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Title: Hot issues and future prospect of the school English curriculum and material development


1
Hot issues and future prospect of the school
English curriculum and material development
  • ??????????????
  • ??????????

2
Controversial issues ??????
  • Language instrumental and humanistic features
    ??????????
  • Language and culture ?????
  • Structure, topic and function ????????
  • Language knowledge and language use
  • ?????????
  • Authenticity and practicability ??????????
  • Listening and speaking vs. reading and
    writing?????
  • 7. Use of the mother tongue and the target
    language
  • ?????????
  • 8. Foreign language and other subjects ???????
  • Imported and local textbooks ?????????
  • Prospect of future teaching and development of
    teaching materials ?????????????

3
  • Language instrumental and humanistic
  • features ??????????
  • ??????????????????
  • ????????????
  • ??????,???????????????
  • ?????????,????????????????????????,?????????????,?
    ?????????????????,??????,????????,????????????,???
    ????

4
  • ?????????????(???)
  • ?????????????(???)
  • ???????????????(???)
  • ??????????????(????)
  • ??????????(??)

5
  • ?????????
  • (Moral educational objective)
  • ???????????
  • (Affective educational objective)
  • ??????????
  • (Instrumental objective)

6
Moral education and language teaching
  • Lessons learnt from history ?????
  • Do you think the present textbooks have achieved
    the objective?

ME is contained in language teaching ????????????
(l986)
Overemphasis On Moral education
Overlook language And culture
Learning a foreign lge may further the
development of students mentality, affective
attitudes and values as well as integrative
humanistic accomplishment. ???????????????????????
????(2003)
7
????
  • ??????,??????????????
  • ??????,?????????????????
  • ??????,????????????????
  • ??????,??????????????
  • ??????,???????????????
  • ??????,????????

8
  • ?????????????????????,??????????????????????????
    ?,?????????????,????????????,????????????,????????
    ?????????????,????????????????????????????????????
    ???(???????????103?)

9
  • ????????????????????????????,?????????????????????
    ?
  • ?????????????????,????????????????????????????????
    ???????????????(???????????111?)

10
  • ????????????????????????????????????????????????
  • ???????????????????????????????????????????,??????
    ?????
  • ?????????????????????????????????????????????????
    ????????????

11
  • ??????????,????????,????????????????,?
  • ?????????????????,?????????,????
    ??????????????,??????????????????????????????(???,
    2010)????????????????????????????????????????????
    ??????????????,???????????????????,???????????????
    !(???,2011)

12
?????????
  • 1. ????????,????????????????
  • 2. ???????????,?????????????
  • 3. ????????,??????????
  • 4. ??????????????,????,?????????
  • 5. ???????????,?????????????
  • 6. ??????????????????
  • 7. ??????????,???????
  • 8. ?????????,?????????????
  • 9. ?????????????,????????????

13
????,?????????, ??????
  • ???????,???????????????????????
  • ?? ??????????????
  • ?? ?????????????????????????????????????????????
    ????????(????)
  • ?? ?????????????,????????????????

14
  • ?? ???????????????????????????????????
  • ?? ??????????????,????????????,????(?????????)???
    ????????????????????

15
  • ??????????,??????????
  • ??,????,????????????????
  • ??,????????????, ????????
  • ??????????????????????
  • ??????,???????, ????????
  • ?,?????????????????????
  • ???(???)

16
  • ?????????????,??????????????????????,????
    ???????????, ???????????????????????????????,
    ??????????????????????
  • (???,2010)
  • ???????????

17
????
  • ??????,?????????????????????????????,??????
    ??????????????,?????????????????,???????????????,?
    ???????????,????????????????????????????????????,?
    ???????????????????,???????????????,??????,???????
    ,????????,??????,???????????????????

18
Language communication and language humanistic
features
  • Language is an instrument for communication, but
    being used by humans it has humanistic
    features.????????,??????????
  • Many of these coursebooks concentrated on the
    linguistic and analytical aspects of lge learning
    and failed to tap the human beings potential for
    multidimensional processing. They made
    insufficient use of the learners ability to
    learn through doing things physically, to learn
    through feeling emotion, to learn through
    experiencing things in the mind. (Tomlinson,
    2003)
  • ??????????????,??????????????????????,?????????
    ??????????????????????????????

