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Safety and Health Education to Aging Farmers and Scarce Resources, What are the Implications?


University of Kentucky. Who's Chike? Chike Anyaegbunam, National Director, ... East Carolina University. Colorado State University. University of Washington ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Safety and Health Education to Aging Farmers and Scarce Resources, What are the Implications?

Safety and Health Education to Aging Farmers and
Scarce Resources, What are the Implications?
  • Chike Anyaegbunam, Ph.D.
  • SE Center for Agric. Health
  • and Injury Prevention
  • University of Kentucky

  • Whos Chike?

Chike Anyaegbunam, National Director,
Community-based Social Marketing Programs for
Tractor Safety in the U.S.
The Social Marketing Project A Description
  • A 24-month national research project funded by
    CDC/NIOSH to initiate the incremental development
    of a community-based social marketing program for
    the promotion of selected aspects of the National
    Agricultural Tractor Safety Initiative.
  • Based on community trials carried out by Dr. Cole
    et al in four Kentucky counties.

Social Marketing Project Goals
  • Engage grassroots farm community members in
  • the refinement of the Initiative and its
  • identifying the most influential local media and
    communication channels for promoting the
    Initiative, and
  • developing and pretesting a prototype social
    marketing toolkit for promoting selected aspects
    of the Initiative.

Social Marketing Project Participating
  • University of Kentucky
  • University of Texas
  • East Carolina University
  • Colorado State University
  • University of Washington
  • University of California, Davis
  • Northeast Agric. Center, NY
  • National Farm Medicine Center, WI
  • CDC/NIOSH Health Communication Unit

Project Design and Method
  • Thirty-two focus groups totaling 288 participants
    in eight geographically diverse states used to
    interact with farm communities during the
  • Focus group participants were selected from
    principal farm operators, farm managers, farm
    women, and those who provide business, social,
    and professional services to farmers (Cooperative
    Extension, equipment dealers, insurance, health
    care, financial, farm supply. etc.).
  • 8-10 participants in each focus group.
  • Project approved by participating universities

  • Formative Research
  • Secondary information gathering and analysis
  • Communication audit
  • Design/pretest discussion guide
  • Development of prototype campaign toolkit
  • Workshop 1
  • Conduct focus groups
  • Transcription

  • Transcription
  • Data analysis - constant comparative analysis
  • NVivo 7
  • Focus group report and recommendations
  • Campaign toolkit revision
  • Workshop 2
  • Community meetings
  • Project report
  • Disseminate report

Phase II National Tractor Safety Campaign Design
and Implementation
  • Campaign strategy design
  • Development of themes, messages, materials,
    partnerships, special events and activities
  • Pilot testing and revision
  • Implementation and monitoring
  • Evaluation

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Local and International Projects 1979 - preset
Focus Group Session in Kentucky
Focus group with Ovahimba women, Northern Namibia
  • Aging American farmers a special population
    with unique health and safety education needs
  • Health education and communication approaches for
    promoting agricultural safety and injury
  • Engaging older farmers in community-based
    participatory research and health marketing
    programs - What are the implications?

Aging American farmers as a special population
  • Older farmers are a special needs population
    that needs recognition and attention. However,
    they have been underrepresented within the
    research literature dealing with Farm Health and
  • Hernandez-Peck (2001)
  • NORA News (2003)

Aging American farmers as a special population
at risk
  • Unlike the rest of the population, farmers tend
    to remain in farming beyond the normal retirement
    age. It is not surprising to see farmers in their
    70s still farming full-time.
  • Hernandez-Peck (2001)
  • Nora News (2003)

Age-related Risks
  • Aged, or senior farmers, like most
    agricultural workers, are at risk of sustaining
    serious injuries. Senior farmers, however, may be
    at additional risk due to normal physical and
    sensory deficits associated with aging.
  • Whitman Field (1995)

Physical Conditions
  • Conditions frequently associated with age (i.e.,
    arthritis, limited vision and hearing, and
    depression) potentially make the demands of daily
    farming extremely dangerous for the older farmer
  • Hernandez-Peck (2001)
  • Use of prescription drugs.

