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Chapter 10: The Asian World

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Title: Chapter 10: The Asian World


1
Chapter 10 The Asian World
2
DO NOW
  • WHAT IS GOING ON IN OUR ECONOMY TODAY? HOW IS IT
    EFFECTING YOU AND YOUR FAMILY? WHAT IS A
    RECESSION?

3
DO NOW
  • STUDY FOR CHAPTERS 3 4 THAT YOU ARE BEING
    TESTED OVER TODAY.
  • ONCE YOU ARE FINISHED WITH THE TEST QUIETLY READ
    PAGE 138-144 AND COMPLETE QUESTIONS 2, 3, 4, AND
    5 ON PAGE 144.

4
DO NOW
  • HOW DO THE ANCIENT CHINESE VIEW THEIR LEADER?
    WHAT DOES THAT RULER HAVE THAT ALLOWS HIM TO
    RULE? WHAT HAPPENS IF A NATURAL DISASTER OCCURS
    IN THE DYNASTY? WHAT CAN THE PEOPLE DO TO THEIR
    LEADER?
  • LOOK IN YOUR TEXTBOOK ON PAGES 91-92 IN THE
    SECTION TITLED ZHOU DYNASTY

5
DO NOW
  • HOW DO THE ANCIENT CHINESE VIEW THEIR LEADER?
    WHAT DOES THAT RULER HAVE THAT ALLOWS HIM TO
    RULE? WHAT HAPPENS IF A NATURAL DISASTER OCCURS
    IN THE DYNASTY? WHAT CAN THE PEOPLE DO TO THEIR
    LEADER?
  • LOOK IN YOUR TEXTBOOK ON PAGES 70-72 IN THE
    SECTION TITLED ZHOU DYNASTY

6
  • The Han dynasty came to an end in 220, and China
    fell into chaos. For the next 300 yrs, the
    Chinese suffered through disorder and civil war.
    Then in 581, a new Chinese empire was set up
    under a dynasty known as the Sui. The Sui
    dynasty (581-618) did not last long, but it
    managed to unify China once again under the
    emperors authority.

7
Section 1 China Reunified The Grand Canal
built to link these two major rivers linked north
and south, making it easier to ship rice from
south to north.
  • 1. Sui Dynasty
  • 2. Sui Yangdi
  • 1. dynasty that rose after the fall of the Han
    Dynasty unified China again
  • 2. emperor who completed the Grand Canal built to
    link the two great rivers of China (Huang He and
    the Chang Jiang rivers)

8
Sui Yangdi was a cruel ruler and used force labor
to build the Grand Canal. This practice together
with high taxes, his extravagant and luxurious
lifestyle, and military failures, caused a
rebellion. The emperor was murdered, and his
dynasty came to an end. A new dynasty the Tang
Dynasty soon emerged. It would last for almost
three hundred years, from 618-907. The early
Tang rulers began their reigns by instituting
reforms, as rulers often did in the early days of
new dynasties. They restored civil service
examination from earlier times to serve as the
chief methods of recruiting officials. Tang
rulers worked hard to create a more stable
economy by giving land to the peasants and
breaking up the power of the aristocrats.
  • 3. Tang Dynasty
  • 3. Restored civil service examination to serve as
    the method of recruiting officials for the
    bureaucracy.
  • The Tang Dynasty gave land back to the peasants
    breaking up the power of the aristocrats

9
Like the Han, however, the Tang sowed the seeds
of their own destruction. Tang rulers were
unable to prevent plotting and government
corruption. One emperor was especially
unfortunate. Emperor Tang Xuanzang is remembered
for his devotion to a commoners daughter. To
entertain her, he kept hundreds of dancers and
musicians at court. He also ordered riders to
travel thousands of miles to bring her fresh
fruit. Finally, the emperors favorite general
led a bloody revolt. The army demanded that
someone be held accountable for the war and
strife in the country. For this reason the
emperor invited his true love to hang herself
from a nearby tree.
  • 4. Tang Xuanzang
  • 4. One of the rulers who was unable to prevent
    plotting and government corruption within the
    Tang Dynasty

