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Title: E-Commerce%20Systems

E-Commerce Systems
  • Mark Micallef
  • mmica01_at_um.edu.mt

Objectives of Module
Introduction to E-Commerce Systems
  • We live in an era of e-everything David
  • Everywhere we look, we are likely to see an
  • E-Commerce
  • E-Banking
  • E-Dating
  • E-Government
  • E-Learning
  • E-Logistics

What are E-Commerce Systems?
  • Viewing a product list online?
  • Ordering products online and paying by cheque or
    in person?
  • Ordering and paying online plus having the
    product delivered?
  • Getting information (e.g. share prices) from a
    website for free?
  • Using your mobile to get online news or even
    topping up your prepaid balance?
  • !!All of the above are examples of e-commerce

Definition of E-Commerce Systems
  • the exchange of information across electronic
    networks, at any stage in the supply chain,
    whether within an organisation, between
    businesses, between businesses and consumers, or
    between the public and private sectors, whether
    paid or unpaid
  • -The Prime Ministers Strategy Office
  • www.number-10.gov.uk/su/ecomm/ec_body.pdf

Benefits of E-Commerce
  • Businesses
  • 24-hour operation
  • High cost-savings
  • No geographical boundaries
  • Potential access to millions of customers
  • Consumers
  • Conveniance
  • Easy to compare products and prices
  • Easy to find reviews
  • Much more choice

What is being bought online?
Players in E-Commerce
  • Business
  • Typically provide products and/or services online
  • Products available to consumers or even other
  • Consumers
  • Interested in information/products/services and
    are willing to obtain them online
  • Government
  • E-Government Services
  • Facilitates access to government services for
    both consumers and businesses

Main Types of E-Commerce Systems
Business to Business (B2B)
  • Interdependent Businesses conduct business
    amongst themselves online
  • Usually does not take the form of the traditional
    website e-Commerce system
  • Usually fully (or almost fully) automated (e.g.
    automatic online ordering when stock levels are

Types of B2B Systems
  • There are 4 main types of B2B Systems
  • Sell-Side
  • Buy-Side
  • Electronic Marketplace (or Exchange)
  • Collaborative

Sell-Side B2B Systems
Company A
Company B
Company C
  • One-to-Many Relationship

Buy-Side B2B Systems
Company A
Company B
Company C
  • One-to-Many Relationship

Electronic Marketplace (or Exchange)
Company A
Company X
An Exchange
Company B
Company Y
Company C
Company Z
  • Many-to-Many Relationship
  • Exchange is usually owned and operated by a 3rd
  • Businesses meet to exchange goods/services

Collaborative B2B Systems
Hub Manager
Industrial Associations
  • Many-to-Many Relationship
  • Only business partners participate
  • Facilitates communication, sharing of designs,
    planning information, etc

Business to Consumer (B2C)
  • Businesses sell products/services to consumers
  • Usually take on the form a website through which
    consumers can browse through products/services,
    order and pay online
  • Typical Examples
  • Amazon.com
  • Extending your internet subscription online

Consumer to Consumer (C2C)
  • Consumers buying/selling products and services
    amongst themselves
  • Typical Examples
  • E-Bay
  • di-ve.com Classifieds

Differences between E-Commerce Systems and Other
  • A number of differences exist between e-commerce
    systems and other types of systems
  • The most important ones are
  • They are content-driven
  • They are exposed to the world
  • They are Browser Based
  • Enormous User Base
  • They are likely to change quite often

Content Driven (1/2)
  • Most e-commerce sites are connected to a database
  • View product lists
  • Compare prices
  • View orders
  • What information should my site display?
  • Is it organised in the best possible way?
  • Is it easy for a use to find what she wants

Content Driven (2/2)
  • 72 of users know beforehand what they are
    looking for
  • This indicates we should provide an easy means by
    which users can search for the product they need
  • Usability and Navigability of websites are very
    important issues.
  • A customer who has a bad first impression of a
    site is not likely to return