Risks that increase older farmers susceptibility
to injury
  • Sensory loss
  • Loss in muscle and skeletal strength
  • Slower reaction time
  • More rapid fatigue
  • Reduced ability to handle such tasks as operating
    agricultural machinery under time stress
  • Automatic, rather than attentive, behaviors
  • (due to the farmer having performed the task so
    many times in the past)
  • Dan Lago (1999)

  • Older farmers enjoy their work. It gives them a
    sense of accomplishment and cannot be extricated
    from their heritage and culture.
  • Older farmers have been described as unwilling to
    recognize or accept their physical limitations.
  • Older farmers may be willing to acknowledge, for
    instance, that a risk of tractor-related injury
    exists, but believe the likelihood of an injury
    occurring to them personally is small.
  • Older farmers tend to have a high level of
    confidence in their own abilities and often
    believe that they possess the ability to prevent
    serious tractor and machinery-related injuries,
    for instance.
  • Older farmers may not think there's anything new
    to learn, and habits are hard to break.
  • Fatalistic beliefs

Aging and limited-resource farmers
  • Limited-resource farmers often belong to
    socially disadvantaged groups whose members have
    been subjected to racial or ethnic prejudice
    because of their identity as members of a group
    without regard to their individual qualities.
  • Those groups include African Americans, American
    Indians or Alaskan natives, Hispanics, and Asians
    or Pacific Islanders. Women have also been added
    to the list of socially disadvantaged farm
    operators. USDA

Research Studies?
  • Fatal occupational injury rates in the
    agriculture, forestry, and fishing industry
  • and the private sector by age, 19922001
  • (Sources BLS 2002a Myers 2003.)

Need for Targeted Interventions
  • A need exists for intervention efforts geared
    toward enhancing awareness of agricultural
    related hazards, fostering positive attitudes
    concerning injury prevention strategies, and
    encouraging safer work practices among older
    farmers and resource-poor farmers.
  • Whitman Field (1995)
  • Excellent tactical efforts/suggestions exist
  • John Myers et al (1999)
  • Dan Lago (1999)
  • Kansas Measuring reaction time of older farmers
    at displays older people were amazed at how many
    seconds it took them to react, often a major
    cause of accidents among senior farmers (1997).
  • Integrated Strategic Efforts
  • NYCAM Social Marketing Campaign
  • Canadian Agric. Safety assoc.

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Selling Safety to Farmers
  • Safety advocacy bore fruits because of 2nd World
  • Research by farm safety specialists into the
    nature of the farm accident problem
  • Dissemination of their solutions through an
    organizational network of governmental and
    private institutions
  • Education increased farmers dependence on the
    expert for safety information
  • Oden (2005)

Health Education/Communication Definitions
  • Health education A continuing process of
    informing people how to achieve and maintain good
    health of motivating them to do so and of
    promoting environmental and lifestyle changes to
    facilitate their objective.
  • Health communication The study and use of
    communication strategies to inform and influence
    individual and community decisions that enhance
    health. It links the domains of communication and
    health and is increasingly recognized as a
    necessary element of efforts to improve personal
    and public health.

Social Marketing Definition
  • Social marketing involves the application of
  • marketing technologies to the analysis, planning,
  • and evaluation of programs designed to influence
    the voluntary
  • behavior of target audiences in order to improve
    their personal
  • welfare and that of their society.
  • Andreasen, (1995)

Strategic communication and community engagement
Beltran, 1979
The 3-D Communication Approach
  • Emergence of an unprecedented sense of
    empowerment among organizations internal and
    external stakeholders
  • Adding the horizontal axis of communication to
    the traditional one-way top-down or center-out
    and bottom-up models

From Selling to Marketing Agric. Health and
  • Typically, top-down safety and health
    education/communication programs have had little
    effect on lowering farm injury rates
  • Farmers and farm community members do not buy
    into the safety practices for a variety of
  • A more effective way to develop attitudes that
    support the adoption of safety practices is for
    researchers and members of the farming community
    to engage in dialogue Murphy (2003) Cole

What is Dialogue?
  • Jürgen Habermas System and Lifeworld Spheres
  • James Carey Transmission vs. Ritual Models
  • Hans-Georg Gadamer Co-creation of meaning in
  • James Grunig From press agentry/publicity to
    two-way symmetrical models of public relations
  • Everett Rogers The Passing of the Dominant
    Paradigm - From top-down to participatory