10
During the eight century, the Tang Dynasty
weakened and became prey to rebellions. Tang
rulers hired a group of people called Uighurs to
protect the dynasty. Continued unrest, however,
led to the collapse of Tang rule in 907.
  • 5. Uighurs
  • 5. a northern tribal group of Turkic-speaking
    people, hired to fight for the Tang dynasty

11
In 960, a new dynasty known as the Song rose to
power. The Song ruled during a period of
economic prosperity and cultural achievement,
from 960 to 1279. From the start, however, the
Song also experienced problems, especially from
northern neighbors. These groups crossed into
northern China and occupied large parts of
Chinese territory. Because of this threat, Song
rulers were forced to move the imperial court
father south.
  • 6. Song Dynasty
  • 7. Hangzhou
  • 8. Songs government
  • 6. dynasty which arises after the fall of the
    Tang dynasty
  • 7. Capital of Song dynasty, one of the largest
    and richest cities of the Song empire
  • 8. Bureaucracy government also weakened the
    aristocrats, giving land back to peasants

12
The Song government worked to weaken the power of
the large landholders and help poor peasants
obtain their own land. These reform efforts and
improved farming techniques led to an abundance
of food. In Chinese cities, technological
developments added new products and stimulated
trade. During the Tang dynasty, for example, the
Chinese began to mix steel by mixing cast iron
and wrought iron in a blast furnace heated by the
burning of coal. The steel was then used to make
swords and sickles. The introduction of cotton
made it possible to make new kinds of clothes.
  • 9. Songs Economy
  • 10. Tang technology
  • 9. farming trading
  • 10. cast iron (which made swords) introduction
    of cotton, gun powder (which was used to make
    explosives, and a primitive flamethrower)

13
Chinese Society Most significant about Chinese
society was the rise of landed gentry. This
group controlled much of the land and at the same
time produced most of the candidates for the
civil service. The scholar-gentry, as this class
was known, replaced the old landed aristocracy as
the political and economic elite of Chinese
society.
  • 11. Italian merchant who traveled to the Song
    capital Hangzhou
  • 12. political and economic elite of Chinese
    society
  • 11. Marco Polo
  • 12. scholar-gentry

14
As in other parts of the world, female children
were considered less desirable than male
children. In times of famine, female infants
might be killed if there was not enough food to
feed the whole family. When married, she became
a part of her husbands family. In addition, a
girls parents were expected to provide a dowry
to her husband when married. Poor families often
sold their daughters to wealthy merchants.
  • 13. one of the only female Chinese emperors
  • 14. Money, goods, or property a girls parent paid
    to her future husband
  • Few Chinese women had any power, an exception was
    Wu Zhao.
  • 13. Empress Wu
  • 14. dowry

15
DO NOW
  • WHAT IS THE CIVIL SERVICE EXAMINATION?
  • WHAT CLASS SYSTEM ARISES AND REPLACES THE
    ARISTOCRATS IN THE UPPERCLASS AFTER THE
    IMPLEMENTATION OF THE CIVIL SERVICE EXAMINATION?
  • HOW WAS THE USE OF THE CIVIL SERVICE EXAMINATION
    A DEPARTURE FROM THE TRADITIONAL WAY OF PLACING
    YOUNG MEN IN GOVERNMENT SERVICE?
  • LOOK IN YOUR NOTES OR YOUR TEXTBOOKS ON PAGES
    250-251 UNDER THE SECTION TITLED THE WAY IT WAS

16
DO NOW
  • WHAT IS THE CIVIL SERVICE EXAMINATION?
  • WHAT CLASS SYSTEM ARISES AND REPLACES THE
    ARISTOCRATS IN THE UPPERCLASS AFTER THE
    IMPLEMENTATION OF THE CIVIL SERVICE EXAMINATION?
  • HOW WAS THE USE OF THE CIVIL SERVICE EXAMINATION
    A DEPARTURE FROM THE TRADITIONAL WAY OF PLACING
    YOUNG MEN IN GOVERNMENT SERVICE?
  • LOOK IN YOUR NOTES OR YOUR TEXTBOOKS ON PAGES
    274-276 UNDER THE SECTION TITLED EQUAL
    OPPORTUNITY IN CHINA THE CIVIL SERVICE
    EXAMINATION

