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Agriculture

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One in four Africans are hungry. Four of five Africans depends on Agriculture ... Develop water resource management strategies at country, basin, and project levels. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Agriculture


1
Agriculture Rural Development
  • African Challenges
  • ---
  • African Strategies

2
One in four Africans are hungry
The hungry are mostly rural
Hunger increasing in Africa, decreasing in Asia
North Africa Middle East
Landless Rural Poor
Latin America
40
60
22
230
South Asia
50
200
Urban Poor
Farmers Marginal Land
20
SSA
115
8
155
East Asia
Pastorists/Fishers
Rest of Asia
3
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4
Four of five Africans depends on Agriculture
5
Irrigation underdeveloped in Africa
  • Africa has the potential to irrigate 20 of its
    arable land - only 4 irrigated now!
  • Small-scale irrigation systems cost- effective
  • High potential areas include Ethiopia, Sudan,
    the Sahel, South Africa, Malawi, Botswana,
    Zimbabwe, Mozambique

6
Per capita water availability is a problem, tand
likely to get worse w/ climate change
16
Africa
14
12
10
Thousand m3
World
8
Asia
6
4
2
MEast NAfrica
0
1960
1990
2025
7
Risk of recurrent drought
8
Rural Africa Isolation and high transport
costs
Kilometers of paved roads per million people in
selected countries
Km KmUSA 20,987 Guinea 637France
12,673 Ghana 494Japan 9,102 Nigeria 230Zimbabwe
1,586 Mozambique 141South Africa 1,402 Tanzania 1
14Brazil 1,064 Uganda 94India 1,004 Ethiopia 66
China 803 Congo, DR 59 Source
Encyclopedia Britannica, 2002
9
Real Intl. Food Prices (1900 2005)
10
Applied tariffs (simple average, )
Agriculture and food
Non-agriculture
Note Tariffs shown are simple averages across
countries and goods. Source UNCTAD Trains
database.
11
Africas Agricultural Exports Flat
12
Overall Trade Restrictiveness Index, 2001-04
13
NetherlandsVietnamJapanUnited Kingdom
ChinaFranceBrazilUnited Status
IndiaMéxicoSouth AfricaCubaBeninMalawiEthio
piaMalíBurkina FasoNigeriaTanzania
Mozambique GuineaGhanaUganda
Consumption of fertilizer nutrients per hectare
of arable land very low in Africa (2002)
Kg/ha
600
100
200
300
400
500
0
Source FAOSTAT, July 2005
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16
Low productivity in African agriculture
  • Severe
  • Persistent
  • Underlies rural poverty

17
African Agriculture sources of growth
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Evolution of Ag Productivity Africa lags other
Developing Countries
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30
Ag Productivity across Africa
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32
AgGDP/cap in Africa growing but not enough
33
AU/NEPAD Vision for Africa
  • New Partnership for Africas Development (NEPAD)
  • Poverty reduction
  • Economic growth
  • Integration of Africa into the global economy
    and
  • Empowerment of women.

34
NEPAD sees agriculture as engine of growth
  • The Comprehensive African Agricultural
    Development Program (CAADP) is
  • NEPADs strategy for agriculture

35
NEPADs goal 6.2 growth rate in ag GDP this
depends on raising productivity
36
CAADPs Four Pillars
  • Land and Water Management
  • Infrastructure and Market Access
  • Increase Food Supply, Reduce Hunger, Improve
    Response to Food Crises
  • Agriculture Research and Technology Dissemination
    and Adoption

37
CAADP as a framework
  • Represents strategies and approaches prepared and
    endorsed by African and global experts and
    African Heads of State
  • African Ownership w/ technical credibility
  • Development Community has pledged support
  • Practical action occurs through existing
    institutions and programs at
  • sub-regional level under the leadership of the
    Regional Economic Communities
  • national level and below under the leadership of
    national and local governments
  • Peer review and TA to be made available per
    request

38
Pillar 4 and FAAP as an example
  • Framework document (FAAP) to articulate shared
    vision and approaches
  • Political, Technical, and Financial Commitment
  • Local and National level
  • Agricultural Research Programs
  • Agricultural Advisory Service Programs
  • Agricultural Educ/Training Programs
  • Institutional / Policy Reform (as needed)
  • Increased attention to linking farmers to markets
  • Sub-regional level
  • Agricultural Research Programs
  • Development of African Capacity for TA on the
    above

39
The WBs African Action Plan
  • WBs Strategy for support to Africa (adopted in
    mid-2005)
  • A commitment to increase support to Africa to
    assist as many countries as possible to meet the
    MDG targets by 2015

40
Under AAP - WB pledges to
  • increase support for national programs
  • support sub-regional programs
  • harmonize with development partners
  • provide TA for development and reform
  • invest in development of African capacity

41
For food and agriculture, the WBs AAP calls for
policies and investments to
  • Support the CAADP Pillars and Processes
  • More than double WB investment in African
    agriculture to US1 Billion per year
  • Harmonize this support with development partners

42
Stewardship of Land Water
  • Focussed TA (e.g. research and extension) and
    targetted subsidies to assist farmers in adoption
    of conservation tillage, agro-forestry,
    sustainable cropping and livestock patterns, etc.
  • CDD programs to support collective action at the
    local level (including capacity building for
    local technicians)
  • Support national initiatives, ongoing programs,
    and improved regulatory structures (forestry,
    etc.)
  • Regional programs where necessary (Nile Basin
    Initiative, etc.)

