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Indias Forest Products Economy in World Perspective

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Title: Indias Forest Products Economy in World Perspective


1
Indias Forest Products Economy in World
Perspective
Presentation at TERI University March 2007
  • Lloyd C. Irland
  • Yale University
  • Lloyd C.Irland_at_yale.edu

2
Outline
  • Indias Forest resource
  • Indias paper usage and industry
  • Lumber and building materials
  • Implications for forest management
  • Summary

3
Maine
  • 6. 4 MM ha forest 10 of India
  • Climate North temperate
  • Supports 4 MM TPA paper production from largely
    natural forest management
  • Thinnings, etc can double natural growth rates
    (no planting, herbicides)
  • 5 m3/ha/yr with good management
  • Not hi-tech

4
Maine…
  • Public owns only about 7
  • Biggest threat, ownership fragmentation, land use
    conversion.
  • India has already done all that!

5
Northern temperate climate
6
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7
Source, IFS, Forest Survey of India 1999.
8
http//www.mapsofindia.com/maps/punjab/punjab-fore
st-map.htm
9
Indias Forests and Land Use 2003
  • Forest Percent
  • Very Dense 1.56
  • Mod. Dense 10.32
  • Open 8.76
  • Total 20.64 (incl mangr)
  • Scrub 1.23
  • Non-forest 78.13
  • FSI, State of Forest, 2003 p. 9

10
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11
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12
Forest removals, FAO
  • 1990 9,001
  • 2000 5,735
  • 2005 4,724
  • Industrial roundwood 1,252
  • Fuelwood 3,472
  • Roundwood estimates -- less than Sri Lanka
    Useless data???

13
INDIA 6.5
14
Who Uses Paper in the World
15
Who Supplies them
16
http//earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Newsroom/NewImage
s/images.php3?img_id16586
17
ITTO Report Card
  • India has 36 of natural forest sustainably
    managed
  • 25 of plantations have management plans
  • Overall 31 Sustainable.
  • Very high compared to 33 tropical countries.

18
Indias Paper Industry
  • Numerous small units 525 in total
  • Ave size 10,000 TPA
  • 5 of typical size in North America
  • Microscopic comp. to new world class mills (2
    MMTPA)
  • Capacity approx 6-7 MM TPA
  • Operating below capacity
  • Tariff protection
  • Import dependence likely to rise if consumption
    increases
  • Some companies seek opportunities elsewhere.

19
Fiber Base
  • 32 Agr and other fibers
  • 40 Wood Paper industry about ¼ of India ind.
    wood consumption
  • 28 Recycled
  • Fiber supplies/costs a severe constraint
  • Probable reason for small mills
  • A fraction of size of even obsolete mills in West

20
Competitiveness
  • Energy Costs
  • Small mills
  • Pollution issues
  • Fiber Costs
  • Higher import dependence likely
  • Increased domestic production remains important

21
www.rff.org/documents/RFF-DP-06-35.pdf
22
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23
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24
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25
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26
India Log Production estimates
  • Million cu m.
  • Natural Forests 14
  • Plantations
  • and homesteads 43
  • Imports 3
  • Total Consumption 60
  • Source Wiles, AFPA Feb 2005.

27
Lumber Bldg Materials
  • Imports rising
  • Logs preferred, heavy to radiata
  • Construction materials mix to change?
  • Larger dwellings
  • New technologies
  • Wood for trim, doors, millwork, etc.
  • Panel products, for furniture etc.
  • see WPBI for India in annual surveys…

28
Implications for Management
  • 33 forest cover goals a plan for getting
    there?
  • Assessment of future demands
  • Prominent role of TOF
  • Human needs and management Approaches….
  • The 21st century plantation

29
Human Needs Forest Values
  • Locally gathered food items
  • Grazing, fodder gathering
  • Medicinals
  • Cultural values of forest sites
  • Local rights to these historic uses not
    respected, not secured
  • One human need is Income (surprise)
  • Kumar, Tomar in XII Silv Conf.
  • false polarizations

30
Human Needs for Products
  • Fuel
  • Paper news, literacy, packaging
  • Wood for shelter, building materials, farm uses
  • Pallets and shipping
  • Panels for building, furniture
  • Raw material for crafts, local manufacturing
  • Jobs and local tax base

31
Forest Management Triad Model
  • From Seymour and Hunter, Univ. Maine
  • Lands managed for wildness, biodiversity
  • Lands managed intensively for fiber
  • Lands lightly, but cleverly, managed for multiple
    uses
  • Not necessarily 33 each!

32
Reserves for biodiversity
33
Plantation Area
  • Cum area 3.3 MM Ha
  • Estimates are rough
  • Planting 1.5 MM ha per yr
  • Potential is est. at up to 41 MM ha
  • Incl multiple objectives

34
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35
A production plantation estate?
  • To support needed supplies of building materials,
    industrial materials, and paper.
  • Provide employment in manufacturing land
    management
  • Tenure rights poisoning progress
  • In local areas, already happening

36
The 21st Century Plantation
  • Not the wheat farm mentality
  • A model using
  • Multi species
  • Multi layers
  • Multi products
  • Small carefully managed patches
  • Larger role for the market
  • In India, many scientists, practitioners, farmers
    working on this concept now

37
A Better Market Model
  • Public forests
  • Community forests
  • Private farmers selling direct to users
  • In many nations, much of the wood comes from
    small private holdings
  • Paper Industry buying (leasing) lands?
  • The balance does not seem to be right at present.

38
A better landscape model for intensive plantations
  • Respect augment water, other values
  • Emphasize degraded/unproductive lands
  • Better distribution of immediate benefits
  • Positive role for restoration
  • Intensively managed stands in a planned
    landscape
  • Not vast contiguous areas.

39
Managing Natural Forests
  • Essential part of Triad
  • Focus on habitat, nontimber values
  • Slow growth of valuable species
  • Costly to manage
  • returns over time low

40
Ecological Restoration
  • Abused soils, watersheds
  • Agroforestry, agropastoralism new models
    essential
  • Build on successes in community forestry and JFM
  • Fund via Payments for Ecosystem Services? -- be
    careful
  • Plantations as nurse crops

41
Potential Carbon Cycle Benefits
  • Meeting these other goals will serve Carbon cycle
    improvements
  • Wood/renewable fuel to displace coal
  • More efficient uses
  • Where should natural gas replace wood?

42
Human Needs for Products
  • More building materials for homes, schools
  • Paper for packaging, books, newspapers
  • Income also a human need

43
In Summary
  • Production is important
  • A human need
  • Indias Product needs will increase
  • Risk of higher import dependence
  • Need a better balance India has already started
  • The 21st Century plantation
  • Better landscape approaches are available
  • Better ownership/management models are available
  • Polarized attitudes are not helping
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