19
  • The most important factor in learning is affect.
    (Arnold, 1999)
  • ????????????
  • Language learners need to relax, feel at ease,
    develop self-confidence and self-esteem, develop
    positive attitudes towards the learning
    experience and be involved intellectually,
    aesthetically and emotionally. (Tomlinson, 1998)
  • ??????????????,??????????,????????????,????????
    ????????????????
  • One of the best ways to achieve the objectives
    mentioned so far is to use literature as a means
    of stimulating multidimensional mental activity
    during language learning. Unfortunately most
    coursebooks rarely use literature and when they
    do, they usually ask learners to read the text
    carefully and then answer comprehension questions
    on it. As a result, the text has little impact
    on their minds, their lives or their language
    acquisition. (p.168)
  • ???????????????????????????????
    ???,???????????,??????,????????????,??????????
    ????????????????????????????

20
Contradictive views on the use of
literature????????
  • Supporting ideas ????
  • Literature is well established in the curriculum
    and its presence is rarely questioned.
    ????????????,???????????
  • Children and literature is a natural match.
    ????????????
  • Representational language is needed once Ss have
    gone beyond the survival level.
  • ??????????,?????????????
  • Story content can invite children to share their
    own experiences. ???????????????
  • Different idea ????
  • Literature has little practical application. It
    imposes challenges on the learner. ??????????????

21
What does literature mean???????
  • By literature, I do not mean the classics of the
    literary canon but rather well-written texts
    which narrate, describe, argue or evoke in ways
    which encourage the reader to respond in personal
    and multidimensional ways, and which leave gaps
    for the reader to fill in. (Tomlinson, 1994)
  • ????????????????????,?????????,????????????????
    ????,?????????????,????????????
  • Ideally these texts (especially for lower grades)
    are linguistically simple but cognitively and
    emotively complex.
  • ???????,???????????,????????????????

22
  • ??????????????????
  • ?,??????????????????
  • ???, ?????????????,??
  • ????????????????????
  • ???????,????,????????
  • ???????????
  • ??The story line in JEFC,English Plus

23
  • What is the role of literature in FLE teaching?
  • Is there a place for literary texts in the
    learner-centered, communicative EFL class?
  • If so, what is meant by literary texts and how
    should they be approached in the classroom?

What?
When?
How?
How much?
Compare 1980s SE NSEC
Number of texts 46 170
Percentage of literary works 57 (26) 29(50)
24
2. Language and culture
  • ??????????,???????????????????????,??????
    ????????????????????????????????????????,?????????
    ????,???????,?????????????????,?????????????,?????
    ????????(1993?????????)

25
  • ????????????????????????????????????????????
    ,?????????????,????????????,???????????????????,??
    ???????????(2000????????????)
  • Language and culture are inextricably
    intertwined The lge they are using is the result
    of social and historical circumstances which give
    it resonance and meaning. In this sense,
    cultural awareness becomes not the 5th skill, but
    the first skill. (A. Pulverness)
  • ?????????????????????????????,?????????????,???
    ????????,???????

26
Language and culture
  • Language learning and cultural learning should be
    combined. ??????????????
  • The materials should be multicultural rather than
    being centred on the culture perceived to be the
    host culture of the language being learned.
    (Tomlinson)
  • ?????????,????????????????
  • The need for cultural localization of materials
    If the materials are inappropriate in the local
    learning situations, they cannot interest the
    teachers and learners or convince them to believe
    in the methods.
  • ???????????????????????,???????????,?????????
    ??????

27
Why do we use cultures instead of culture?
???????????????
  • Culture as a whole way of life, embracing all
    the behaviors, symbols, beliefs and value systems
    of a society-a more egalitarian view of culture
    against linguistic neoimperialism
  • ???????????,????????????????????????????,
    ??????
  • The consideration of cultures rather than
    culture was given by sociologists or
    psychologists investigating the behavior of
    people functioning subcultures or small
    cultures.
  • ??????????????????????,????????????????
    ???????