17
Section 2 The Mongols and ChinaThe Mongols
brought much of the Eurasian landmass under a
single rule, creating the largest land empire in
history. Mongol armies traveled both to the west
and to the east. Some went as far as central
Europe.
  • 1. Mongols
  • 2. Genghis Khan
  • 3. Temujin
  • 1. were pastoral people who were organized
    loosely into clans
  • 2. means strong ruler
  • 3. unified the Mongols creating the largest land
    empire in history

18
After the death of Genghis Khan in 1227, the
empire began to change. Following Mongol custom,
upon the death of the ruling khan, his heirs
divided the territory. The once-united empire of
Genghis Khan was thus split into several separate
territories called khanates, each under the rule
of one of his sons. It may be that only the
death of Genghis Khan kept the Mongols from
attacking western Europe. In 1231, the Mongols
attacked Persia and then defeated the Abbasids at
Baghdad in 1258. Mongol forces attacked the Song
dynasty in China in 1260s.
  • 4. khanates
  • 5. Kublai Khan
  • 4. several separate territories each under the
    rule of the Genghis Khans son
  • 5. conquered the Song and established a new
    Chinese dynasty called Yuan

19
The Mongol dynasty eventually fell victim to the
same problems that had plagued other dynasties
too much spending on foreign conquests,
corruption at court, and growing internal
instability. In 1368 Zhu Yuanzahng put together
an army and began a new dynasty known as the Ming
dynasty.
  • 6. Zhu Yuanzhang
  • 6. the son of a peasant, who put together an
    army, ended the Mongol dynasty, and set up a new
    dynasty, the Ming dynasty

20
By the time the Mongols established their dynasty
in China, religious preferences in the Chinese
court had undergone a number of changes.
Confucian principles became the basis for Chinese
government during the Han dynasty. By the time
of the Sui and Tang dynasties, Buddhism and
Daoism rivaled the influence of Confucianism.
Buddhism was brought to China in the 1st century
A.D. by merchants and missionaries from India.
  • 7. Buddhism
  • 8. neo-confucianism
  • 7. a philosophy which was introduced to China by
    merchants and missionaries from India
  • 8. philosophy which teaches that the world is
    real, not an illusion, and that fulfillment comes
    not from withdrawal but from participation in the
    world

21
The invention of the printing during the Tang
dynasty helped to make literature more readily
available and more popular. Art, too, flourished
during this period. It was in poetry, above all,
that the Chinese of this time best expressed
their literary talents. The Tang dynasty is
viewed as the great age of poetry in China.
Chinese poems celebrated the beauty of nature,
the changes of the seasons, and the joys of
friendships. They expressed sadness at the
shortness of life and the necessity of parting.
  • 9. were two of the most popular poets during the
    Tang dynasty
  • 10. During the Song and Mongol dynasties
    landscape painting reached its high point (was
    influenced by Daoism)
  • 9. Li Bo and Duo Fu
  • 10. painting

22
Next to painting in creative accomplishment was
the field of ceramics. In particular, Tang
artisans perfected the making of porcelaina
ceramic made of fine baked clay at very high
temperatures. The technique for making porcelain
did not reach Europe until the 18th century.
  • 11. porcelain
  • Tang artisans perfected the making of porcelain,
    a ceramic made of fine clay baked at very high
    temperatures

23
Art and Research Activity
  • You are a believer in the philosophy Daoism
    during ancient China. Create a drawing or a poem
    reflecting the beliefs of Daoism. You may do
    some research on the internet to find more
    information on Daoism. Look on pages 256-257 and
    read the section Poetry and Painting and Ceramics
    to get some ideas on the Daoist influence.