Importance of Navigability
Why people abandon transactions online.
Also more likely to simply find another site
Exposed to the world
  • The internet is an open network of networks
  • E-Commerce sites require the transfer of private
  • Customer details
  • Credit card numbers
  • E-Commerce systems need to be secure
  • In security circles, it is always assumed that
    whatever you send online can be seen by everyone
    else on the internet

Enormous Userbase (1/3)
  • Ideally, an e-commerce website will attract vasts
    amounts of visitors
  • This is a mixed blessing
  • Ideal scenario
  • Thousands of people visit my e-commerce site
  • They all see products they like and buy them
  • I become very very rich

Enormous Userbase (2/3)
  • Some bad scenarios
  • Thousands of people visit my website
  • The website cannot cope with the load and starts
    crashing every few minutes
  • I get it fixed
  • People come back
  • They order items but my business models have not
    been adapted to e-commerce
  • How do I deliver products?
  • How do I deal with potentially many customer
    problems and enquiries?

Enormous Userbase (3/3)
  • 37 of users first judge a site by its reputation
  • Only 18 of customers will remain loyal to a site
    if if becomes unstable or slow due to popularity

Browser-Based (1/2)
  • Most e-commerce systems are accessed through
  • This is good because
  • They are accessible from everywhere
  • Browsers are widely available for free
  • Browser-based applications do present some
  • A web application does not have access to
    event-driven programming like applications
    writing in C or Java for example

Browser-Based (2/2)
  • Scripting and Enhancing Technologies
  • Javascript
  • CSS
  • No standards
  • Browsers interpret these technologies differently
  • Websites may work fine on one browser but not on
  • Also the problem of different devices and OSs
  • Windows/LINUX
  • Desktop PC, Laptop, PDA, Mobile phone

Likely to Change Quite Often
  • E-Businesses are dynamic by nature
  • They need to keep one step ahead of the
  • Constant change to e-commerce sites is inevitable
  • Changing of prices (simple change)
  • Introducing new offers/schemes (not so simple)
  • Introducing new features to the site (complex)
  • Is my site built well enough to absorb these
  • Systems should mature rather than grow old and

Important E-Commerce Quality Attributes
  • Based on studies and the unique characteristics
    of e-commerce, one can say that the following
    quality attributes are important
  • Security
  • Usability and Navigability
  • Performance and Scalability
  • Reliability
  • Portability

Security in E-Commerce
The Importance of Security
  • Security is a very important consideration in
  • A major security incident would scare away many
    existing and potential customers
  • Analogy Imagine setting up a shop in a
    high-street and going home at night leaving it
    open with a sign saying Owner not in

Common Reasons for not using e-commerce
How secure do online stores need to be before
people use them?
Possible security breaches (1/2)
  • Fraud resuting in direct financial loss
  • Transfer of funds
  • Destruction of financial records
  • Theft of information
  • Confidential
  • Proprietry
  • Technological
  • Risk of intruder passing this information on to a
    competing company or people with malicious intend

Possible security breaches (2/2)
  • Disruption of service
  • E.g. Denial of Service Attacks
  • Inconveniences to customers
  • Loss of business
  • Loss of customer confidence
  • Intrusions into customer files
  • Dishonesty
  • Human Mistakes
  • Network Failures

Security in brick-and-mortar stores
  • In tradional businesses
  • Merchants expect to be paid with real money
  • When they accept credit, they require signatures
  • At the end of the day
  • Alarm is set
  • Security Guards employed
  • Police available in case of a break in
  • Can we replicate this online?