28
  • The world Englishes framework has opened up
    a pluralist perspective on English(es), allowing
    us to talk of many Englishes, allowing us to
    move away from the central varieties (Br, Am,
    Aus) in order to look at English across a much
    wider spectrum. (Kachru, 2005)????????????,???????
    ???????,??????????,?????????(??,??,??????)?????
  • What do you think of Chinese English? Do you
    think it belongs to the world Englishes?
  • ????????????????????????
  • Cultural learning is seen as an integral
    part of language education and not restricted to
    the cultural studies lesson.
  • ????????????????,???????????????
  • What proportion do you think Chinese culture
    should account for in the English materials?
  • ????????????????????

29
(No Transcript)
30
3. Structure, topic and function ????????
  • Structural approach ???
  • Coursebooks are based on a linear model of
    language learning, leading from the simple to the
    more complex as reflected in the graded grammar
    syllabuses. Materials are selected mainly from
    literary works. ?????????????,??????,?????????????
    ?????????
  • Standard English language but learners cannot
    apply what they learn in real life.
    ????????????????

31
  • Structural-Functional Organization ??-???
  • a form of organization to meet the needs of
    beginners for orderly progression and grading in
    terms of difficulty and the broader requirements
    of a functional/notional syllabus
  • ???????????,?????????????????????????????
  • More attention to language function but not
    enough attention to culture ??????,????????

32
  • Topic, structure, function plus TBL approach
    ?????????????????
  • Stress on holistic and purposeful
    communication learning generic skills through
    language student autonomy teacher as manager
    and helper developing Ss creative thinking
  • ??????????????????????????????????????????
    ??????
  • Teaching materials tend to be more difficult
    to cope with.
  • ??????????
  • Which approach is appropriate to Chinese
    schools?
  • ???????????

33
4. Language knowledge and use
  • ?????????????,?????????????
  • ????????????????????????????
  • ???????????????,??,??????,?????????????
  • ???????????,??????,????,?????

34
Problems in contemporary teaching ???????
  • In remote and less advanced areas, knowledge/
    teacher-centered clr teaching is still dominant.
  • While emphasizing lge function and authenticity,
  • there is a tendency of ignoring lge form.
  • Overstressing genuine tasks and neglecting
    essential language practice
  • Emphasizing students constructing lge system, the
    teacher doesnt teach knowledge and overlooks Ss
    mistakes.
  • As a result of shortage of teachers support,
    students have difficulties in carrying out tasks.

35
Methodological Trends in the world (Bao Dat,
2003)??????????
  • Communicative revolution became less extreme
    during the late 20th C. Form and use in language
    teaching should not be mutually exclusive.
    Motor-receptive skills and interaction skills
    should be combined.
  • ??????20????????????????????????-???????????
    ????????
  • A gradual transfer from a strictly communicative
    focus toward a more balanced view in teaching
    both grammar and communication, justified on the
    grounds that form and use are not necessarily two
    opposing areas.
  • ?????????????,??????,?????????,????????????????
    ??????

36
Revolution without R??????
  • Comparing the 3 phases of textbooks, we
    may find that we have undergone a big change in
    our approaches to teaching English. However, this
    change is not as radical as a revolution. It is a
    gradual evolving process from tradition to
    modern, and it is not difficult to discern that
    the new derives from the old. While advocating
    sth new, we keep sth traditional but effective. I
    believe that innovation is made on the basis of
    inheritance.
  • ????????????????????????
  • ??(??????)?????????,??????,??????????????
    ,?????????????,?????????????,?????????????????????
    ????????,????????????????????,?????????????????

37
The five-step teaching method?????
38
TBL used in G3 textbooks?????????????????
  • Three kinds of exercises/activities ????/??
  • Non-communicative language exercises
  • more often seen in G1????????,????????
  • Communicative language exercises
  • commonly seen in G2 ???????,????????
  • Task-based activities ?????,????????
  • in G3

39
The strong and weak versions of TBL???????????
  • The strong version school believes that the
    TBLT mode is different from the PPP mode while
    the weak version school believes that all
    activities that can promote lge learning can be
    thought as tasks. Tasks can be divided into
    enabling and communicative tasks. Skehan (1996)
    pointed out that the classroom teaching process
    of the weak version is not much different from
    the process of the PPP mode. The former also
    needs presentation and practice phases, and the
    only difference lies in that tasks rather than
    mechanical repetition are involved in the
    production stage.
  • ???????????????3P????,???????????????????????
    ??????????????????(????????????)???????Skehan?
    ?????????????????3P?????????(?????)???????????????
    ??????,??????????????????????
  • Littlewood (2004) used a very clear table to
    illustrate this issue.
  • Littewood?????????????