24
DO NOW
  • Read the section The Way It Was on page 250-251.
    What was the civil service examination and why
    was it so important? Which group of people was
    it important to? (3-4 minutes)

25
DO NOW
  • EXPLAIN THE WAYS IN WHICH DAOISM IS REPRESENTED
    IN CHINESE ART OF THE SONG AND MONGOL DYNASTIES.
  • LOOK IN YOUR BOOK AND READ PAGE 257 IN THE
    SECTION TITLED PAINTING AND CERAMICS

26
DO NOW
  • EXPLAIN THE WAYS IN WHICH DAOISM IS REPRESENTED
    IN CHINESE ART OF THE SONG AND MONGOL DYNASTIES.
  • LOOK IN YOUR BOOK AND READ PAGES 293-295 IN THE
    SECTION TITLED ART

27
Section 3 Early Japan and Korea
  • 1. Japan
  • http//www.travel.com.hk/region/asiamap.htm
  • 1. is concentrated on four main islands
    Hokkaido, the main island of Honshu, and the two
    smaller islands of Kyushu and Shikoku
  • Japan is very mountainous mountains are
    volcanic only 11 percent of total land area can
    be farmed

28
Social Structure
  • Japanese society was made up of clans. The
    people were divided between a small aristocratic
    class (the rulers) and a large population of rice
    farmers, artisians, and household servants.

29
Eventually, one ruler of the Yamato clan achieved
supremacy over the others and became, in effect,
ruler of Japan. Other powerful families would,
however, continue to compete for power. Prince
Shotoku sent representatives to the Tang capital
of China to learn more about how the Chinese
organized their government. He then began to
create a new centralized system of government in
Japan, based roughly on the Chinese model.
  • 2. a Yamato prince, who tried to unify various
    clans so that the Japanese could resist an
    invasion by the Chinese
  • Copied the Chinese central form of government
  • 3. limit power of aristocrats enhance rulers
    authority
  • 2. Shotoku Taishi
  • 3. Shotokus goal

30
Nara and Heian Period
  • During the Nara and Heian period there is a
    constant battle for power between the centralized
    government and the aristocrats. Eventually the
    government of Japan becomes more and more
    de-centralized. The aristocrats turned to
    military force as a means of protecting their
    interest.

31
Military Protection A new class of military
servants emerged whose purpose was to protect the
security and property of their employers. Called
the Samurai, these warriors resembled the knights
of medieval Europe. Like the knights, the
samurai fought on horseback, clad in helmet and
armor although a samurai carried a sword and a
bow and arrow rather than a lance and shield.
  • 4. samurai
  • 5. Bushido
  • 4. means those who serve were warriors hired by
    the aristocrats
  • 5. A strict warrior code known as (the way of
    the warrior) based on loyalty to his lord

32
By the end of the 12th century, rivalries among
Japanese aristocratic families had led to almost
constant civil war. Finally, a powerful noble
named Minamoto Yoritomo defeated several rivals
and set up his power near the modern city of
Tokyo. To strengthen the state, he created a
more centralized government under a powerful
military leader known as the shogun. The Kamkura
shogunate, founded by Yoritomo, lasted from 1192
to 1333.
  • 6. a powerful noble who created a more
    centralized government under a powerful military
    leader known as the shogun
  • 7. is a general (military leader)
  • 6. Minamoto Yoritomo
  • 7. shogun

33
The power of the local aristocrats grew during
the 14th and 15th centuries. Heads of noble
families, now called daimyo controlled vast
landed estates that owed no taxes to the
government. As family rivalries continued, the
daimyo relied on the samurai for protection, and
political power came into the hands of a loose
coalition of noble families. Central authority
disappeared. Powerful aristocrats in rural areas
seized control over large territories, which they
ruled as independent lords. Their rivalries
caused almost constant warfare.
  • 8. a form of government in which the emperor
    remained ruler in name only, and the shogun
    exercised the actual power
  • 9. great names heads of noble families who
    controlled vast landed estates that owed no taxes
    to the government
  • 8. shogunate
  • 9. daimyo

34
DO NOW
  • HOW HAS JAPANS GEOGRAPHY AFFECTED ITS HISTORY?
  • READ IN YOUR BOOKS ON PAGES 263-264 IN THE
    SECTION TITLED THE GEOGRAPHY OF JAPAN

35
DO NOW
  • HOW HAS JAPANS GEOGRAPHY AFFECTED ITS HISTORY?
  • READ IN YOUR BOOKS ON PAGES 299-300 IN THE
    SECTION TITLED JAPAN LAND OF THE RISING SUN

36
  • At first the Shogunate system worked well. The
    Japanese were fortunate that it did, because the
    government soon faced its most serious challenge
    yet from the Mongols. In 1281 Kublai Khan
    invaded Japan with an army nearly 150,000 strong.
    Fortunately, for the Japanese, almost the entire
    fleet was destroyed by a massive typhoon (violent
    storm). Japan would not again face a foreign
    invader until American forces landed in Japan in
    1945. Fighting the Mongols put a heavy strain on
    the political system. In 1333, the Kamakura
    shogunate was overthrown by a group of noble
    families led by the Ashikaga family.