Paper-based Commerce vs E-Commerce
Paper-Based Commerce
Electronic Commerce
Signed paper documents
Digital signatures
Person to person
Electronic via website
Physical payment system
Electronic payment system
Merchant Customer face-to-face
No face-to-face contact
Detectability is difficulty
Easy detectability of modifications
Easy negotiability of documents
Negotiablity via special protocols
Clear legal rules and protection
Confusing legal issues
  • Ask yourself
  • Would I attempt to steal something from a shop in
  • Then ask yourself
  • Would I try to hack into a website or online
    store to gain access to unauthorised information?
  • Most people say no to the first question but yes
    to the second.
  • Why?

Identifying Security Principals
  • Principals in online security are
  • People
  • Processes
  • Machines
  • Keys, passwords, etc
  • Principals participate in transactions
  • Send, receive, access, update, delete, etc

Security Concerns
  • Confidentiality / Secrecy
  • Ensuring that data remains private
  • Authentication
  • Making sure that message senders are who they say
    they are
  • Integrity
  • Make sure the messages are not modified during
  • Nonrepudiation
  • Ensuring that principals cannot deny that they
    sent a message
  • Access Control
  • Restricting the use of a resource to authorised
    principals only

Confidentiality / Secrecy (1/3)
Intercepts But cannot Understand messages
Always assume that anyone can view your
electronic communications at will.
Evil Hacker
Confidentiality / Secrecy (2/3)
  • Data needs to be encrypted in order for secrecy
    to prevail
  • There are various encryption techniques and
  • Security algorithms should be updated over time.
  • One early popular algorithm was DES.
  • It is now crackable in 3 hours.
  • Latest popular encryption algorithm is AES

Confidentiality / Secrecy (3/3)
  • SSL (Secure Sockets Layer) is the prevailing
    encryption mechanism for e-commerce today.
  • Uses Public/Private Key Encryption Methods
  • All major browsers support SSL
  • SSL supports certificates and thus handles other
    aspects of security besides encryption
  • It is beyond the scope of this course to enter
    into exactly how SSL works as this would require
    a whole course to trash out

Authentication (1/2)
Hello James, this is Peter I have information 4u
Hello Peter, I am James. Give me the information.
Evil Hacker
Authentication (2/2)
  • Passwords are a weak form of authentication
  • Current mainstream technique for ensuring
    authentication is the use of certificates
  • Individuals (and organisations) can obtain
    certificates from a certificate authority and use
    the certificate to encrypt their messages
  • Recipients can verify the senders certificate
    with a certification authority so as to ascertain
    the identity of the person

Integrity (1/2)
Hello James. Please give me your account num
Ok. My account number is 332121221
Intercepts and Modifies Message
Ok. My account number is 55421221
Evil Hacker
Integrity (2/2)
  • Certificates and Public Key Infrastructure also
    cater for integrity
  • Recipients can detect if the original message has
    been changed and request the sender to resend the

What needs to be secured? (1/2)
  • Clients They are vulnerable to
  • Viruses
  • Hackers
  • Servers
  • Exposed to anothorised access
  • Intrusions could lead to a reducion in speed or
  • Server resourses may be used for purposes other
    than those originally intended

What needs to be secured? (2/2)
  • Networks
  • The entry point to computer systems
  • Can become the root cause for infringment if not
  • A weak network can allow data to be easily
    tampered with
  • Common cases occuring due to a loophole in
    network security
  • Fradulent Identities
  • Eavesdropping

Common Threats on the Web (1/6)
  • Accidental Threats
  • Arise from human error
  • Generally due to lack of awareness and training
  • Poor password choices
  • Accidental business transactions
  • Accidental disclosure of information
  • Use of incorrect software
  • Physical accidents
  • E.g. spilling of coffee, unplugging servers, etc

Common Threats on the Web (2/6)
  • Malicious Threats
  • Specially intended to cause harm to people,
    systems and networks
  • Malicious Software
  • Viruses
  • Trojans
  • Worms
  • Social Engineering Threats
  • E.g. pretending to be an employee of a company
    and asking for private information