40
???? ???? ???? ???? ???? ???? ???? ???? ???? ????
????? ??????? ??????? ????? ????
???????,????,??????????,????,??????? ????,????????,????????????????? ?????????????,????????????,?????????? ???????,??????????????,???????????,? ???????,???????? ???????,?????????????,?????????,??????????,???
?? ?? ?? ??
????? ????? ????? ?????
41
Focus on forms Focus on meaning Focus on forms Focus on meaning Focus on forms Focus on meaning Focus on forms Focus on meaning Focus on forms Focus on meaning
Non-com-municative learning Pre-commu-nicative lge practice Commu-nicative lge practice Structured communication Authentic communication
Focusing on the structures of lge, how they are formed and what they mean, e.g. substitution exercises, discovery awareness-raising activities Practicing language with some attention to meaning but not communicat-ing new message to others, e.g. question-and-answer practice Practicing pre-taught language in a context where it communi-cates new information, e.g. information-gap activities or personalizedquestions Using language to communicate in situations which elicit pre-learnt lge, but with some unpredictability, e.g. structured role play and simple problem-solving Using language to communicate in situations where the meanings are unpredictable, e.g. creative role-play, more complex problem-solving and discussion
Exercises Exercises tasks tasks
Enabling tasks Enabling tasks Communicative tasks Communicative tasks
42
G3 textbooks renovate teaching method??????????
  • The five-step method had a great impact on the
    ELT in Chinas schools, but is it effective now?
    ????????????
  • Yes, but it needs to be upgraded to suit the
    requirements of the present curriculum, textbooks
    and teaching. ??,??????
  • The constructivist and TBLT conceptions should be
    adopted to renovate the five-step method.
    ????????,???????,????

43
Modern Approach to ELT in China (??????5P????)
Presentation Observing Discovering Learning
Acquiring ??(???????????)
Preparation Activating Brainstorming ??(????)
Practice Learning by doing ??(???)
5Ps
Assessing Progress Enriched experience ????(????)
Production Thinking Expressing ??(?????)
44
??P??????????????????
  • Preparation ??
  • ???????????(Revision),?????????????????????,??
    ???,???????????????, ???????????,????????,?????
  • Presentation ??
  • ????????????,???????,?????????????????????????
    ??????????????????????,?????????????,????????????
    ??,????,??(acquiring)???(learning)????

45
  • Practice ??
  • ???????????(drilling)???(practice)?????,????
    ???????(??????)???????,?????????????
  • Production ??
  • ???????????,???????(target task),?????????,???
    ??????
  • Progress ??
  • ????????????????????????????,?????????,?????

46
Development of teaching methodology
Structural approach ???
Structural-Functional approach ??-???
PPP
5-Step method
Communicative Approach ???
5-P Mode
TBLA
47
5. Authenticity and practicability(????????)
  • Should texts be authentic? ????????
  • One side argument The other side
    argument
  • Simplification contri- False learning
    can vance facilitate learning.
    deny the Ss chance
  • Simplified texts focus Ss for inf learning
    and the
  • attention on the target lge development of
    self-
  • features. Esteem.
  • ???????????????????????????????????
  • ??????????????????,???????????
  • Can you find a good way to solve the problem?
    ????????????
  • Example from Irma K Ghosn p.294

48
  • S1 What do you do in your free time?
  • T Now you answer him.
  • S2 I watch TV.
  • T Next. Now you tell us about her activities.
  • S1 She watch
  • T She
  • S1 She watches TV.
  • T Now you.
  • S3 What do you do in your free time?
  • S4 I play video games.
  • T Now you tell us about his activities.
  • S3 He play video games.
  • T He play, he play or he plays
  • S3 He plays
  • T OK. Next.

49
B. Tomplinsons view(???????)
  • Learning materials should be realistic in the
    sense that they reflect the reality of lge use
    which learners will encounter outside and after
    their course.
  • ?????????,??????????,?????????????,
  • Materials should provide learners with
    preparation for real-world language use but they
    should do so in ways which recognize the
    limitations of the learners and the constraints
    of the classroom,and in ways which exploit the
    resources of the teacher, of the learners
    themselves and of learning aids.
    ?????????????????????????????,???????????????????,
    ????,??????????????????????