What is Dialogue? (2)
  • Bruner and Cole Construction of Reality through
    Narratives and Storytelling
  • Freire Dialogue and conscientization through
    problem posing and use of picture and audio codes
    as triggers
  • Green, Israel, and Anyaegbunam et al Community
    Based Participatory Research/ Participatory
    Communication Research
  • Kotler, Zaltman, Andreasen and CDC Social
    Marketing and Prevention/Health Marketing

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From Selling to Marketing Agric. Health and
  • Approaches in the field of health education and
    communication have evolved over the years from
    dictating the way that information is to be
    conveyed from the top-down, to strategies that
    favor learning from and listening to the needs
    and desires of the target audience themselves,
    and building the program from there.

From Selling to Marketing Agric. Health and
  • Innovative health promotion practice includes
    community partnerships that focus on both
    individuals and communities at risk.
  • Interventions directed at individual behaviors
  • alone, without also influencing the social,
    cultural, economic, and political levels that
  • shape behavior, do not have as great an impact
    on health status.

Marketing Agric. Safety and Health to Farmers
  • Understanding the demographics and
    psychographics, including beliefs, perceptions,
    values, norms, lifestyles and concerns of an
    agricultural population is one of the first and
    most important steps in assessing its health and
    safety needs.
  • It is also a fundamental precursor to planning
    effective programs to prevent occupational injury
    and improve health among the population.

Health Marketing
  • Health Marketing involves creating,
    communicating, and delivering health information
    and interventions using customer-centered and
    science-based strategies to protect and promote
    the health of diverse populations.
  • (CDC, 2005)

What is Health Marketing?
  • A transdisciplinary practice that integrates
    traditional marketing field with public health
    research, social marketing, health education and
    communication theories and practice
  • It promotes the use of marketing research to
    educate, motivate and inform the public on health
  • It is a complex framework that provides guidance
    for designing health interventions, campaigns,
    communications, and research projects
  • A broad range of strategies and techniques that
    can be used to create synergy among public health
    research, communication messages and health

Why a transdisciplinary approach?
  • Injury prevention needs to be conceptualized
    broadly enough that it can subsume a wide variety
    of specific scientific theories and the insights
    derived from research in a variety of
    disciplines. Moreover, a broad conception of
    injury prevention enables several programming
    difficulties to be overcome. Many programs
    provide services potentially relevant to
    prevention but with no demonstrated connection to
    injury prevention. Thinking contextually allows
    these undertakings to be considered as resources
    to the prevention effort.
  • Preventing Neurotrauma A Casebook of Evidence
    Based Practices
  • Richard Volpe and John Lewko 2004

Health Marketing Basics
  • The offer, its competitive cost and benefits
    induce prospective consumers to purchase or adopt
    product, idea or service
  • Self-interest The invisible guiding hand that
    ensures the efficiency of the marketplace
  • Consumer research Used by marketers to identify
    the ways in which prospective consumers define
    their self-interest
  • 4Ps of Marketing Product, price, place,
    promotion partnership the marketing mix

Uses of the health marketing approach
  • Consumer Research needs assessment
  • Building sustainable distribution channels
  • Improving products and product selection and
    reducing product price
  • Developing and testing products that specifically
    respond to consumer and distributor preferences

Community-based Participatory Research (CBPR)
  • Collaborative partnership approaches to actively
    involve participants in all phases of the
    research process from problem identification
    through adoption and dissemination of results.
  • Recognizes the community as an integral partner
    in the research endeavor the knowledge and
    experiences of community members are incorporated
    into the research process to ensure acceptance
    and improve community health.
  • Recognizes that behavior and health are
    influenced by individual attributes as well as
    the conditions under which they live - the
    ecological models of health

CBPR and Health Marketing A Basic Process
  • Research
  • Action Planning
  • Communication/Implementation
  • Evaluation
  • All phases carried out by transdisciplinary
    team the community

  • Commercial marketing gave us the consumption of
    tobacco, alcohol and excess calories.
  • Health marketing can help us improve the
    occupational health and safety of farmers,
    especially, resource-poor and older farmers.
  • What are the implications of taking this road to
    agric. health and safety promotion among
    resource-poor and older farmers?
  • Thank you