Common Threats on the Web (3/6)
  • Authorisation Threats
  • Hacker attempts to bypass security by posing as
    an authorised user
  • Needs to gain knowledge about a valid username
    and password combination
  • Various techniques exist
  • Dictionary Attacks
  • Brute-Force Attacks
  • Short Attacks

Common Threats on the Web (4/6)
  • Application Threats
  • Exploit vulnerabilities in applications deployed
    as part of a web system
  • Applications can include
  • Web Servers
  • FTP Servers
  • DNS Servers
  • The operating system
  • Always keep software updated with the latest
    version and fixes

Common Threats on the Web (5/6)
  • Privacy Threats
  • Two forms
  • Network Eavesdropping
  • Monitor data being transmitted over networks
  • Extract Information
  • Radio Signal Evesdropping
  • Listen to radio signals from computer hardware
    (e.g. computer monitors) and try to extract
    useful information from it
  • Rarely used Requires expensive equipment

Common Threats on the Web (6/6)
  • Access Control Threats
  • Intruder gains access to a system for which (s)he
    is not authorised to use
  • However, (s)he does not do it by posing as an
    authorised user
  • E.g. Gain access to an unsecured modem
  • E.g. Exploit some sort of network flaw

Network Attacks (1/3)
  • Denial of Service (DoS) Attacks
  • Attempt to make a website or service unusable
  • E.g. Uploading vast amounts of data to an FTP
    server so as to take bandwidth away from other
  • SYN Flood Attacks
  • Exploits the TCP 3-way handshake
  • Attacker sends many SYN packets but never
    completes the handshake
  • Victim uses up a lot of resources and potentially

Network Attacks (2/3)
  • SMURF Attacks
  • Many ICMP ping requests sent to different with a
    spoofed source address of the victim
  • Victim receives a large number of ICMP replies
    which it did not send
  • A similar attackcalled Fraggle works in the same
    way but uses the UDP protocol

Spoofed Ping Requests
Hackers PC
Replies to Victim
Network Attacks (3/3)
  • Ping of Death
  • Hackers send thousands of ping requests per
    second to a victim
  • They send data which is beyond the 64k ICMP limit
  • Can cause a total system crash
  • Other Attacks
  • DNS Attacks
  • Spoofing
  • Host Overflow
  • Length Overflow
  • Zone Transfer
  • Distributed Denial-of-Service (DDoS)
  • Same as DoS but involves hundreds (or thousands)
    of simultaneous attacks

Security Counter-measures (1/5)
  • Physical Security
  • Make sure hardware is physcialy secure
  • Security Guards
  • Alarms
  • Security Procedures
  • Safety Procedures

Security Counter-measures (2/5)
  • Secure Authentication and Messaging
  • Use of public key cryptography
  • Ensure that
  • Messages received from a user are actually from
    that user
  • Messages received from a user have not been
    tampered with

Security Counter-measures (3/5)
  • Firewall Solutions
  • A firewall sits on the perimiter of your network
  • Control network traffic flow
  • System Administrator may close
  • Ports / protocols
  • Traffic from/to certain systems
  • Useful against
  • Various network attacks
  • Spyware
  • Unauthorised usage
  • Not the silver bullet of security

Security Counter-measures (4/5)
  • Bandwidth Managers
  • Limit the use of bandwidth by different
  • Protocols
  • Applications
  • Particular Sources and Destinations
  • Useful against DoS attacks
  • Example
  • Give high bandwidth to secure ports
  • Give low bandwidth to unsecured ports (prevents
    DoS attacks)

Security Counter-measures (5/5)
  • Disaster Recovery and Backup
  • Disaster recovery plan
  • Everyone should know what to do if the worst-case
    scenario were to happen
  • Regular backups are useful and essential

  • How payments are made online

Origins of Money and Payments
  • Money began with the concept of bartering
  • Economic System got more complicated and tokens
    started being used.
  • Items carried an intrinsic value
  • E.g. Precious stones, shells, etc
  • E.g. Silver dollar was made of 1 worth of silver
  • After tokens, were detached from inherent value,
    notational money was adopted
  • Credit system developed
  • People pay without actually having the money
  • Credit cards