37
  • 10. Onin War
  • 11. kami
  • 12. Shinto
  • 10. a civil war which consisted of aristocratic
    families fighting for power
  • 11. worshiped spirits whom the Japanese believed
    resided in the trees, rivers, streams, and
    mountains
  • 12. meaning (the Sacred Way or the Way of the
    Gods) was the state religion of ancient Japan

38
DO NOW
  • Descriptive Writing Imagine you are a samurai
    living in Japan during the 14th Century. Explain
    why you became a samurai and describe your
    duties.
  • 3-7 sentences

39
Shinto, however, did not satisfy the spiritual
needs of all the Japanese people. Some turned to
Buddhism, which Buddhist monks from China brought
to Japan during the 6th century A.D. Among the
aristocrats in Japan, one sect, known as Zen,
became the most popular. Zen beliefs became part
of the samurai warriors code of behavior.
  • 13. Zen Buddhism
  • 14. Chinese Buddhist monks
  • 13. religion that began to replace the religion
    Shinto achieving enlightenment through
    meditation
  • 14. brought religion/philosophy to Japan

40
Early Japan was mostly a farming society. Its
people took advantage of the limited amount of
farmland and abundant rainfall to grow wet rice
(rice grown in flooded fields). As we have seen,
noble families were able to maintain control over
most of the land. Trade between regions also
grew. Foreign trade, mainly with Korea and
China, began during the 11th century. Japan
shipped raw materials, paintings, swords, and
other manufactured items in return for silk,
porcelain, books and copper coins.
  • 15. economy
  • 16. trade
  • 15. mostly farming (wet rice) traded paper,
    iron casting, paintings, swords
  • 16. during the 11th century occurred mainly
    between Korea and China

41
In early Japan, women may have had a certain
level of equality with men. An eighth-century
law code, for example, guaranteed the
inheritance rights of women. Wives who were
abandoned could divorce and remarry. However,
later practices make it clear that women were
considered subordinate to men. A husband could
divorce his wife if she did not produce a male
child or if she did not produce a male child or
if she committed adultery, talked too much, was
jealous, or had a serious illness.
  • 17. early Japanese society
  • 18. later Japanese society
  • 19. aristocratic women
  • 17. women had a certain level of equality to men
  • 18. patriarch
  • 19. were prominent at court known for their
    literary talent

42
During much of the early history of early Japan,
aristocratic men believed that prose fiction was
merely vulgar gossip and was thus beneath them.
Consequently, from the 9th to the 12th
centuries, women were the most productive writers
of prose fiction in Japanese. Females learned to
read and write at home, and they wrote diaries,
stories, and novels to pass the time. From this
tradition appeared one of the worlds great
novels The Tale of Genji. Her novel traces the
life of the noble Genji as he tries to remain in
favor with those in power. Various aspects of
Genjis personality are explored as he moves from
youthful adventures to a life of sadness and
compassion in his later years
  • 20. aristocratic men
  • 21. Murasaki Shikibu
  • 20. believed prose fiction was vulgar gossip and
    beneath them
  • 21. author of The Tale of Genji one of the
    worlds greatest novels

43
QUIZ ESSAY 1
  • 1. What was the civil service examination and why
    was it so important? Which group of people was
    it important to?