50
  • We do not begin with authenticity authenticity
    is what learners should ultimately achieve it
    represents their terminal behavior. (Widdowson,
    1976)
  • ????????????????????????
  • Getting them there but dont confuse means and
    ends. ??????????

51
J. Harmers view
  • The greatest controversy has centred on whether
    the texts should be authentic or not. That is
    because people have worried about more
    traditional lge-teaching materials which tended
    to look artificial and to use over-simplified lge
    which any native speaker would find comical and
    untypical.
  • ?????????????????????????????,????,???????,??
    ?????????????
  • A balance has to be struck between real English
    on the one hand and the students capabilities
    and interests on the other.
  • ???????????????????????
  • Texts should be as much like real English as
    possible.
  • ?????????

52
Evaluating Texts
  • Importance of content
  • content-rich texts,
  • content-based goals,
  • content-based exercises
  • ?authentic reading experience
  • Quality of Selections
  • objections simplified
  • unnatural, inauthentic, boring ...
  • another perspective
  • authentic read well? ideas flow?
  • sth new? interest?
  • Control of Vocabulary
  • ratio of know/unknown words
  • choice of word targets
  • recycling
  • Control of Grammatical Complexity

(TESOL, 2011)
  • Careful attention to vocabulary
  • before/during/after reading,
  • multiple encounters in different context,
  • integrated into activities

53
6. Listening and speaking vs. reading and writing
  • L. Alexander Listen before you speak. Speak
    before you read. Read before you write.
  • L and S should take the lead but R and W should
    follow at an appropriate time.????,????(???)?????
    ??,???????(?????)
  • Problems
  • When to start speaking/reading/writing
  • Lessons in history Neglect listening speaking
  • little attention to writing
  • ?????????,????????

54
  • Learners are exposed to comprehensible input with
    no production requirement until they are ready to
    go onto a reading programme and then writing.
    Oral production is brought in gradually and is
    not forced. Typically in these programmes, a
    learner who is tested as a beginner spends at
    least three months just being exposed to lge
    mostly produced by their teacher before they see
    any written text or are required to speak. The
    lge is made accessible through actions, pictures,
    films and video, and realia. (the focal skills
    approach by Hastings, 1995) p.263
  • ???????????,?????????,????????????????????,???
    ????????????????,??????????,?????????????????,????
    ?????????????????????????????????????

55
???????
Skill Oral Written
Receptive Listening Reading
Productive Speaking Writing
56
  • ???,???????????????????????,??????????????,?
    ?????????,???????,????????????????????????,???
    ????????,??????????,????????????,?????????,???????
    ???????????

57
7. Use of the mother tongue and the target
language(?????????)
  • Use the target language if possible, use the
    mother tongue when necessary.???????,???????
  • Our textbooks include small translation tasks,
    usually at word or sentence level.???????????,????
    ??????
  • Comparing the two languages by translation could
    help Ss learn grammar rules of the target
    language.
  • ???????????????????????????
  • More extensive translation activities could raise
    learners awareness of how differently ideas may
    be organized at text level.
  • ???????????????????????????????????????

58
Examples
  • Translate the following sentences into English,
    using the words and phrases in the brackets.
  • ??????????????
  • It took him one hour to solve that math problem.
  • ????????????????????(mine miner rescue)
  • The miners who had been trapped in the mine for
    two days were rescued at last.

59
  • ?? ??
  • ??? ????? He is a teacher.
  • ????? ??????Is he a teacher?
  • ?? Are you a student? Yes, I am.
  • No,
    Im not.
  • ?? ?????? ??
  • ???
  • ?? Is that city big? Yes, it is.
  • No,
    it isnt.
  • ?? ??????? ?/???

60
Translation of famous sayings
  • Seeing is believing.
  • A rising tide lifts all boats.
  • Lifting myself to look, I found that it was
    moonlight. Sinking back again, I thought suddenly
    of home.
  • Given talent by the heaven, I will employ it.
  • A farmer leads his horses on a road covered with
    volcanic ash back home. They came galloping out
    of the volcanic storm, hooves muffled in the ash,
    manes flying. The ash cloud has turned day into
    night, blanketing the landscape in sticky grey
    mud.