Real-world Cash
  • Medium of exchange to simplify transactions
  • Has a standard value and helps decide worth of
  • Electronic money must fulfill this criteria as
  • Benefits of cash
  • Convenience
  • Wide acceptance
  • Anonymity
  • No hidden or other cost of use
  • No audit trail
  • Disadvantage of cash is in the cost of holding it
  • Loss of potential interest in bank
  • Cost of security
  • Cost of transport

Electronic Money (E-Money)
  • E-Money is an electronic medium for making
  • Includes
  • Credit cards
  • Smart cards
  • Debit cards
  • Electronic funds transfer
  • Automated Clearinghouse (ACH) systems
  • It is notational and can be
  • Online or Off-line
  • Identified of Anonymous

Types of E-Money (1/2)
  • Identified and Online (IL)
  • Unique to credit card and debit cards
  • Customer is easily identifiable
  • Card is validated against a banks computer
    before payment is made
  • Identified and Offline (I-L)
  • Purchasing by cheque, travelers cheques, money
    orders, etc
  • Merchant asks for ID to make sure the identity of
    the purchaser is known
  • No verification is made

Types of E-Money (2/2)
  • Anonymous and Online (-IL)
  • Cash transactions where the purchaser is
  • Depositing money in an online account
  • Purchase made on the spot for cash
  • Anonymous and Offline (-I-L)
  • Unique to electronic cash
  • E.g. Transfering funds from a credit card to
    another account using an ATM which does not have
    a direct connection to the VISA/MasterCard

Analysing Cash, Cheques and Credit Cards
  • Regardless of the form of money, two distinct
    sets of properties should be considered in a
    money transfer
  • These are
  • The ACID Test
  • Atomicity
  • Consistency
  • Isolation
  • Durability
  • The ICES Test
  • Interoperability
  • Conservation
  • Economy
  • Scalability

The ACID Test (1/2)
  • Atomicity
  • Transaction must occur completely or not at all
  • E.g. A transfer 100 must result in the amount
    being credited from one account and debited to
    another. If one action fails, the whole
    transaction should be aborted.
  • Consistency
  • All parties involved must agree to the exchange
  • E.g. Before a Joe buys a product from Mel, Joe
    must agree to buy it for x and Mel must agree to
    sell it for x

The ACID Test (2/2)
  • Isolation
  • Each transaction is independent of any other
  • Treated as a stand-alone episode
  • Durability
  • Always possible to recover to a consistent state
    or reverse the state of an exchange
  • E.g. Customer is not happy with the product so
    you refund him

The ICES Test (1/2)
  • Addresses four important properties of Money
  • Interoperability
  • Ability to move back and forth between different
  • Conservation
  • How well money holds its value over time
    (temporal consistency)
  • How easy it is to store and access (temporal

The ICES Test (2/2)
  • Economy
  • Processing a transaction should be inexpensive
    and affordable
  • Relative to size of transaction
  • E.g. Paying a 1 charge to process a 10,000
    transaction is acceptable. However, it is not
    acceptable if you are processing a 5 transaction
  • Scalability
  • Ability of the system to handle multiple users at
    the same time

Comparing different systems
Atomicity Consistency Isolation Durability Interoperability Conservation Economy Scalability
Cash Y Y Y Y Y N Y Y
Cheque Y Y N Y N Y N Y
Credit Card Y Y N Y N - N Y
Internet-Based Payments
  • Electronic payments are financial transactions
    made without the use of paper documents such as
  • E.g. Having your stipends credited to your
    account, paying for a product with your smartcard
  • Internet-based payment systems are a form of
    electronic payment

Important Properties for E-Payments
  • Besides, the ACID and ICES tests, other
    properties are important for e-payment systems
  • Acceptability
  • Ease of Integration
  • Customer base
  • Ease of use and ease of access

