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CH 9 Facing the Problems of Overpopulation

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Title: CH 9 Facing the Problems of Overpopulation


1
UNIT 4
  • CH 9 Facing the Problems of Overpopulation

2
The Human Population Explosion
  • 81 world population lives in less developed
    countries
  • 126 of these countries will double their
    population by 2050 if this growth rate
    continues!!
  • As our numbers increase environmental
    degradation, hunger, persistent poverty, economic
    stagnation, urban deterioration, and health
    issues will continue to challenge us!

3
Population and World Hunger
  • 86 countries considered low income and food
    deficient
  • Whats the cause for world hunger?

4
Whats the most effective way to stop world
hunger?
  • Population growth is the problem
  • We need to promote economic development in those
    low income countries
  • The real problem is inequitable distribution of
    resources

5
Sub-Saharan Africa
  • If continued current growth of 2002 it would
    double its population in 28 years!
  • It would have to double its food production by
    300 to feed its population in 2050
  • Bottom line slow population growth to give time
    for increase in food production, expand economic
    development, conserve natural resources

6
Economic Effects of Continued Population Growth
  • Pop growth stimulates economic development and
    technology innovation
  • Pop stabilization wont guarantee higher living
    standards but would probably promote economic
    development ? increases living standards

7
Debt in Developing Countries
  • In order to raise living standards economic
    growth must be gt population growth
  • Developing countries borrow from higher
    countries and world bankbig debt
  • As of 2000 owe gt2.5 TRILLION (holy schnikies!)

8
Populations, Resources, and the Environment
  • Two generalizations
  • Resources that are essentials to individuals
    survival are small, but a rapidly increasing
    number people tends to overwhelm and deplete a
    countrys soils, forest, other natural resources
  • In highly developed countries individual
    resources demands are large we exhaust and
    degrade the environment through extravagant
    lifestyles

9
Types of Resources
  • Nonrenewable resources minerals (Al, Sn, Cu),
    fossil fuels (coal, oil, natural gas) present in
    limited supplies and are depleted by use
  • Renewable resources trees, fish, fertile
    agricultural soil, freshwater nature replaces
    these resources fairly rapidly (days to decades)

10
Population Size and Resource Consumption
  • Consumption human use of materials and energy
    provides consumer with a sense of identity and
    status among peers
  • We are encouraged to spend and consume
  • Americans consume 10 billion tons of
    material/year
  • Our large consumption affects natural resources
    and environment for other nations

11
People Overpopulation Consumption Overpopulation
  • People overpopulation occurs when environment is
    worsening bc there are too many people
  • Consumption overpopulation occurs when each
    individual of a population consumes too large of
    a share of resources
  • Same effect on environment ? pollution and
    degradation

12
Ecological Footprint
  • Average amount of land and ocean needed to supply
    an individual with food, energy, water, housing,
    transportation and waste disposal
  • Lets compare
  • US footprint 9.6 hectare (23.7 acres)
  • Nigeria footprint 1 hectare (2.5 acres)
  • If 6.2 billion people lived like us we would need
    4 additional planet Earths!

13
New Consumers in Developing Countries
  • If you increase economic growth you can purchase
    more goods
  • However this can in turn cause adverse effects on
    the environment
  • Ex. Air pollution from more cars

14
Sustainable Consumption
  • Use of goods and services that satisfy basic
    needs and improve quality of life but also
    minimize use of resources so they are available
    for future use
  • Includes population, economic activities,
    technological choices, social values, government
    policies
  • Promote this by switching to public
    transportation, making durable products,
    recyclables

15
Population and Urbanization
  • Urbanization process of people increasingly move
    from rural areas to densely populated cities
    (rural ? urban)
  • U.S. 25 people involved in agriculture 75 live
    in cities
  • Main difference between rural and urban is how
    people make a living

16
Characteristics of an Urban Population
  • Wake up and give me some examples!

17
Cities as an Ecosystem
  • Urban ecologists look at P.O.E.T.
  • Population number of people and factors that
    change the number (b,d,e,i)
  • Organization refers to social structure of the
    city and its economic policies, government,
    social hierarchy
  • Environment refers to both natural environment
    and citys infrastructure
  • Technology human inventions that directly affect
    urban environment

18
Environmental problems associated with urban areas
  • WATER storm sewage problems
  • AIR automobiles increase airborne emissions
  • HEAT urban heat island when the atmosphere
    over cities is cloudier and produces more
    precipitationheat also retained due to paved
    streets and buildings

19
Environmental Benefits of Urbanization
  • Well planned city can reduce pollution and
    preserve rural areas!
  • Compact development cities are designed so that
    tall, multi-unit residential buildings are close
    to shopping and jobs all connected by public
    transportation
  • Fewer parking lots and more parks ?

20
Urbanization Trends
  • 47 world pop lives in urban areas
  • Before 2010 number will increase above 50
  • Highly developed countries 75 urban inhabitants
  • Developing countries 40 urban inhabitants
  • But most urbanization occurring in developing
    countries

21
Homelessness
  • US 300,000 to 500,000 homeless
  • 1996 UN Conference on Human Settlements
    (Istanbul, Turkey)
  • Considered urban issues poverty, crime,
    potential of epidemics

22
Reducing Total Fertility Rate (TFR)
  • Control expanding pop by reducing number of
    births
  • Influences on TFR cultural traditions, womens
    social and economic status, family planning

23
Culture and Fertility
  • Culture includes values and norms of society and
    genders and their roles
  • Couple expected to have number of children
    determined by traditions in their society

24
Social and Economic Status of Women
  • High TFR in countries where women have low status
  • TFR also affected by marriage age which in turn
    is determined by laws and customs of the society
    they live in
  • Education can lower TFR

25
Family Planning Services
  • Doesnt force people to limit family size, but
    attempts to convince people that small families
    are acceptable
  • Prenatal care, proper birth spacing ? fewer
    infant deaths
  • Provides info about contraceptives

26
Contraceptive use and total fertility rate 2002
27
Government Policies
  • Laws determine minimum age to marry
  • Allot portions of budgets to family planning
    services, education, health care, taxes
  • 78 developing countries recognize need to limit
    pop growth 41 Africa, 19 Asia, 18 Latin America
  • Ex. China, Nigeria, Mexico, Europe
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