??????
?????,??????
????????
61
What do you think of the conflicting views about
translation?(??????????????????)
  • Translation is a means of learning foreign
    languages as well as an objective of learning
    them.
  • ???????????????,?????
  • By comparing the target lge with the first lge,
    you will learn the target lge more effectively.
  • ???????????,??????????
  • When a person is learning a foreign lge, he must
    not always be translating everything into his own
    lge. If he does this, it shows he has not
    mastered it. He must forget his own lge while
    using the foreign lge, otherwise he cannot grasp
    the spirit of it and cannot use it freely.
  • ????????????,?????????????????????,??????????
    ???????,
  • ??????????,??,???????????
  • ?????

62
8. Foreign language and other subjects (???????)
  • Language textbooks, like an encyclopedia,
    incorporate a large range of knowledge. Writing
    them, the author must consult specialists in
    other subjects in order to ensure that the
    content is scientifically precise.
  • ????????????,??????????????????????????,??????
    ????????
  • There is a close relationship between FL and
    Chinese textbook writing in terms of text
    selection, grammar sequence, the four language
    skills and strategies, etc.
  • ???????????????,???????????,????,????????????
    ?
  • How to handle the relationship between FL and
    other subjects is of great importance in the CBL
    approach to language material development.
  • ??????????????,????????????????????

63
9. Imported (global) and local textbooks
(?????????)
  • Why do we import global textbooks? ?????????????
  • To bring in exotic cultures and cross-cultural
    awareness activities, recent results in language
    teaching theory and practice as well as high
    quality language materials
  • ????????????????????,????????????????,????????
    ???
  • To promote educational and cultural exchange
    between China and the rest of the world
  • ??????????????????

64
What are some of the limitations of imported
textbooks? Why is localization necessary?(????????
????????????
  • Global coursebooks are not normally humanistic
    because they are trying to cater for everybody
    but in the end they end up engaging nobody.
    (Tomlinson, 2003)
  • ???????????,??????????????,???????,???????
  • Their subject matter is not culturally
    appropriate in the local learning situations.
    Learners and teachers are not interested in the
    content and do not believe in the methods. (Bao
    Dat, 2003)
  • ????????????????????????????????????,??????????
    ??
  • There is very little excitement or disturbance to
    stimulate the emotions of the learner.
  • ???????,??????????

65
  • They have ignored the importance of localizing
    language tasks and have denied learners
    opportunities for contextual use.
  • ????????????????,??????????????????????
  • Although at some point cross-cultural awareness
    activities are provided, in most cases they are
    UK-centred.
  • ????????????????,???????????????
  • Little research has been directed to the topic of
    how the local educational/teaching environment
    has influenced students learning. (Maley, 1998)
  • ????/????????????,?????????

66
What can we do to localize imported
textbooks?(???????????)
  • Rewrite the textbooks taking into consideration
    the differences of educational systems, learning
    conditions, teaching and learning styles, the
    students cultures and differences in needs for
    lge use in their future. (JEFC as an example)
  • ????????????????????????????????????????????
    ???????????????????
  • Co-operate with local writers in the rewriting
  • ??????????????
  • Writer-user interaction (teachers students)
  • ????????(???????)
  • Teachers adaptation of the materials using the
    CARD technique and the end-of-unit comparison
    (Now compare this with in your country.)
    ??????????,??????

67
  • Cross-cultural writing partnerships also help to
    ensure that the process of production is based on
    a cross-cultural exchange of language and
    experience of national and classroom cultures,
    which feeds directly into materials.
  • ??????????????????????????????????,????????????
    ?????
  • The teacher has a vital role to play in acting as
    an intercultural mediator and providing some of
    the cultural coordinates missing from the
    coursebook. (Alan Pulverness, 2003)
  • ???????????????????,??????????????????????

68
???????????
  • ??????,????????
  • ????????,?????????????,????,?????
  • ?????????,???????,??????,????????????????????,???
    ??????????,????????,?????

69
Prospect of future teaching and development of
English teaching materials
  • Different varieties of teaching materials to
    satisfy various kinds of needs ????????????
  • Different approaches to teaching ???????
  • Material development should be based on
    research????
  • Impact of modern technology (multi-media and the
    web) on teaching and material development ??????
  • Material development is a systematic project
    based on
  • Curriculum development ????
  • Research work ??
  • Material development ????
  • Teaching experiment ????
  • Teaching methodology ????
  • Teacher development ????