44
DO NOW
  • Create a cluster diagram like the one on the
    white board to the right that clarifies the role
    of women in early Japan. READ IN YOUR BOOKS ON
    PAGE 266 IN THE SECTION TITLED THE ROLE OF
    WOMEN (2-3 minutes)

ROLE OF WOMEN
45
DO NOW
  • Create a cluster diagram like the one on the
    white board to the right that clarifies the role
    of women in early Japan. READ IN YOUR BOOKS ON
    PAGE 308 IN THE SECTION TITLED ROLE OF WOMEN
    (2-3 minutes)

ROLE OF WOMEN
46
Section 5 Civilization in Southeast Asia
Between China and India lies the region that is
today called Southeast Asia. It has two major
parts. Mountain ranges and river valleys and
malaria-bearing mosquitoes may help explain why
Southeast Asia was never unified under a single
government
  • 1. Southeast Asia
  • 2. mainland region
  • 3. archipelago
  • 1. lies b/t China and India has two major parts
    mainland region and archipelago
  • 2. extending southward from the Chinese border
    down to tip of Malay Peninsula
  • 3. chain of islands

47
Southeast Asia is a melting pot of peoples. It
contains a vast mixture of races, cultures and
regions. Mainland Southeast Asia consists of
several north-south mountain ranges. The
mountains are densely forested and often
infested with malaria-bearing mosquitoes. Thus,
the people living in the river valleys were often
cut off from one another and had only limited
contacts with the people living in the mountains.
The geographical barriers encourage the
development of separate, distinctive cultures
with diverse cultural practices, such as
different religions and languages.
  • 4. geographical barriers
  • 5. consequences
  • 6. Formation of States
  • 4. mountains densely forested/infested with
    malaria bearing mosquitoes
  • 5. Southeast Asia was never unified under one
    form of gov.
  • 6. A number of organized states developed in
    Southeast Asia Vietnam, Angkor, Thailand, Burma,
    Malay World

48
The Vietnamese were one of the first peoples in
Southeast Asia to develop their own state and
their own culture. After the Chinese conquered
Vietnam in 111 B.C., t hey tried for centuries to
make Vietnam a part of China. However, the
Vietnamese clung to their own identity. In the
10th century, they finally overthrew Chinese rule.
  • 7. Vietnam
  • 8. Thailand
  • 7. one of first people to develop a state in
    southeast Asia adopted Chinese model of gov.
  • 8. Thai conquered the Angkor civilization
    adopted Indian political practices

49
The states of Southeast Asia can be divided into
two subgroups agricultural societies and trading
societies. Of course, the agricultural states
had some farming. Nevertheless, some states,
such as Vietnam, Angkor, Pagan and Sailendra,
drew most of their wealth from the land. Others,
such as the Sulnate of Melaka, supported
themselves strictly through trade. Trade through
Southeast Asia expanded after the emergence of
states in the area and reached even greater
heights after the Muslim conquest of Northern
India. The rise in demand for spices also added
to the growing volume of trade. As the wealth of
Europe and Southeast Asia increased, demand grew
for the products of East Asia.
  • 9. economy largely based on farming
  • 10. depended primarily on trade for income
  • 9. agricultural societies
  • 10. trading societies

50
Social Structures At the top of the social ladder
in most Southeast Asian societies were the
hereditary aristocrats. They held both political
power and economic wealth. Most aristocrats
lived in major cities. Beyond the major cities
lived the rest of the population, which consisted
of farmers, fishers, artisans, and merchants, In
most Southeast Asian societies, the majority of
people were probably rice farmers who lived at a
bare level of subsistence and paid heavy rents or
taxes to a landlord or local ruler. Women worked
side by side with the men in the fields and often
played an active role in trading activities
51
Culture and Religion Chinese culture made an
impact on Vietnam. In many other areas of
Southeast Asia, Indian cultural influence
prevailed. The most visible example of this
influence was architecture.
  • 11. Temple of Angkor Wat
  • 11. the most famous and beautiful temple of
    Southeast Asia
  • Took 40yrs to complete
  • Required an enormous quantity of stoneas much as
    it took to build Egypts Great Pyramid
  • Angkor Wat rises like a 200-foot-high mountain in
    a series of three great terraces

52
Religion Hindu and Buddhist ideas began to move
into Southeast Asia in the 1st millennium A.D.
However the new religions did not entirely
replace existing beliefs. In all Southeast Asian
societies, as in China and Japan, old beliefs
were blended with those of new faiths.
  • 12. Hinduism and Buddhism
  • 13. Theravada Buddhism
  • 12. were introduced in Southeast Asia
  • 13. big religion in Southeast Asia which teaches
    that people can seek nirvana through their own
    efforts they do not need priests or rulers
  • This religion also tolerated local gods and posed
    no threat to established faiths

53
Journal Activity
  • Journal Activity Individually the students will
    write a journal entry from the perspective of a
    young girl who is about to undergo foot binding

54
DO NOW
  •  
  • What was the civil service examination and why
    was it so important? Which group of people was
    it important to?