43
Expanding Irrigation
  • Less public sector projects more public/private
    partnerships
  • Local ownership (farmers, investors, and local
    govt more than federal govt)
  • Profitability as benchmark not food security
    or other national priorities
  • Watershed management approaches w/ attendant
    collective action institutional structures

44
Building Farmers Links w/ Markets
  • Public/private partnerships in supply chain
    development (inputs outputs)
  • Rural physical infrastructure
  • Roads
  • Electrification
  • Ports and Airports
  • Establish/maintain quality and safety standards
  • Regional integration and lower trade barriers

45
Empowerment of Rural People
  • Less parallel channels to support social funds
    more mainstreaming of CDD programs (block grants,
    special purpose grants, etc.)
  • Gradual increase in local government
    contributions to CDD programs
  • Development of public expenditure tracking
    systems
  • Wider use of citizens report cards
  • Capacity building at local level

46
Managing Risk and Vulnerability
  • Recognize distinction between
  • farm enterprise vulnerability to risks such as
    weather, market fluctuations, etc. and
  • chronic personal vulnerability to debilitating
    and ever-present conditions (illness,
    disabilities, lack of assets, or other handicaps)
  • For farm risk
  • Better connectivity transportation, information
    infrastructure, financial services, etc.
  • Instruments to hedge risk crop insurance,
    forward markets, etc.
  • Instruments to help build asset bases land
    reform, financial instruments, etc.
  • For chronically poor aid as needed, but in ways
    that avoid undesirable side effects
  • Cash-based food programs rather than food aid
    where possible
  • Local purchase of food for food aid
  • Faciligtate successful voluntary migration out of
    marginal areas
  • Productive safety nets

47
Improving Agricultural Technology Options
  • Increase level of investment in ag research,
    extension and ag education
  • All stakeholders share costs
  • Less emphasis on messages more on critical
    thinking
  • Decentralization of resources and
    responsibilities
  • Common Funding Mechanism (funds pooled in
    Government System)
  • Competitive Performance Contracts
  • Expanded regional and continental programs
    (research, capacity building, and education)

48
The International Community has pledged support
for this program
  • G8 at Sea Island and Gleneagles

49
This agenda will require funding
50
WB seeks partners in
  • Cost-sharing / working together in identification
    and preparation of investments
  • Co-financing investment flows
  • Assessment and management of public expenditure
  • Improving statistical base and ME
  • TA for implementation
  • Professional analysis and debate on approaches
    and recommendations (including reforms of
    subsidies in developed countries)

51
SUMMARY of WB Corporate Priorities in the three
sectors
  • Promote market driven development
  • Trade Liberalization and agricultural subsidy
    reduction
  • Introduce an enabling agriculture policy and
    regulatory environment (including standards
    setting) for private invest
  • Targeted support for private sector and market
    development through entire market chain, up to
    supermarkets build demand side
  • Work more effectively with IFC agro-business and
    forest teams as well as the private sector and
    other donors
  • Empower rural people, including farmers
  • Land security and redistribution (community based
    land reform, land registration and titling)
  • Decentralized and accountable public services
    (ICT, regulatory)
  • Capacity building for local groups and farmer
    organizations (WUAs, herders associations, trade
    associations)
  • Reducing risk and vulnerability for farmers and
    the supply chain broadly
  • Nutrition and household food security
  • Rural finance
  • Invest in activities which create off-farm rural
    work (agro industry, agricultural services, rural
    infrastructure

52
Priorities continued
  • Develop water resource management strategies at
    country, basin, and project levels. Expand new
    style irrigation and drainage, and rural water
    investments including efficiency of water use,
    env. and social concerns, private investment in
    water
  • Invest in infrastructure, education, rural
    energy, and health through public-private
    partnerships
  • Support international agriculture research
    through CGIAR and other partners, and in
    partnership with NARs. Pluralism, competition,
    contracting, demand driven
  • Sustainable management (and recovery) of land
    resources
  • Forestry Continue protected area targets,
    expand forest certification, pursue good logging
    practices, incorporate forest concerns in
    development policy lending, and pursue forest law
    enforcement expand IFC involvement
  • Implement the new fisheries strategy
    (conservation of ocean fisheries and coastal
    marines, support small scale local fisheries,
    develop aqua-culture

53
World Bank Corporate Challenges in Agriculture
and Rural Development
  • Further progress needed in getting agriculture,
    rural development, forests onto the bigger donor
    agenda (PRSPs, CASs, PRSCs, lending program),
    particularly in Africa
  • Balancing multi-sector and development policy
    lending which includes RD with sector
    investment
  • Use wider variety of instruments (grants, trust
    funds, other donors, NGOs, Global Programs,
    private sector)
  • Scale up better (we drop good projects at project
    completion)
  • Can we deliver an expanded lending agenda with
    stagnating staff levels in the agriculture and
    rural development family, and in partner
    organizations?
  • Agriculture, RD, forests and water could be a
    pilot for improved business planning for global
    programs. Can we operate like a Bank-wide
    product group, or will we continue to be
    fragmented into separate mini regional and anchor
    ARD groups?
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