    provision of physical activity opportunities for

Presentation and workshop discussions
Renfrewshire School of Sport Education
The Background
  • European Year of Education Through Sport 2004
  • School Sport Coordinators Programme
  • Maximising opportunities for children and young
    people to participate

Mission Statement
  • Renfrewshire Council will create a school of
    sport education for 16-18 year olds currently
    assisting in the delivery of sports coaching
    within the school setting. Students will have
    the opportunity to become involved in the
    programme to broaden their knowledge and
    experience of coaching young people.

What is it?
  • An education programme for senior students from
    all Local Authority secondary schools
  • Weekly voluntary commitment
  • September March
  • Enabling schools and communities to offer more
    opportunities for sport and physical activity

Key Partners
  • Schools
  • Paisley University
  • NOF PE and Sport Programme
  • Active Schools
  • Volunteer Development Scotland
  • Parents and Young People

The Process
  • National Governing Body Qualifications
  • Sports Leader Award (CSLA)
  • Child Protection Training
  • Disclosure Scotland
  • Sports Medicine First Aid Certificate
  • Sports Coach UK Modules
  • TOP Play/TOP Sport Training
  • Millennium Volunteer Awards

Added Value
  • Voluntary Service in Schools and Communities
    9478 hours
  • Providing Festivals of Sport 10 festivals 493
  • Millennium Volunteers Award 62 Awards
  • Supporting Active Schools and NOPES programmes
  • 271 National Governing Body Awards
  • 62 TOPS Community Leaders

  • 24 students graduated in 2005
  • 20 students graduated in 2006
  • 18 students will graduate in 2007
  • Bronze COSLA Award in 2005
  • Silver COSLA Award in 2006
  • 1 Volunteer Community Coach of the Year
  • 1 Young Peoples Fund Panel member
  • 16 of the class 07 intend to pursue a career in
  • 18 former students on the coaching database

Working with young people
What difference have we made?
  • Created more capacity within schools and local
    communities to bring about an increase in the
    number of physical activity sessions and sporting
    opportunities available for children and young

More People
More Active
More Often
Matt Lowther
  • National Physical Activity
  • Policy Co-ordinator,
  • Scottish Executive

Thank you
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