Moderators in the Relationship between the Socioeconomic Status and Health Behaviors of Individuals in Early Adulthood - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Moderators in the Relationship between the Socioeconomic Status and Health Behaviors of Individuals in Early Adulthood

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Moderators in the Relationship between the Socioeconomic Status and Health Behaviors of Individuals in Early Adulthood Cynthia LaCoe Advisor: Dr. JoAnn Prause – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Moderators in the Relationship between the Socioeconomic Status and Health Behaviors of Individuals in Early Adulthood


1
Moderators in the Relationship between the
Socioeconomic Status and Health Behaviors of
Individuals in Early Adulthood
  • Cynthia LaCoe
  • Advisor Dr. JoAnn Prause
  • UROP Symposium May 31, 2007
  • Department of Psychology and Social Behavior
  • School of Social Ecology
  • University of California, Irvine

2
Overview
  • What is SES?
  • What are health behaviors?
  • What do we know?
  • Hypotheses
  • Study Design
  • Findings
  • Implications

3
Socioeconomic Status (SES)
  • SES An individuals economic ranking in
    relation to others in his/her society (North
    Central Regional Educational Laboratory, 2004)
  • Common measures of SES
  • Income
  • Educational attainment
  • Occupational status

4
Health Behaviors
  • Food Consumption
  • Physical Activity
  • Sedentary Activity
  • Relaxation
  • Sexual Activity
  • Substance Use

5
Health Behaviors Food Consumption
http//www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/Fpyr/pmap.htm
6
Health Behaviors Physical Sedentary Activity
  • Physical Activity
  • Definition Bodily activity done to develop and
    maintain physical fitness and overall health
  • Recommendations
  • Vigorous 20 min 3 days a week
  • Moderate 30 min 5 days a wk
  • Strength Training 8-12 reps for each of 8-10
    muscle groups on 2 non-consecutive days
  • (Circulation, 2007 Cygan, 2008)
  • Sedentary Activity
  • Definition Activity that requires little or no
    physical activity (e.g., watching T.V., playing
    video games, using a computer)
  • Recommendations Limit engagement

7
Health Behaviors Health Status
  • Overweight and Obesity
  • Root Cause Energy Imbalance
  • Over Consumption
  • Inadequate Expenditure
  • Prevalence
  • 33 and 34 of U.S. Residents (CDC, 2007)
  • Higher among individuals of lower SES (McLaeren,
    2007)
  • Comorbidities
  • Cancer
  • Diabetes
  • Heart disease
  • Stroke

8
SES and Health Behaviors
  • SES is associated with
  • Education and health knowledge
  • Access to supermarkets and high quality grains
    and produce
  • Purchase of high calorie foods (Turrell
    Kavanagh, 2006 Jetter Cassady, 2006)
  • Levels of physical activity (Wen, Browning,
    Cagney, 2007)

9
Hypotheses
  • How does SES influence health behaviors?
  • H1 SES will directly effect health behaviors.
  • Does the relationship between SES and health
    behaviors depend on ethnicity or gender?
  • H2 Ethnicity and gender moderate the effect of
    SES on health behaviors.

10
Study Design
  • Secondary Analysis of NHANES Data
  • NHANES 2003-2004
  • Sample Methods
  • Stratified, Multistage
  • 10,122 Non-institutionalized U.S. residents
  • Survey (Phone, Face-to-face), Examination (MEC),
    Laboratory (MEC)
  • Participant Eligibility
  • 22 - 32 years of age

11
Sample
  • Marital Status
  • 39.4 Married
  • .3 Widowed
  • 3.2 Divorced
  • 2.5 Separated
  • 39.1 Never married
  • 15.5 Living with a partner
  • Sample Size 800
  • 45.4 Males
  • Ethnicity
  • 44.9 Non Hispanic White
  • 23.4 Non Hispanic Black
  • 22.6 Mexican American
  • 9.1 Other, Multiracial
  • Mean Age 27.1
  • Health Insurance 67.9
  • Employed 72.3
  • Mean BMI 27.9

12
Sample Contd
13
Measures
Construct(s) Variable(s)
Dependent Diet Physical Activities Sedentary Activities (Un)healthy Food Frequencies Moderate, Vigorous, Strengthening Activities T.V. and Computer/Game usage
Independent SES Income, Education
Moderating Ethnicity Gender ------
Covariates ------ Age BMI Health Insurance Employment Status Marital Status
14
Findings
How does SES influence health behaviors?
  • Income
  • Positively associated with time spent in moderate
    activities
  • Negatively associated with hours spent in
    sedentary activities

15
Findings Contd
How does SES influence health behaviors?
  • Compared with a high school education
  • Less than a high school education was associated
    with
  • Less time spent in moderate activities
  • Higher consumption of fruits
  • Higher consumption of vegetables
  • More than a high school education was associated
    with
  • Less time spent in moderate activities
  • More time spent in sedentary activities
  • Higher consumption of vegetables
  • Higher consumption of whole grains
  • Lower consumption of white bread

16
Findings Contd
Does the relationship between SES and health
behaviors depend on ethnicity or gender?
  • Ethnicity
  • Income
  • Strengthening Activities Positively associated
    among Mexican Americans, but not among Non
    Mexican Americans
  • Education
  • Fruit Consumption Mexican Americans with less
    than a high school education consumed more fruit
    than those with a high school education, no
    association among Non Mexican Americans

17
Findings Contd
Does the relationship between SES and health
behaviors depend on ethnicity or gender?
  • Gender
  • Income
  • Vigorous Activities Females with higher incomes
    engaged in more activities negative relationship
    among males
  • Strengthening Activities Females with higher
    incomes engaged in more activities virtually no
    association among males
  • Soft Drink Consumption Higher income females
    drank more diet soft drinks than regular soft
    drinks virtually no association among males
  • Education
  • White bread Females with less than a high school
    education consumed more white bread than did
    those with a high school education no
    significant association among males

18
Limitations
  • Educational attainment recoded broadly (i.e.,
    less than high school, high school degree or
    equivalent, more than high school vs. K-doctoral
    degree)
  • Serving size(s) of food variables
  • Barriers to physical activity (e.g., neighborhood
    characteristics such as safety)
  • Sample size

19
Implications
  • Research
  • Role of acculturation in the effects of ethnicity
    on the relationship between SES and health
    behaviors
  • Ways in which education and income influence
    sedentary activities
  • Policy
  • Incorporate more health education into high
    school curriculums
  • Fund basic research and intervention programs
    with specific target audiences
  • Outreach Programs
  • Identify a target population
  • Develop population appropriate educational
    materials and interventions

20
Acknowledgements
  • Thank you
  • Dr. JoAnn Prause
  • Dr. Valerie Jenness
  • SE Honors 2007-2008 Cohort
  • UROP
  • National Center for Health Statistics

21
Contact Information
  • Cynthia LaCoe
  • clacoe_at_uci.edu
  • Department of Psychology and Social Behavior
  • School of Social Ecology
  • University of California, Irvine
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