55
What was the civil service examination and why
was it so important? Which group of people was
it important to?
  • The civil service examination was a way for
    rulers to recruit a class of civil servants based
    on merit and not nobility (by birth). By using
    the civil service examination, a practice started
    by the Qin dynasty, the Tang and Song rulers
    sought to recruit government officials based on
    ability. This undermined the power of the
    aristocrats and created a new class of scholar
    gentry. This in turn, allowed the land two be
    taken away from the aristocrats and to be given
    back to the peasants who were at the time tenant
    farmers. To the sons of the scholar-gentry, the
    civil service examinations were crucial in
    gaining a civil service position and hence a
    government career. Consequently, preparing their
    sons for these examinations became very important
    to scholar gentry families.

56
DO NOW
  • What is a samurai? What was their role? Explain
    their code of law.
  • READ IN YOUR TEXTBOOKS ON PAGES 264-265 IN THE
    SECTION TITLED THE HEIAN PERIOD

57
DO NOW
  • What is a samurai? What was their role? Explain
    their code of law.
  • READ IN YOUR TEXTBOOKS ON PAGES 303-304 IN THE
    SECTION TITLED THE HEIAN PERIOD

58
What is a samurai? What was their role? Explain
their code of law.
  • With the decline of central power during the
    Heian Period, local aristocrats tended to take
    justice into their own hands. They turned
    increasingly to military force as a means of
    protecting their interests. A new class of
    military servants emerged whose purpose was to
    protect the security and property of their
    employers. Called the samurai those who serve,
    these warriors resembled the knights of medieval
    Europe. Like the knights the samurai were
    supposed to live by a strict warrior code, known
    in Japan as Bushido (the way of the warrior).
    Above all, the samurais code was based on
    loyalty to his lord. In effect, these samurai
    kept Japan from developing a strong central
    government and left Japan in the hands of
    powerful aristocrats.

59
DO NOW
  • DESCRIBE THE WAY IN WHICH DAOISM IS REPRESENTED
    IN CHINESE POETRY AND ART OF THE DURING SONG AND
    MONGOL DYNASTIES?

60
  • Chinese art and poetry were strongly influenced
    by the school of thought Daoism (let nature take
    its course). Chinese poems celebrated the beauty
    of nature, the changes of the seasons, and the
    joys of friendship. They expressed sadness at
    the shortness of life and the necessity of
    parting. Li Bo is a prime example of Daoist
    poetry during the Tang Era. He was a free spirit
    whose writing often centered on nature. During
    the Song and Mongol dynasties, landscape painting
    reached its high point. Influenced by Daoism,
    Chinese artists went into the mountains to paint
    and find the Dao, or Way, in nature. This
    practice explains in part the emphasis on nature
    in traditional Chinese painting. Chinese artists
    tried to reveal the hidden forms of the
    landscape. Rather than depicting the realistic
    shape of a specific mountain, for example, they
    tried to portray the idea of mountain. Empty
    spaces were left in paintings because in the
    Daoist vision, one cannot know the whole truth.
    Daoist influence was also evident in the
    portrayal of human beings as insignificant in the
    midst of nature.

61
DO NOW
  • HOW WOULD AN INCREASE IN TRADE AND EXPORTING
    CAUSE A REGION TO DEVELOP MORE COMPLEX FORMS OF
    POLITICAL AND SOCIAL ORGANIZATION?
  • ONCE YOUR ARE FINISHED WITH THIS DO NOW TURN IT
    IN AND BEGIN STUDYING INDEPENDENTLY FOR YOUR
    TESTS
  • ALSO HAVE YOUR NOTES READY, I AM CHECKING THEM!
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