Internet-Based Payment Systems Models
  • There are four main models for processing
    payments on the internet
  • Electronic Currency
  • Credit Cards
  • Debit Cards
  • Smart Cards

Electronic Currency
  • The network equivalent of cash
  • E.g. Electronic funds transfer (EFT) moves cash
    from one account (e.g. employers account) to
    another (e.g. employees bank account). This
    happens regardless of the bank type, location,

Credit Cards (1/2)
  • Credit cards are the most popular form of payment
  • Bank issues credit card to people
  • Can be topped up
  • Has an associated credit limit
  • To sell things on the web, merchants must accept
    credit cards
  • Merchants need to open a merchant account
  • Allows them to process credit card transactions
  • Merchant pays charges depending on the amount of
    money processed in a time period.
  • If users are unhappy with product/service
    received, they can generate a charge-back

Credit Cards (2/2)
  • Credit cards leave a complete audit trail
  • Can be a very insecure way of payment if the
    right security precautions are not taken
  • No signatures required
  • No face-to-face clues to interpret
  • Third-party credit card processing services are
  • Very useful when merchants fail to obtain a
    merchant account

Credit Cart Laundering
  • Merchants sometimes let other merchants use their
    merchant account
  • They do this for a commission
  • This is a violation of the merchant agreement
    with banks
  • The risk is enormous, even if your commission
    rates are very good
  • Why couldnt your client merchant get his own
    merchant account?
  • Bad credit history
  • Bad management practices
  • Typical scenario Merchant processes payments,
    closes down account and does not sent his clients
    any products. All clients generate charge-backs
    to YOUR merchant account.

Debit Cards
  • Similar to credit cards but the card holder is
    not borrowing money to purchase a product
  • Processed through the issuing banks card network
    (as opposed to the global VISA or Mastercard
  • Safer for client if (s)he controls the amount of
    money in the account linked to the debit card.
  • In case of theft, a thief cannot run up debts for
    the card owner.

Smart Card (1/2)
  • Card with a built-in chip capable of storing
    information in its memory
  • Contains programmable chip, RAM and ROM storage
  • Handles a variety of applications
  • Encrypts digital cash on chip
  • Can be refilled by connecting to a bank
  • Digital Key to an office
  • Prescription authorisation
  • Voting purposes

Smart Card (2/2)
  • In e-commerce can be used for
  • Digital Cash
  • Authenticating access to secured encrypted
  • Digital signatures
  • Key storage
  • Authenticating user by use of special devices
  • Safer when compared to the credit-card number
  • Devices not yet popular so smart cards cannot
    really be as successful as credit cards for the
    time being

Electronic Funds Transfer (EFT)
  • Computer-based system that
  • facilitates the transfer of money or the
    processing of financial transactions
  • between two financial institutions
  • same day or overnight
  • one of the earliest forms of electronic payment
    systems on private networks

Automated Clearinghouse (ACH)
  • Routes bank transactions involving more than one
    financial institution
  • Ensures the correct accounts held by the correct
    institutions can be debited and credited
  • Consider an example where you go to your bank
    (e.g. BOV) and deposit a cheque of 300 which
    originated from another bank (e.g. HSBC) to your
    bank account which previously had a 100 balance
  • Bank teller will give you a receipt saying your
    new balance is 400
  • However, the new balance will not be available
    until that cheque clears through an ACH system

ACH Example
3. Cheque goes to ACH for processing
Bank A
6. ACH Credits Bank A with 300
5. Bank B Approves
4. ACH Queries Bank B
Bank B
2 Not on Us Deposit
8. Bank A releases Hold
7. Bank B Debits Account with 300
Cheque deposited
On hold until cleared via ACH
Secure Electronic Transactions (SET)Protocol
  • An emerging standard protocol for handling
    transactions on the Internet
  • Administered jointly by VISA and MasterCard
  • Covers all aspects of online commerce
  • Various services
  • Cardholder and merchant registration
  • Purchase request
  • Payment authorisation
  • Payment Capture
  • Autorisation Reversal
  • Credit Reversal