???????????
70
Different varieties of teaching materials and
different approaches
  • Research evidence suggests that the ability of Ss
    to employ multiple learning styles results in
    greater classroom success, concluding that
    emphasizing a particular style of learning is not
    the most effective approach. (Reid, 1987)
  • Learner styles analytic, studial, left brain
    learners prefer a linear method to the learning
    of linguistic structures global, experiential,
    right brain learners prefer kinaesthetic input
    over auditory and visual forms of lge input
    (Carlos Islam,2003)

71
  • Provide different styles of coursebooks that
    contain different content matter and alternative
    teaching methods.?????????????
  • Different varieties of books would be used to
    supplement each other as needed.??????
  • Provide various kinds of supplementary materials
    including graded readers and reference books.
    ??????
  • ?????????????????,??????????????

72
Material development should be based on research
  • Make survey ??
  • Sum up historical experience ????
  • Establish material evaluation mechanism ??
  • Make comparative research ????
  • Use corpora in research ?????
  • An increase in in-service and post-graduate
    materials development courses ?????
  • Worldwide organizations interest group of TESOL,
    JALT MATSDA ????
  • International exchange ????

73
Impact of modern technology (multi-media and the
web) on language material development
  • What is CALL? ?????????
  • What are relevant uses of CALL in language
    teaching and material development???
  • For language teaching ????
  • For material development ??????

74
For material development
  • Web-based materials ????
  • Get ideas for activities ???
  • Download authentic texts ?????
  • Use visual materials from the web ??
  • Suggest website for teachers and learners??
  • Provide interactive activities ??????
  • Publish questionnaires on the web ??
  • Publish materials online (for feedback)??

75
Multi-media and hypermedia
  • Multi-media technology ?????
  • A variety of media (texts, graphics, sound,
    animation and video) to be accessed in a single
    device
  • Hypermedia technology ?????
  • Capacity to make links with multimedia
    resources
  • Users can navigate their own paths and access inf
    in any form simply by pointing or clicking a
    mouse in CD-ROMs, websites, Multi-Media lge
    learning programs installed in a computer, etc.

76
  • What can you do with multimedia or hypermedia as
    a learner?
  • What can you do with multimedia or hypermedia as
    a teacher?
  • What impact will they bring to education or even
    to society?
  • ????????????????????????

77
Developing textbooks is a systematic project
  • What factors affect the development and the use
    of teaching materials?????????????????
  • Do you think materials development is merely a
    profession of specialists? Why do you think so?
    ?????????????

78
Developing textbooks is a systematic project
Curriculum Development ????
Teaching methodology Technology ???????
Textbook development ????
Teacher Development ????
Teaching material Evaluation ????
Material development research ????
79
  • Methods and materials materials introduced as
    examples of methods in action????????
  • It was realized that not only is materials
    development an important skill needed by all
    teachers but also that by engaging in materials
    development teachers can themselves both
    understand and apply theories of lge learning
    and achieve personal and professional
    development. ?????????,?????????????
  • Applied and action research projects before,
    during and after a material development course
  • ????????????????????

80
Examples of material development courses ??????
  • Short stimulus courses for teachers ????
  • Courses for institutions and state training
    teachers ???????
  • Professional training courses????
  • Pre-service teacher training ????
  • In-service training ????
  • Teacher education/development courses focused on
    /or with a component on material development
    ????/???????

81
  • The most effective way to run a materials
    development course is to provide the participants
    with concrete experience as a basis for
    reflective material design,class-
  • room teaching observation and evaluation.
  • ??????????????

82
Reference
  • Brian Tomlinson, Developing Materials for
    Language Teaching, 2003 (Introduction, pp. 6, 32,
    162, 262, 171, 195, 235, 262, 292, 381, 345, 386,
    406-420, 434, 432, 441, 445-460)
  • ??????????????????1949-2000???????(???),???,2010?
    10?
  • B. Tomlinson H. Masuhara, Developing Language
    Course Materials,???, 2007
  • ?????????????????,???????, 2010.7.
  • ?????????????(p.17-p.46),???,2006
  • ?????????(p. 115), ???,2007

83
  • Thank you!
  • liudy_at_pep.com.cn
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