Secure Electronic Transactions (SET)Protocol
  • Authenticates parties involved using cryptography
    systems and trust hierarchies of digital
  • Based on 4 important goals
  • Confidentiality
  • Integrity of transmitted data
  • Authentication of the card holder and merchant
  • Interoperability across network providers
  • Very complex and detailed protocol
  • Not economical for small payments (micro

SET Example
3. Authorisation
SET Payment Gateway
5. Payment
1. Order Details
2. Request for Payment
4. Electronic Receipt
Examples of payment systems
  • BankNet (http//mkn.co.uk/bank)
  • CheckFree (www.checkfree.com)
  • Credit Card Network (http//creditnet.com)
  • CyberCents (www.cybercents.com)
  • Ecash (www.ecashtechnologies.com)
  • PayPal (www.paypal.com)
  • QuickCommerce (www.qc123.com)
  • WebMoney (www.webmoney.ru)
  • Millicent (http//research.compaq.com/SRC/articles
  • Ziplock (www.portsoft.com.au)

  • E-Payments are an essential component of
    e-commerce systems
  • By now, you should
  • understand the origins of money and how payment
    systems evolved
  • appreciate different types of e-payment systems
  • know how to analyse payment systems using tests
    such as ACID and ICES
  • be familiar with different types of internet
    payment systems
  • be familiar with various e-payment terms,
    concepts and protocols such as SET and ACH

Launching an Online Business
  • If you were to set up an online business
  • How would you do it?

A typical E-Business Lifecycle
Business Planning 1
Technology Infrastructure 2
Maintenance Enhancement 6
Design 3
Fulfillment 5
Marketing 4
Business Planning and Strategising
Factor Traditional Business E-Business
Barriers to Entry Building, licenses, staff Unique products,, special skills, technical expertise
Basis of Competition Improved products, lover prices Smarter products Innovation
Basis of Control Manufacturer Customer
Organisation Hierarchical Depts Web-based Teams
Marketing Mass advertising Mass personalisation
Sales Pricing Based on cost of raw materials Transaction costs, technical setup costs
Technology Infrastructure
  • Hardware
  • Software
  • ISP
  • People

People Involved
  • Business People
  • Graphics Designers
  • People with library science background
  • Database Designers
  • Programmers
  • Web Architects
  • Network Security Experts
  • Project Managers

Software Development Lifecycles
The Web-E Lifecycle
  • Overall Design
  • Navigation
  • Organisation
  • Search Facilities
  • Features to Implement
  • Do it yourself or outsource?

Organisation Schemes
  • Problems with Organisation
  • Ambiguity
  • Heterogeneity
  • Different Perspectives
  • Exact Organisation Schemes
  • Alphabetical, Chronological, Geographical, etc
  • Ambiguous
  • Topic, Tast, Metaphor, etc

Information Ecologies
  • Types of Navigation
  • Global
  • Local
  • Contextual
  • Supplemental Navigation
  • Site Maps
  • Site Index
  • Site Guides

The berry picking model
The too simple model
  • Objectives of Marketing Campaign
  • Marketing vs E-Marketing
  • Know your customer
  • Issues
  • Spamming
  • Cultural Differences
  • Pull vs Push Marketing
  • Personalisation

  • Packing
  • Shipping
  • Pricing
  • Issues
  • Product availability
  • Back orders
  • Out-Stock Notice
  • Replacing defective products

Maintenance and Enhancement
  • Maintenance vs Enhancements
  • Managing Customer Feedback
  • Customer Service
  • Updating Orders
  • Order Status
  • Technical Support
  • Localisation

Course Summary
  • We have covered
  • Overview of E-Commerce
  • Security
  • Payment Systems
  • Launching an Online Business
  • This is not enough
  • Assignment
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